The Iran-Iraq war. Part 3

In the summer of 1982 in the Iran-Iraq war in the early phase of the newcomer — the Iranian military and political administration takes a decision to take the battle on the ground in Iraq. Tehran planned to inflict a decisive defeat of the Iraqi armed forces to overthrow the regime of Saddam Hussein and establish the rule of pro-Iranian Shiite government. Because all attempts to start talks in Baghdad were rejected. Tehran staged in advance unworkable conditions such as denial of Saddam Hussein from power, his trial and his entourage, Iraq indemnity payments.

In preparing for the coming of the new Iraqi army, the Iranian command concentrated on the southern part of the front 120 thousand, 600 tanks, 900 guns and mortars. Puzzles have been a strategic scale operations: to capture Basra (the main seaport of the country), the southern regions of Iraq and cut off Baghdad from the Persian Gulf. In the night from 13 to 14 July 1982 about 100 thousand soldiers and militia of the IRGC "Basij" started coming from the area of Ahwaz and Khorramshahr Kushkov in the direction of Basra. With an advantage of their numerical and resistance units to the highest losses, Iranian forces first broke through on some parts of the defensive line of Iraqis and penetrated 15-20 kilometers into areas of Iraq. But the Iraqi command was able to counter with armored units to stop the coming of the enemy about 9 km east of Basra. Advanced parts of Iranians have been cut off from the main force and destroyed. Iranian forces withdrew to the starting position, having lost more than 15 thousand people killed. Only a few units were able to gain a foothold in the country of Iraq at a depth of 3-5 km from the border.

After the failure of the coming of the war ran across a positional confrontation. Both sides are fastened their positions, made of air and artillery strikes. Iranians fled to a strategy of gradual squeezing the enemy, step by step, trying to strengthen its position. Iraqis relied on the power of technology: the USSR arming Iraq before the war and during it. With the advantages in a number of armored vehicles, airplanes, helicopters, multiple rocket launchers and other heavy weapons, Iraqi troops could restrain the pressure and countless more fanatical enemy.

Campaign 1983

During 1983 the Iranian military and political control, try using a series of offensive operations on different parts of the front line of defense to weaken the Iraqi army to tire the opponent and reach a fundamental turning point in the war. Size of the army was increased almost two times — Iran had a gun up to 1 million people. Approximately half of them were militia, "guardians of the revolution" in their bore the brunt of the war — they own breasts punched a permanent part of the way. The problem of supplying aircraft gun and particularly heavy, and has not been solved. Had to rely on the numerical properties of an advantage and mental fighters. In 1983, the Iranian command sent a major blow to the north, trying to cut the enemy's defenses, to go to the river Tigris and break through to the Iraqi capital. These acts were to disrupt the stability of the entire Iraqi defense. In this direction was taken 4 coming. In addition, operating in Iraqi Kurdistan, with an emphasis on assistance to local separatists.

The peculiarity of attacks Iranians was that they started NIGHT MODE. Iranian commanders sought to avoid being struck by enemy aircraft and helicopters, and use mental factor associated with night attack — the enemy is not beheld the effectiveness of its fire, experienced more horror.

The Iraqi command planned defensive tire, bleed the enemy and make peace. Large offensives did not plan to. Was created by a powerful line of defense in depth with the system of minefields, anti-tank and anti-tank ditches, barbed wire, gun positions, and so the defending troops helped the connection of armored vehicles and aircraft.

Active war in 1983, began in February with the Iranian offensive operation "Dawn." Iranian forces began advancing on Feb. 6 at the southern border area of the front in the province of Maysan and had a puzzle to capture the way the Basra-Baghdad. In the battle was thrown about 200 thousand people in the 6 buildings in the area in front of 40 km. Iranian forces, most of them were ill-equipped and hastily trained militia, had to attack in the open countryside on a strong defense of the enemy, who had the full The advantage of the air, in armored vehicles and heavy artillery. As a result, the Iranians were able to capture a number of positions, but in general, their coming was repulsed. Iraqi commanders counterattack sochitaya armored vehicles and infantry attacks, air raids and artillery shelling. Iranians have lost several thousand people killed. In this battle, the Iraqis widely and successfully used the Air Force — Iranians stormed by attack helicopters, multi-role fighter aircraft.

Immediately Iranians stormed on the northern front in the Mandali. It's coming was stopped in April.

Iranian troops suffered heavy losses and spent ammunition in store, it forced them temporarily on the defensive. In July and August 1983, during operation "Dawn 2" Iranian forces launched simultaneous coming on 2-parts — the central and northern, slightly later hit the south. The Iraqis fought off the attacks. Only in the north Iranians managed to capture the city Pendzhvin. Both parties to the beginning of 1984 suffered heavy losses: 300 thousand people in Iran and 250 thousand in Iraq.

Campaign 1984

In late autumn 1983 Iranian commanders prepared the latest decisive action. She received the conditional title "Khaibar-5" and began in late February 1984. Blow, as in February 1983, was applied to the southern sector of the front. Half a million Iranian army, using the absence of a continuous strip of the front in a swampy area east of Al Qurna, Iraq was able to put on the area of 10-15 km. Iranians seized the Majnoon Islands. Iranian command again began operation NIGHT MODE, was used the element of surprise — the troops were put on different boats and moved through different channels, channels. At the second phase of the operation should have been part of the Iranian force the Tigris River north of El-Qurna, cut the Basra-Baghdad highway, take Basra, cutting off Iraqi forces from the Persian Gulf and the Arab monarchies of the Arabian Peninsula (they were allies of Iraq). But the second step of the operation failed — offensive capabilities of troops were exhausted. The individual parts that were able to go to the limit of the Tigris, were one hundred percent destroyed. Iranians again suffered significant losses — up to 20 thousand people (according to other sources — 40 million).

Iranian commanders regarded the success of the operation as and decided to put on a new blow to the south. In March began a new coming, but Iranian forces were defeated and lost up to 15 thousand people.

Remaining time of the spring and summer of 1984 active hostilities were not. Both sides were preparing for new battles. Iranian command again concentrated on the southern part of the front significant force, transferring the newly formed connections here IRGC and "Basij". Accumulated stores of ammunition, ammunition, here was a big part of the guns, which were able to purchase abroad.

The Iraqi command continued to work on improving the defense line and by guessing the direction of the main strike Iranian army, the beginning of the Air Force applied using periodic at
tacks on positions, places where the Iranian troops, communications centers, communications, storage facilities, and other significant objects. As a result, the Iraqi air force acts have become one of the prerequisites for a new casting breakdown plans coming in 1984. In addition, Tehran could not one hundred percent to resolve the issue of army supplies. In addition to the Iranian armed forces have intensified the differences between the command of the army and the IRGC — Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps has received significant rights and privileges as an advantage in logistics, financial security. A good time was lost for coming.

Iranian command was able to organize only a diversionary strike on the central front. October operation has been called "Ashur". Iranian troops were able to capture a number of positions. But soon the Iraqis organized counterattacks thrown into battle the Air Force. Iranian forces have suffered significant losses and ran over to the defense. In this active combat actions in 1984 have ended.

Specifically, in 1984, it became quite clear that the forces are approximately equal, and the decisive turning point likely only result in emergency action. Tehran had bolshennymi largest sun and evenly ennobled their logistical support, but it was not enough for the creation of a fundamental turning point in the war in his favor. Also in Iran was growing sluggishness of the war.

It should be noted that in 1984 the two sides began intensively to conduct so-called. "Tanker war" — the Iranian and Iraqi armed forces stormed the tanker in the Gulf of third countries, which transported oil opponent. As a result, this strategy has led to the internationalization of the conflict. Washington used the actions of the war, and especially Iranian threat to block the Strait of Hormuz management as an excuse to build their own direct military presence in the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean. In Saudi Arabia, the Americans placed the squad distant aircraft airborne warning and control. South American Air Forces were monitoring the situation and gathering intelligence information not only in the war zone, and throughout the Gulf region. In addition, under the pretext of protecting the shipping lanes in the Persian Gulf and the northern Indian Ocean NATO launched a strong naval force.

Campaign 1985

First, in 1985 the Iraqi command organized a series of preemptive strikes against Iranian troops. The operations were carried out limited disposition on the southern and central parts of the front. Stability of the Iranian defense has been broken, the Iraqis even managed to press the enemy at some sites. Iraqi strikes in January and February, the active introduction of aviation, heavy artillery led to the fact that the Iranian factions fighting capacity has been reduced substantially and Iranian Armed Forces had to once again postpone the beginning of a large offensive operation at a later date.

Because of finished within a year most offensive of Iranian Armed Forces in the southern sector of the front had only begun March 12, 1985 ("Operation Badr"). Shock 60 thousand grouping (the first tier) was due from the region to advance Majnoon Islands in the western and north-western directions. Iranian forces were planning to force Tiger to cut off and destroy the part of the Iraqi troops seize part of southern Iraq. Iranians succeeded in a number of places to go Tiger, and at one site to cross the river. The Iraqi troops responded almost immediately and ran over to the offensive. Fierce battles were fought week. This battle was one of the bloodiest of the war. Iraqi commanders to anticipate this attack and proactively prepare the required reserves. Iraqi troops massive flank counterattacks cut was advancing group of Iranians, and then actively using the air force and artillery, defeated it. Iranian command was unable to render tribute gunships best parts. Was of enormous importance and the fact that the complete domination of Iraqi aircraft in the air, especially in the area of the fight. Thus, in January, Iraqi warplanes made 100 sorties a day in February to 200 in March during the fight — to 1000. Iranians have lost up to 25-30 thousand people, and retreated to the starting position.

The Iranian air force is also not idle, but she launched strikes in the principal towns and factory facilities. Iraqis answered the same. Since 1985 made history the Iran-Iraq war as a year "War of the cities". Iranian and Iraqi air force bombed and residential neighborhoods. In March, the Iraqi Air Force stormed up to 30 large Iranian cities, including Tehran, Isfahan, Tabriz, etc. In April, Iranian planes methodically stormed Basra and Baghdad. And lasted for so-called. "Tanker war". In the middle of August the Iraqi commanders trying to disrupt Iran's oil exports and deprive Tehran sources of currency, which was necessary for the continuation of the war and force the administration to end the Iranian military actions on the front, to begin peace talks, sharply stepped up air strikes on oil infrastructure of the enemy. Blow inflicted on the important Iranian oil export ports, offshore oil fields and oil transports in the Gulf. So, just on the main Iranian oil export port on the peninsula Hark the Iraqi air force delivers more than 120 hits. Iranian Navy since September 1985 began on a permanent basis to perform inspection of all merchant ships that followed through the Strait of Hormuz, with the aim of finding and confiscating goods of military nature.

Iranian military and political control after the defeat of the March coming waived by the "war to the bitter end." Although Tehran has repeatedly made proposals to open peace negotiations. It was decided to organize a new coming to the south. Immediately with a view to wearing down the enemy, depleting its resources and the conservation of the strategic initiative in their own hands, Iranian forces from April to December 1985 have caused the enemy to 40 strokes of limited value (forces from battalion to three brigades).

The Iraqi command, making an effort to reflect the limited attacks of the enemy, immediately improved the defensive line to create a reserve in the event of the coming of the great Iranian aircraft. In general, significant configurations in 1985 failed.

Campaign 1986

Iranian command a huge part of 1985 preparing yet another decisive step in the southern sector of the front. By the end of January 1986 the preparation for an attack on the whole has been completed. February 9, 1986 5 Iranian divisions (all included in the upcoming group of more than 100 thousand people) as part of an offensive operation "Dawn-8" in several places crossed the Shatt al-Arab, south-east of Basra. Day of February 11 in the advancing troops with the assistance of an air assault force captured the town of the same name on the Fao peninsula. Then the coming of the Iranian forces developed in the north (in Basra) and western (in Umm Qasr) directions.

Immediately Iranian troops attacked the area of Khorramshahr in the direction of Basra. But on this front Iranian forces failed to achieve of success. Iranian unit came under heavy artillery fire of the Iraqi and after suffering heavy losses, were obliged to retreat to the starting position.

February 12 — 14 Iraqi command had brought a breakthrough in the area of additional forces. Iraqi forces launched a series of counter-attacks and were able to stop the coming of the enemy at the turn of the 8 — 10 km to the north and north-west of the town of Faw. Fierce fighting lasted practically until the end of the month, but the knock Iranians captured areas failed. Both sides have repeatedly passed in coming, but could not r
each the merits. Because of marshland Iraqis could not very well use heavy weapons, frequent rains and fog hampered the Air Force. Iranians have lost this battle up to 50 thousand people killed and wounded. By the end of the month the Iraqi command completed sample recapture lost ground. Both sides have run across the defense, by securing for new frontiers.

In the night from 24 to 25 February Iranians launched "Operation Dawn-9." Using data from the Kurds, they knocked at the direction of Bani — Sulaymaniyah (in the direction of Kirkuk). Iranians seized a number of supporting Fri enemy, but soon returned Iraqi troops lost ground. In March, the two sides ran over to the defense.

Iranian military and political control of the highly touted successes coming February and officially announced that by the end of the year the defeat of Iraqi forces will be completed and will be achieved daring victory over Iraq. In Iraq, launched the latest mobilization and preparation for the final decisive operations.

Saddam Hussein was angry with the loss of Fao — commander of Iraqi forces in the Faw peninsula, Major General Shaukat Ata was recalled to the capital and shot. The troops were ordered to recapture the peninsula at any cost. In the battle of the elite cast — motorized brigade of the Presidential Guard. Despite the small successes recapture Faw failed. To thwart the coming of a new Iran and smooth the memory of the defeat of February, April and early May were organized several offensives. Were activated immediately act the Iraqi Air Force, they attacked the Iranian towns and factory facilities. More famous success was the capture of Iraqi troops in the town of Mehran Iran. In the middle of May 1986 25 th Army Corps crossed the Iranian border near the town of Mehran. This area had no strategic value, but there was a garrison stationed five thousand. Iraqis pulled two more divisions, artillery, and were able to suppress the resistance of the Iranian garrison (400 prisoners were taken.) This operation had no strategic value, and did not affect the overall course of the war, but was blown up in Iraq to the scale of a big win, not just a fundamental turning point in the war. Soon Iranian troops had cut communication Iraqi garrison in Mehrane, and then broke it. Major General Tavfid Adin, who commanded the operation to capture Mehran, was summoned to Baghdad and shot.

In July 1986, the Iraqi Air Force launched a series of attacks on Kharg Island, Iran is forced to rely on temporary facilities on the islands Siri and Laraque, which are placed further to the south. Yes, and these areas have been subjected to raids by Iraqi aircraft that operated from bases in Saudi Arabia.

Iranian commanders did not tolerate the loss lusted tactical initiatives, because after his release in September Mehran was attacked in the northern sector of the front. Iranian forces at the initial stage operations have gained certain of success, capturing a number of heights on the ground in Iraq. The fighting was fierce, a number Fri couple of times passed from hand to hand, the Iraqis widely used aircraft. Then Iraqi troops repulsed the attack Iranians ran to the counter-attack and crossed the border, blocked seven Iranian villages Fri, including Mehran. Iraqi commanders stated that it is "demonstrative offensive", it indicates the power of the sun Iraq and is not intended to capture the Iranian countryside. Iraqi troops recaptured the counter Iranians and eventually withdrew.

In late 1986, the Iranian command organized a new advent on the southern part of the front ("Operation Karbala-4"). The composition of the attacking forces included the 6 divisions, six brigades, the compounds Special Forces, also different IRGC units (only the "Revolutionary Guards" was up to 50 thousand people). But the Iraqi intelligence service was able to open the preparation of the coming of the Iranian, allowing to make necessary arrangements. On the night of December 24, 1986 Iranians went to the offensive. 60 thousand Iranian fighter struck a 40 km section of the front. The Iranians were able to force the Shatt al-Arab, to capture a number of islands and footholds on the western shore. Iraqis went to the counter, after 48 hours of stubborn fighting the Iraqi army Iranian fighter took off into the water, but lost 10 thousand people.

On the whole campaign in 1986 differed sufficiently high intensity and scale fighting. The Iranians, despite the heavy losses, were able to achieve significant success. Iranian forces captured the Faw, creating a risk of breaking the important Iraqi port and naval base of Umm Qasr. Now you can completely cut off Iraq from the Persian Gulf and the release of Iranian troops to Kuwait. This, in turn, could lead to a loss of communication with the Gulf monarchies, which assisted Baghdad in the war with Iran. Acts of Iraqi troops have shown that they are far from the defeat and the war may last a long time.

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