"In all our deeds,
great and small, and in all respects
among their kinsmen
or community members of other genera-
Conscience and Truth is our sheaves,
should be the measure of all things "
Abyss of falsehood and deception that is shrouded Heritage (history) of the Russian government, the most insidious lie is defamation of political concepts People monarchical autocracy.
When sovereignty of the people itself holds, ie The self-government by the monarch, and a sign of truth in the original Russian autocratic right is One (one hundred percent) the opinion of the World, or the cops.
Copa — Old Slavic collection Shodotaev. The meaning of the Kop can identify words in a crowd, set the assembly, shock, dig down (to the truth), etc. Cops custom long time kept Russian soldiers Russia — Cossacks. Today this tradition is manifested in part in the Cossack Circle.
Cops for Slav opinion was top spiritual and moral values. Russian people said, "Worldly fame is strong", "Peace sing, so the stone will crack", "With the world can not argue," "In the world, and the court is not", "World of selenium and invincible," "What the world order, then God will judge" "What the world should be, so be it."
In Kopa were four to nine nearby villages Shodotai that collected in a special place — "a place", hence the name of the main village — place, Misty. Over time, a place developed into a city that retains an [a mop> <Right>, and residents were called commoners. Most cities grew out of Cope, except the border that once built as a fortress.
Cops number ranged from 100 to 300. The cop was going to one of the villages in the community gathering place called KOPovische, KOPische, temples. Are addressing the issues and other things in the open. Usually took place in the Sacred Forest with natural or artificial mound hill. Nearby were a spring, river, lake or pond. Kopovesche was a favorite place to cope folk festivals — Carnival, Kolyada, swimming and others.
The cop was going to the meeting, ie at the Chamber (hence the word — a prophetic, broadcast, inform). Voting rights in the Copa used only householders who had permanent sedentarization. They were the elders of the family — Heads delivery. They are called Shodotai, judges sheaves, Community Men. The brothers, who had no individual farms, the children and women had the right to vote and were only on the specific request of cops for evidence. The elders were present at the Copa. The elders were not skhodotayami, they had no right to vote at the Copa, but their advice can play a crucial role. Opinion Elders asked in cases where it was necessary to impose a sentence on the basis of ancient solutions cops. Elders strictly enforce the customs of their ancestors.
Chamber to Cope was both studies, and experience to the study of law. Sacred position <a mop> <Rights> saved in memory Shodotaev and passed from generation to generation.
Cope to coordinate all aspects of life in the village, including the beginning and end of the agricultural work, hay, repairing roads, cleaning of wells, hiring shepherds and watchmen, penalties for unauthorized felling of forests, disturbing public bans, raising money for public spending settlement, the layout of taxes, elections , issues of forest use, dam construction, the completion of public resources in the event of natural disasters, famine, and more.
Cop found and pursued criminals judged and punished them, afford a reward for the capture. If the case was a criminal, the Copa led "questioning" sets "face" of the criminal (hence — "evidence"). Cope encouraged to pardon the offender, and the sincere remorse nationwide criminal. Be sure to take into account the forgiveness mortally wounded and his last will. Court cases dealt with conscience, trying to subdue the dispute to conciliation.
Cops solutions implemented by all in good faith and with great desire. Violation <a mop> <Rights>, its regulations, has never been observed, and if it happens sometimes, it was seen as an emergency. The autocracy every Slav, faced with the violation <a mop> <Rights> or customs, had to exert all his strength to stop this violation. If he did not, then the participant was considered a crime was witnessed, and carried for them fully on a par with the offender. Lived the commandments of God alone: "It is not permissible to forgive the person who intentionally commits evil for evil, without discipline, multiplied, and the blame for the augmentation of the evil lies with the man who left the evil punished and brought him to the right judgment of God."
This manifestation <a mop> <Rights> only possible with perfect transparency and otchiznolyubii people. At Cope provides complete independence Shodotaev opinions. Everyone had the opportunity to open his own soul. Cope went on all honest, the question was put bluntly: "to cut a plain truth," and if anyone tried to escape in silence, his relentlessly bring to light. The most docile men, at other times could not even give a hint word against anyone, for Cope, in moments of total excitement, he changed completely and getting the courage, managed to outdo certainly brave men. Cop makes a discovery of mutual confession, repentance and mutual exposure, the manifestation of the widest publicity. At the moment the private interests of each achieved the highest degree of tension, the public interest and justice, in turn, reached the highest degree of control.
Of broad self-amplified desyatskogo elected office — one of 10 yards and Sotk — from 100 yards. Constables, assisted desyatskih, watched over the purity of the villages, the cleanliness of the water in the rivers, for fire protection, for the order during trading markets, the sale of good-quality products, the conduct of trade.
Included Kopu village communities formed parish. Cope to choose: the rural municipality, the board and the court. The local court of the book led to recording solutions converge, transactions and contracts, including labor, villagers concluded between themselves and outsiders. All paper work was district clerk, who was an important person in the Copa. When the sergeant began to abuse the trust of society, the villagers could elect him or taken a salary.
Besides heads of townships, chosen by the applicant for Public Affairs — chelobitnikov in capital city. These intercessors called "parasite." Bad sense of the word, the word later, but in the beginning it meant people who lived on the secular account when traveling on public affairs.
According to ancient Slavic traditions, to protect their land from the enemy Kopoy chosen princes. The princes were chosen from the strong Births hereditary warriors who were the honor and glory of our country. Kopoy stood tithe for the content of the Prince and his men, border to border towns and the construction of defensive lines. Villagers willingly carried the labor service for the construction of particularly important or urgently needed military facilities, and in time of war, all the warriors rose villagers to protect the Fatherland. Only through the <a mop> <Rules> Svyatoslav Khorobrit able in a few days to collect ten thousand armed men with horses and food.
At the Council of Princes Vsezemskom chosen monarch — the head of the country, the Grand Prince of All Russia Stolny. Monarch of required compliance <a mop> <Rights> Vsezemskogo Council enforce laws, protect the people from foreign gate of.
A good example of the role of the people in the state system in the People's monarchical autocracy can serve as a "record", circulated by the Moscow Cathedral of the Land in all Russian cities "For thereof to all ranks and titles of people swearing allegiance to the Russian throne, elected Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich" ( February. 1613). This oath states:
"… Where the Emperor orders be alone in its state service, and I, being his state service, he sluzhiti the Czar, and the enemies of his Crimean and Nogai and with Lithuanian and German people and traitors bitisya him Emperor, not electric stand his head to death, and in the Crimea and in Lithuania and the Germans and inyya any State not kotoryya otehati, and traitors to his sovereign's not ssylatis and no vchem his Majesty not izmeniti nikotorymi dely nikotoroyu and cunning to steal or to which no stick
I am also in the entire Sovereign Tsarev and Grand Duke Michael's all Russia's health and he oberegati Sovereign nikotorogo dashing mysliti not, and where uvedayu or hear on the Emperor their King and Grand Duke Michael's All Russia, in which people ospreys or plotting some evil design and I for my Sovereign Tsar and Grand Duke Michael's All Russia bitis with the people, and will be able to syazhet and I pereimav lead them to the Emperor, and will be followed by actions of the people do not poimati Framework, and I am about that and ospreys conspiracy skazati Sovereign or Sovereign's boyars and fellow humans.
I also, who would not Sovereign Tsar and Grand Prince of All Russia Mikhail Fedorovich serve and direct, and I with them bitisya that with his aversion to death. "
Vedic annals of our ancestors tell us about the social laws. They suggest that only when people get Monarchical Autocracy high degree of protection of its security, rights and freedom. Monarchic autocracy turns out either a simple rule of the fittest (anarchy), or obedience of man to natural forces — the opinion of the crowd (social democrats). True freedom in our earthly life manifests itself in the possibility for direct our affairs, to do what we think is right, and not do what we want to avoid, that is, not to be a toy of natural forces in the range of socio-political relations. The greatest freedom is manifested when the people unite their forces and send them to achieve their goals, which is able to reach only properly arranged and reasonably functioning state power. Ensure that power can only be sovereign, because he is the smartest of people, as has his three bodies: physical, astral and mental (hence comes the concept of "sovereign": Sanskrit for "man" — the mind, "Arhat" — the highest, divine enlightenment). This is confirmed by the insignia of the monarch — skiper (Mace), and power, is a sign of the mental body.
Creating a monarchical state, Slavs obey the higher powers in the face of the best of people in and out of blind obedience to the circumstances, gained independence — the first condition is true freedom.
There are only three basic types of sovereignty: monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy. Nothing but they can not be found to this day.
Monarch sends power to the benefit of the people. Not care about his personal gain, trying to do the law <a mop> <Rights] and the law of God. Monarchy based on the moral consciousness of the sovereign and the voluntary submission of citizens Laws of God, is a necessity. People monarchical autocracy — when people keep himself guided the ancient clans of the Slavic people of faith, thinking about its existence, from despotism. Power is not a legal concept, and moral and spiritual as well as moral right does not give the law, and the spiritual and moral level of the ruler, corresponding to the level of the Monarch. Power should belong to the one who is the most complete expression of the Vedic basis of the Slavic people.
The purpose of power is the greatest measure of assistance put these principles in life in all aspects of social and political activity.
Characterized by the suppression of the power of the aristocracy of the people of their wealth, intellectual superiority and political machinations.
From the foregoing it appears that the main reasons for the preference for a particular type of sovereignty is the moral condition of the people.
Moral orientation can even occur when merging into a collective whole — in a nation with a generic faith ancestors, wisdom of the ancestors. Generic top is the original source of the Monarchy.
If a society does not exist quite understandable Generic Worship, covering all aspects of life, the connecting link of the numerical strength of the company is that averages of people to the level of the layman, aimed at sensual pleasure. This is an ignorant state of the nation in which people are influenced by the darkness and ignorance breeds democracy and socialism.
If Generic spiritual foundations are not recognized by all is clear enough, if the company captured the idea of material prosperity, the manifest domination of the aristocracy — people "the best", the most able to find this intelligence. This is the state of the people, in which people are influenced by emotion.
When people live in a coherent, generic religion, which is a comprehensive spiritual and moral example, which leads to the voluntary submission of no physical strength, but his spiritual aspirations, which can only give a benevolent spiritual personality — under these conditions is expected to monarchy. This inspired condition of the people, in which people are influenced by pure light. In the person of the monarch is subject to the service of the people of the Laws of God — the ideal of truth. Slavs always observe two great principles: "Holy honor the gods and their ancestors, and have always lived in good conscience."
When there is an indirect and a direct relationship between the clans, the gods of these genera are united and strengthened the power of Sorts. Power becomes a powerful, no foreign enemy can not win this Power, as there exist powerful Generic foundations.
Thus, the state takes full perfection and achieves all the objectives of the cultural nation — life in harmony with society and impartial laws of the universe, ie Belief, economic development, sense gratification and liberation from material dependence. People thus get all they need for spiritual development.
When the people of the Monarchy of anything its not refuse, but only gets the knowledge that the supreme power belongs not to him, but by the Higher Power, which points to the true purpose of human life. Since everything is created and owned by the Creator, that the people have nothing to give up, he simply recognizes the power of the Creator, in the belief that the public is presented with regard to the monarch is not the people, but the will of the Almighty. With this understanding of the power of the monarch has no power to the people, not the people's power ends and aims to express the people's will. But, on the other hand, this power does not exist for itself, but for the people — for the purpose of execution, said High. It is this abstraction of his people's power and will of the people and at the same time his subordinate national foundations, national spirit, national ideals, this monarchy becomes necessary qualities of true sovereignty.
Monarchy forms its content of moral principles. The monarchy does not create a moral model, but it is itself, does not fit him in, but she adapts to it. People monarchical autocracy is possible only when thinking of his existence.
Moral fiber of the people can only give Birth Faith progenitor. Only Tribal Religion puts Supreme Personality of Godhead is above all in nature, and thus in our human life is saved top place for the moral, spiritual, personal principle. Only in the light of Generic Worship person maintains consciousness supreme value of his personality, and therefore carries the same concept to the ideas of moral supremacy. Only real connection with the Creator can give moral strength and spiritual patterns and manifestations.
In Russia, the bright image of righteousness and spirituality has always embodied the true monarch, derive their quality wisdom of the ancestors of old, inherent to the Slavs. Therefore, our state and called Holy Russia, Russenia, land Births Holy Race.
Russian state since ancient times is not based on violence, but on the spiritual principles of the Slavic people, who understand the greatness of many small nations. Spiritual understanding is bound Russian people with his younger brothers in the national cultural unity. All are bright and clean thoughts sister were turned to the spiritual values of Vedic culture in Russia, it is this spiritual subjects them to Russia and forced to serve, not from fear but from conscience. Russian people always get along amiably with other people, do not infringe on their national culture, and if he was not forced to foreigners, he did not undertake to bear arms and would not seek power over them. Russian people are not only oppressed small nations, but gave them considerable assistance and support, creating equal conditions for themselves. Russian people provided them their patronage for they kept their national roots and be able to remember the true values of their ancestors, and through this to return to the path of generic Vedic culture.
Joining the new Russian nation took place peacefully and without bloodshed. The main argument here was not guns and violence, and awareness of the benefits of the existence of aliens within Russia as a powerful circumstances of public order, care and protection from external attacks.
No people can be a viable, independent organism with no distinctive internal tribal beginnings. Therefore Slavic peoples can not save the cold soulless Western intelligence policy, and the life-giving spring of the social foundations of the Russian people.
One generation replaces another, crumbling public systems and modes, everything changes in this world. As long as people remember their roots, honors the tradition of his great ancestor, preserves and honors his generic ancient heritage (history), culture and symbols, up to that time the people alive and will live!
Ingliizma revival, the Holy Faith of Old Clans of the Great Race in the daily life of the people — the highest goal, facing the Old Russian Orthodox Old Believers' Church Ingliisticheskoy-Ynglings. Who, if not us, conservatives, Ynglings, will return Rodham Pure Light, their tremendous knowledge and family, not to distort history.
A shock of the destruction of rights as a result of forced Christianization of Rus
Two things were a great loss to the people of Russian Slavic tribe, whose loss continues to take shape and detrimental to the education of the younger generation — it is family and community.
kolohost.ru: On the loss of the family as a unit of society, indeed, within which a person comes to the Light of God and dies, its impact on the education of their ancient way of life, their home, where there are male and female halves, which are before the eyes of the boy representatives all four stages of human life, will not speak. This is a topic for another razgovora.I Family, and Community now resemble fragments of the once beautiful mirrors, which are already collected and is not possible, but try, in my opinion, it's worth. For each of us the pinnacle of his family tree that has its roots in antiquity and in our thoughts, actions, and things unseen ancestors have a strong influence. It does not matter whether we are aware of this genetic memory or not.
How many copies of broken on the use in educating the younger generation team!? How many teachers are the "for" education in the team, but even more are the "cons". Why is an open question for the teachers of the world? I would suggest that the roots of this problem goes back to antiquity and influenced by genes at all Slavs (and all those who claim to be their descendants.)
Courage in saying this hypothesis I give Ivanisheva research Nikolai Dmitrievich (1811-1874) on Russian agricultural communities, based on the ancient tradition of a mop RIGHTS. On the right of all known many. Just remember the Roman law, German law, but of Slavic law, and even more about the Russian, many do not even know.
To confirm my guess I would like to tell you about a mop of law and then to let the readers decide whether there are grounds for such a hypothesis.
A shock of law — is the oldest form of self-government within the Slavic rural community. It is transmitted orally from generation to generation.
The word "right" to our native and comes from the Old Slavic root "rights" (remember the reality, Nav and right). "Rules" has a lot of one-root, is used to this day, the words true, correct, just, manage, etc.
"Cop" ("Coop") also is an ancient Slavic root. As such, he is now out of use, but kept him from cognates, which make it easy to restore the secret meaning of the root. Think about them: a crowd, set the assembly, shock, save, digging, etc.
Copa — collections skhodataev to address issues related to the life of the community. Kopa could discover and prosecute criminals, try and punish them, and deliver award offended reward, and finally, to prevent violations of the law cops. At the meeting (assemblage) was established, under the law of cops, mutual responsibility, when the whole community is responsible for the misdeeds of its members, and vouched for the safety of life and property as their own, as well as newcomers.
In Kopa was part of 4 to 9 surrounding villages (Vesey) skhodatai that collected in a particular place ("place"). Location is still preserved the name of the chief of the village (now the district center) — "Mist". Over time, the main village could develop into a city, which remained in his administration's dig right, and its inhabitants were called mischanami (commoners). Most Russian cities grew it from Cope, except the border that once built as a fortress, and then they trade boomed and crafts.
Another name for cops — is enormous. Hence the "Community", ie collect anything together (for example, to collect a haystack hay).
The cop was going to meetings, that is, at the Chamber. Hence our Russian words prophetic, ve-schat, inform, etc. So VETCHE — is the meeting of the cops. A famous Novgorod Veche — this is the city's dig right.
In ancient times, COPA, and it alone, expressing the will of the people. But not all people have the right to come to the cop. This right is used only householders who had but property and permanent sedentary life. They were the elders — Heads delivery. They are called skhodatai, judges sheaves, muzheve, obchie, ie muzhy community.
Were present at the Copa, and the elders, whose opinion was asked in cases where it was necessary to impose a sentence on the basis of long-standing decisions cops. However, the elders and SKHODATAI is not the same thing. The elders were not entitled to vote at the Copa, but their advice is crucial. Sons and brothers who did not have individual farms, and women were in the meeting only on the specific request of cops tend to testimony.
Cops Veche was both practice and school for the study of the law, the holy of the provisions of which, without using letters preserved in the memory of their husbands-skhodataev were passed down orally from generation to generation. And the elders jealously watched over compliance customs of their ancestors.
A shock of law is based on the rule of unanimity — coming to a consensus of all the participants skhodataev. Distorting the shock of the law of unanimity, the landlords imposed villagers democratic principle of choice, based on the percent margin. But as you know, in any group is always the worst majority.
The number of cops could range from 100 to 300. Going to a meeting in the center of a village community, or in a protected oak forest, in the sacred grove with natural or specially narytymi hills. Necessarily had to be next to a river, pond, lake, spring. The place was called KOPovische, KOPische, temples. Copa often engaged in research and controversial decision, and all other cases in the open air.
Kopovische was a favorite place to cope national holidays Red Hill, Pancake, Kolyada, bathing and other
Copa going to the ringing beat, bells, and the visual signal — fire.
And any small business or a crime was solved on the spot they incurred. The criminal case led Copa "rasprosy" and seeking criminals, established its "face" (this makes the word "evidence").
Cope to encourage individual offender forgiveness victims and sincere repentance nationwide criminal. Be sure to take into account the forgiveness smertelnoranennogo and his last will, which was considered by the law.
Cops decision is made on all good faith and with great enthusiasm. So the knowledge of any of the "executive committee" Cops, the content similarity "police" and there could be no. Cops rights violations, as well as its decisions, has never been observed, and if it happens sometimes, it was an emergency. Copa widely used the "self."
Of broad self-amplified elected office: desyatskogo — one 10 yards and Sotk — from 100 yards. Included Kopu village communities formed parish. Cops at the gathering of selected rural municipality (typically three years), as well as the local court and district court. As required chosen by the applicant for Public Affairs — petitioners in capital city.
Cops way possible to ensure a high birth rate and the recovery of the population in the event of war or epidemic, educate male warriors, maintain perfect health condition of the area, to protect and restore forests. In particular, not much chance of work and effort invested in the cultivation of flax, because it is dressed in linen not live insect pests. Followed and the preservation of lime groves. Harvested from the bark of linden bast of bast shoes, pads, baskets, etc.
Kopa was originally common to all Slavic peoples. But with the beginning of the Christianization of carrying on their shoulders that called feudalism, it is beginning to replace first in Western Europe, and then with the territory of Russia. So to XYI-XYII centuries., For example, in the South-West of Russia from the shock of the right has nothing left. That was then, and tried to revive the ancient customs of the Cossacks, and constitutes Dashkevich beyond the Dnieper rapids famous Sich. And the fact that the Cossack way of life is the highest form of development of the Russian community — so many researchers believe the Cossacks. The Cossacks and carried through the ages "zvychay kopnago our rights."
A shock right waiting to be explored. One must study the written sources richest period of his fading (XY-XYII cc.). This documentary books southwestern cities. Of course in this book of the law no one spetsiano cops did not write down. They record the endless litigation emerging from feudal Kopoy. By the middle of XIX century remained around 400,000 books in cities such as Kiev, Vilnius, Luck, Vitebsk, Vladimir, Zhitomir, etc. But to Russia from the West actively beginning to advance to the Scriptures, Pospolitnoe (Polish) law, and Magdeburg rights for big cities . to take such a "right" to city residents on Kopa were no longer, as already ruled by different laws. Nearby is the village of arbitrarily attributed to this area and called "beating about the bush." But still a shock of law has continued to operate, but Cope was to attend from the city Uryadov Fuss, who was protocol cops and drove him to the city for inscribing in the assembly of the book.
Together with the Magdeburg Rights to rural communities began to spread the power of the landlords. Initially, the landlord owned the land only formally he collected taxes, and power was held by Cope.
But time passed, and the onslaught of the fortress 'rights' Copa gradually degenerating into a rural court, to which are invited from each village one skhodatayu and landowner with a priest, the sergeant and several of his friends heard by business as they need. Guys have bezmolstvuyut — uncomfortable. And since 1557 the landowners are entitled even to kill his peasants.
In some places the Copa, while still viable, continued, albeit in a weakened form of the structures rated new management. Skhodatai but could not prove the validity of their claims, but to the prescription of the right. Increasingly, the landlord said: "I'm naked WORD muzhik pay not command." Sometimes landlords simply taken away their peasants with cops, and XYII century and does prohibit them from attending kopovische.
That carried the Copa and strongly guarded high spiritual principles, says and started spoiling the people. She followed the inevitable destruction of communal ownership of the Earth Mother. and settlers, rather than to prevent crime, discover and punish criminals themselves robbed, burned and looted villages rich owners. Hence the onset time of troubles, outbreaks of popular uprisings.
Even under Vladimir Monomakh in Russia there was "Russian Truth" — the first written criminal code of our feudal past. Its analogs have long existed in Western Europe. "Russian Truth" strongly defended the interests of the people of specific princes (feudal landlords future). It was they who were the first exponent of the persecutors of the cops as the people's interests. New Princes fought not only with the cops in the village. The throat and the city was named Kopa. The whole history of Russia is a never-ending struggle supreme princes with the still powerful city cops. Cities like Novgorod called long free and voluntary precisely because islets contained a mop of law.
Recalcitrant cities decimated by fire and sword. But again and again, their rural communities due to population growth and improvement of crafts. They were filled with vitality thanks again to Cope. Reading "Russian Truth", can be traced following communities and national legal traditions, but with a touch of German law, such a sweet heart of the princes (and later kings).
According to an old Russian custom, the princes as professional soldiers Kopoy invited to defend their land from the enemy and good order (of the law) in the country. If Prince did not suit Kopa, his banished. For the maintenance of the Prince and his men, border to border towns and the construction of defensive lines Kopoy stood tithe (a tenth of income householders). In addition, the villagers voluntarily carried compulsory labor for the construction of particularly important or urgently needed facilities, and in time of war all the warriors rose to the defense of the Fatherland. Only by honoring traditions's dig right Svetoslav Khorobrit able in a few days to gather 10,000 men, each of whom was armed, had a horse and stock feed.
In the time of a shock of Law Lords were chosen from the representatives of the most influential and hard labor, which accounted for the honor and glory of our country. As head of the country chosen worthy of dignity — Stolny Grand Prince of All Russia. This occurred Vsezemskom Council (meeting with the princes of the land.) It gradually evolved Autocratic Monarchy (the power of "higher mind", which is based on the people will behave). From Monarch needed to protect people from the enemy lands, observe the laws mop of law and not in any way violate them.
Beyond the scope of this article are a number of interesting questions. What exactly was decided at the Copa? For what, how and who to punish? What is being done in the case of the controversial case? And many others. For now, I see my task only to remind my countrymen of accommodating such an amazing and now undeservedly forgotten phenomenon of Russian shock of LAW. As well as its impact on the education of young people in the team.
My attempt is not new. In the middle of the XIX century in Russia, lived and was active on the excitation of interest to Cope glorious son of our Fatherland Nikolai Ivanishev. He has made great efforts to ensure that the opening of the Kyiv University Department of Ancient mop of law, but it literally ridiculed the "peasant" right! But ND Ivanishev could leave a book "On the ancient rural communities of southern Russia," where he spoke about the shock of the basic principles of national law, studying the many, many volumes of ancient documentary books.
Thus, it is no coincidence in the Russian people pull to the community, to the earliest forms of popular self-government. And in the education of the younger generation should be actively used the team. Groups as tools of education, should be established and supported in every way and in every way to promote the experience. Finally, we recall that the "collective" and the Latin word means "community."
For your information:
A shock right — The oldest form of government in the rural community of Slavic, handed down orally from generation to generation.
The word "cop" ("Coop") — is an ancient Slavic root, found in such words as "crowd", "set", "assemblage", "shock", "save money", "dig", etc.
Copa — collections skhodataev to address issues related to the life of the community. Kopa could discover and prosecute criminals, try and punish them, and deliver award offended reward, and finally, to prevent violations of the law cops. At the gathering of (meeting) was established, under the law of cops, mutual responsibility, when the whole community is responsible for the misdeeds of its members, and vouched for the safety of life and property as their own, as well as newcomers.
Another name for cops — is enormous. The cop was going to the meeting, that is, at the Chamber. Novgorod Veche — a kind of shock of urban law.
In Kopa was part of 4 to 9 nearby Vesey (villages), which skhodatai gathered in a particular place ("place"). Location is still preserved the name of the chief of the village (now the district center) — "Mist". Over time, the main village could develop into a city, which remained in his administration's dig right, and its inhabitants were called mischanami (commoners).
The right to come to the Kopu used only householders who had but property and permanent sedentary life. They were the elders — Heads delivery. They are called skhodatai, judges sheaves, muzheve, obchie ie muzhy community.
Attended Cope and elders, whose opinion was asked in cases where it was necessary to impose a sentence on the basis of long-standing decisions cops. However, old and skhodatai — it's not the same thing. The elders were not entitled to vote at the Copa, but their advice is crucial. Sons and brothers who did not have individual farms, and women were in the meeting only on the specific request of cops tend to testimony.
A shock of law is based on the rule of unanimity — coming to a consensus of all the participants skhodataev.
The number of cops could range from 100 to 300. Going to a meeting in the center of a village community, or in a protected oak forest, in the sacred grove with natural or specially narytymi hills. Necessarily had to be next to a river, pond, lake, spring. The place was called kopovische, kopische, temple. Copa often engaged in research and controversial decision, and all other cases in the open air.
Copa going to the ringing beat, bells, and the visual signal — fire. The criminal case led Copa "rasprosy" and seeking criminals, established its "face" (this makes the word "evidence").
Cope to encourage individual offender forgiveness victims and sincere repentance nationwide criminal. Be sure to take into account the forgiveness smertelnoranennogo and his last will, which was considered by the law.
Kopa was originally common to all Slavic peoples. But with the beginning of Christianization, and the replacement of communal way of life in the feudal clan, it is beginning to replace first in Western Europe, and then with the territory of Russia.
Under Vladimir Monomakh in Russia there was "Russian Truth" — the first written criminal code of our feudal past. Its analogs have long existed in Western Europe. "Russian Truth" strongly defended the interests of the emerging class of feudal landlords future. They were the first exponent of the persecutors of the cops as the interest of the people.
To Russia from the West actively beginning to advance to the Scriptures, Pospolitnoe (Polish) law, and Magdeburg rights to the big cities. To take such a "right" to city residents at Kopu were no longer, as already ruled by different laws. Surrounding villages arbitrarily attributed to this area and called "beating about the bush."
Together with the Magdeburg Rights to rural communities began to spread the power of the landlords. Initially, the landlord owned the land only formally he collected taxes, and power was held by Cope. But under the pressure of serfdom Copa gradually degenerating into a rural court, to which are invited from each village one skhodatayu and landowner with a priest, the sergeant and several of his friends heard by business as they need. Since 1557 the landowners are entitled even to kill his peasants.
In some places the Copa, while still viable, continued, albeit in a reduced form in the structure of the new government. Skhodatai but could not prove the validity of their claims, but to the prescription of the right. Increasingly, the landlord said: "I'm on the floor naked peasant pay not command." Sometimes landlords simply taken away their peasants with cops, and in the XVII century and does prohibit them from attending kopovische.
Study A shock of rights engaged in the middle of XIX century Nikolai Ivanishev, rector of the Kiev University. St Vladimir. He is the author of the book "On the ancient rural communities of southern Russia," where he spoke about the basic principles of law mop of studying many volumes of ancient documentary books.