In the 60 years of the last century on the outskirts of the ancient city of Vladimir Sunghir on the river, which flows into the Klyazma about c. Bogolyubovo was one of the greatest archaeological discoveries of the twentieth century — was found the northernmost human settlement Kostenki-seletskoykulturnoy generality of the late Paleolithic (ancient Stone Age). Lived these lyudiprimerno 25-30 thousand years ago (even more ancient are the new dates obtained in 2012 in Oxford — 34,800 years ago) and were our direct ancestors.
This was the era of the latter, Wurm glaciation. In those vremenana this place was a tundra, mammoths lived and imennonahodka mammoth bones initiated discovery — they unearthed in a clay quarry excavator. The following year, 1956, the place of discovery of bones arrived archaeological expedition led by Otto Nikolaevich Bader (1903, 1979.) And in the course of excavations revealed ancient man, which immediately became a unique monument of world importance.
"Sungirtsy went north of the retreating glacier. This ancient people were in severe glacial steppes "- wrote archaeologist L.N.Asanov. Already during the first excavations uncovered the remains of the destroyed six homes (homes are quite large in size as high as 10 — 15 meters in length), fireplace and hearth pits. Were found thousands of artifacts — arrowheads, flint scrapers, chisels and many bones of animals that were hunted sungirtsy: mammoth dikihloshadey and deer, cave lions and other animals. The most famous discovery was "sungirskaya horse" — a small amulet, carved from mammoth ivory and painted with red ocher, which was worn on a cord around his neck. But the most remarkable finds were still ahead.
In the summer of 1964 were found Sunghir burial, clearing the cultural layer, archaeologists unexpectedly stumbled upon layer of red ocher, under which is "the most interesting, the most mysterious burial Paleolithic era," wrote L. Asanov. Ancient people used a unique funeral ceremony. Archaeologist AL Nikitin describes it: "In the first pit poured coals of fire, and on top of them and covered the entire bottom of ocher. Coals a symbolic bonfire that will warm the corpse of the dead. Ochre — a symbol of blood, a symbol of life, designed to take the place of blood. " Black coals were mixed with white bone beads with no holes, probably symbolizing the night sky with stars. This long, narrow pit lay the remains of a broad-men. "
On a man found a stone pendant amulet on hand — 20 bracelets, carved from mammoth ivory. On his clothes were once sewn 3500 beads of ivory, and his hat was once crowned as the crown, fangs pestsa.Eto was the richest burial of ancient stone age.
Over the grave in the red layer of ocher were worse preserved remains of a woman, probably one of the wives of the leader, who, willingly or not at all followed her husband (of this custom Russ wrote IX century Arab traveler Ibn Fadlan). The burial site was surrounded fireplaces, fireplace around like mounds of East Slavic tribes and the chiefs of the mound about Sintashta Aokaima.
Immediately arrived at the excavation famous anthropologist MM Gerasimov and became personally perform all work in the excavation, and then in his laboratory in Moscow has restored the skull face of a man 55-57 years old. "Of course, this is Caucasian. He has a high forehead, a large brain and developed chin. A fully-formed type of modern man "- wrote anthropologist colleague Gerasimov GF Debets and archaeologist A. Nikitin believes sungirtsy are "the ancestors of the peoples of Northern and Eastern Europe. It is not surprising that they are like us, rather, we like them. " (Anthropological look sungirtsev referred to kromanontsam.Oni were tall — 178 cm).
1969 brought new discoveries on Sunghir. Archaeologist Victor Glazov fortunate to discover an ancient tomb sungirskih girls and a boy. "This is the tomb found under the four-meter thick layer of loam, in its scientific value may well compete with the sarcophagus of Egyptian Pharaoh of gold leaf," — said A. Nikitin. At the site were quick to historians and journalists. Victor Glazov, an archaeologist, said: "There they were very interesting — head to head. There was an interesting moment when they found his head, measured in height, found one more leg. Thus, we had the idea that there is fresh burial. "
So, it has been found a new unique burial of two children, lying head to head. (This situation is associated with the Proto fertility cults, namely the myths about twins — Slavic gods twin swim and Globe (brother and sister; Kupala holiday celebrated on the night of 21 to 22 June). This ritual burials associated with the cult of fertility.
Children buried in the center of the home on the site of the fire. They also were in a long pit filled with coals and beads sprinkled with red ocher. As in the first burial, in a layer of red ocher lay the remains of a human skeleton.
The boy was about 13 years old, a girl about 9, their appearance also been restored pupils Lebedinskaya G. Gerasimov and T. Surnina. Their clothes were coated beads 7500, fingers were studded with rings of ivory. No one had ever heard of the Paleolithic were so rich burial. In the boy's arm was enclosed flint knife and a bone needle with an eye cap was adorned with a crown of canine fox. The boy lay on his chest is the familiar figure of horses, and under the left shoulder — carved image of a mammoth, the oldest in Europe.
On the girl was beaded frontlet, at the waist — a belt girlhood, heavily trimmed with buckles Pestsovoye fangs of ivory. On her breast lay slotted disc of mammoth tusk — a sign of the Sun and Mother Earth. In the manufacture of beads, charms, pendants and other ornaments used carving, engraving, drilling, polishing, painting, although I believe that drilling was unknown to ancient people.
Near children was found perfectly preserved weapon: three sharp dagger, stiletto, eleven copies, darts and two huge spears (1.66 m and 1.1 m) with shock ends, reinforced silicon rows of scales. On holidays to put a spear lying here tops — thin discs with holes, to which were attached tails foxes.
It is surprising that all the items were straight and made of solid mammoth tusks, and, straight lines. It appears that the ancient people were able to stretch their ivory! We still do not know how to make a soft ivory, but this secret, according to Plutarch, owned in the V century BC the ancient Greeks.
Parking in Sunghir existed or regularly visited by people for 2 — 3 thousand years. The number of people at one time lived in the parking lot is defined in 50. Who these people were, why they buried the leader stacks honors? Who were these children? These burial and now remain a mystery Sunghir. Investigations are continuing.
Category: Mystery stories