The imperatives of the new century

The imperatives of the new centuryOn the eve of New Year in Moscow saw the light of a collection of articles entitled "New Russian army", edited by MS Barabanova. This brand new work of the Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies (CAST) is dedicated to the passing of 2008 radically reform the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and their transition to the ranks of the newcomer. These problems cause excessive enthusiasm in Russian society, as a collection of articles, which were the creators are independent experts (DE Boltenkov, AM Hayday, AA Karnaukhov, AV Lavrov, VA Tseluyko), can not to attract attention.

"In this collection, — said in the introduction member of the Public Council under the Ministry of Defense, the Director of the Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies Ruslan Pukhov, — an attempt to explain the general interested public of the Russian Federation as the major plans and policies implemented since 2008 military reform and the main lines of its implementation. The articles of the collection according to open sources describing and feature of the "new look" of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in the form in which it was formed as a result of the first steps to reform the fly — illumine 2010. "

Reform, says Pukhov is completely correct, and its main lines correspond to real security challenges the country first XXI century. According to him, the Russian Federation has no other choice but to get in the end a massive reform and refreshed armed forces able to provide excellent national security and rightful place in the modern world.

Very appropriate in this regard is the inclusion in the collection of articles Vyacheslav Tseluyko "Global trends of military reform." He rightly suggests that some reasons for acting on the reform of the Russian army, are identical to those that determine the development of the armed forces of foreign countries. Together, the expert carries the idea of a counter-productive mechanical transfer of the experience of others in the Russian military reform without specific criterion for gaining this experience foreign countries.

At the current time, there is a collection of articles, there is a transformation of the armed forces of NATO in terms of reducing the number of "heavy formations," the Army, Air Force combat squadrons and naval strike force in the absence of adequate for their opponent.

In the U.S., prior to the global transformation of the Army (the beginning of the XXI century) in the six heavy divisions of the standing army, there were 52 armored and mechanized battalions, in addition, there were three separate armored cavalry regiment. Light forces were presented with 2 light infantry divisions (15 combat battalions), Airborne (9 battalions) and air-assault (9 battalions) divisions Separate Airborne Brigade (two battalions) and 3 separate legkopehotnymi battalions.

In the process of reforming the United States Army in the new 15 heavy brigade combat teams (Heavy Brigade Combat Team), and 2-mechanized brigades now has 36 armored, mechanized and mixed (consisting of two armored and two mechanized divisions mouth with security) battalions, in addition, there is one armored cavalry regiment.

In part 6 medium Brigade Combat Team (Stryker Brigade Combat Team), there are 18 infantry battalions in armored Stryker.

Light forces are 10 legkopehotnymi (Infantry Brigade Combat Team), 6 Airborne (Infantry Brigade Combat Team (airborne) and 4 air-assault (Infantry Brigade Combat Team (air assault) battle groups, numbering 20, respectively, light infantry, airborne 12 landing and 8 air assault battalions.

So Makar, at this stage we can say that the number of heavy battalions in the process of reforming the American army was reduced by 1.5 times, but instead of armored and mechanized battalions were formed on the BMP 18 medium armored battalions. Therefore, the total number of battalions in armored vehicles do not actually changed. Configuration touched their arms and thus combat power and mobility (including strategic).

Apart from reducing the number of armored and mechanized battalions in the U.S. Army also reduced the number of self-propelled artillery and rocket battalions. In turn, the number of light battalions in the U.S. Army a few grown.

So Makar, in reforming the Army of the United States of America traced their tendency to shift from full-scale conventional war in the expedition act, why combat battalions and divisions transferred to an easier and mobile technology and expand the ability of structures to ensure to make the combat brigade teams autonomy.

Even more than in the U.S., the reorganization of land were troops Germany and France. After the transition to the divisional structure to brigade in the Army of France were formed four heavy brigades (two armored and two mechanized) and two secondary (armored cavalry). At the current time in France is implemented next step of reform, in which on the basis of 2-mechanized, and 2-armored cavalry brigades will be formed four "average" functional teams. And the mechanized brigade will lose their own tank regiments and in the future will replace tracked infantry fighting vehicles AMX-10P armored personnel carriers to the new wheel VBCI.

Such functional teams are in the same niche with South American Stryker Brigade Combat Team, but larger than their composition and a more massive arms from armored vehicles.

Armored Brigade will grow out of a tank regiment of mechanized brigades of any, but the number of tanks in a tank regiment will be reduced from 80 to 60. In the infantry regiments of tank brigades also planned to re-wheeled armored personnel carriers VBCP.

So Makarov, as part of the Army of France planned to throw only two brigades created for the "great war", and the number of tracked combat vehicles should be significantly reduced.

Land troops Germany also changed its structure according to the new threats and tasks. Just like in the American and French armies in the Bundeswehr came reduce the number of units of heavy tanks and tracked infantry fighting vehicles in favor of the units wheel technology. So, if the first part of this century in the German Army, there were 13 heavy brigades (not counting 4 cropped) with 2 airborne, one gornopehotnoy, one airmobile infantry brigades and one, then at the moment by 6 tanks and eight infantry battalions have Light Infantry regiment (From 2-battalions) and the Light Infantry battalion (As part of the Franco-German brigade), four parachute battalions and three gornopehotnyh. So Makar and Germany came shift towards greater share of light and medium forces, more adapted to the crisis response than heavy.

This trend should be further strengthened in the course of the planned new steps to reduce and reform of the Bundeswehr, the results of which are expected in the Army in Germany in 2015 will remain three tank battalions, 4 infantry battalions, 8 infantry battalions, one light infantry regiment, gornopehotny one regiment, one airborne regiment and one air assault regiment.

The least trends in the transformation of the armed forces in the interest of forwarding actions have affected the Chinese and the Turkish army. In them, as in Russia, the base consists of heavy formation. And in the Chinese army, their share even increased due to the reduction in the dissolution of the armed forces initially poorly armed infantry and mechanized
divisions and brigades and reshaping them into mechanized.

Thus, according to Western professionals, in 2005, as part of the PLA, there were nine armored and mechanized divisions 5, 12 tank and one mechanized brigade with 15 and 24 motorized infantry divisions and 22 motorized brigades, now in the Army of China has 8 tank and 6 mechanized divisions, nine armored and mechanized brigades of 7 and 2 separate mechanized regiment along with 11 motorized divisions and 17 motorized brigades.

It should also be noted that under the influence of new trends in military affairs in the PLA appeared 3 "average" motorized divisions frisky response and experimental regiment for light combat vehicles.

So finding a good model of the armed forces in relation to the new geopolitical and military-technical realities is in almost all countries of the world. How the process works in the Russian Federation and is told in the book of abstracts, prepared the Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies.

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