Two things were a great loss to the people of Russian Slavic tribe, whose loss continues to take shape and detrimental to the education of the younger generation — it is family and community.
The loss of the family as a unit of society, indeed, within which a person comes to the Light of God and dies, its impact on the education of their ancient way of life, their home, where there are male and female halves, where before the eyes of the boy are representatives of all four stages of life human, I will not say. This is a topic for another discussion.
And family and community now resemble fragments of the once beautiful mirrors, which are already collected and is not possible, but try, in my opinion, it's worth. For each of us the pinnacle of his family tree that has its roots in antiquity and in our thoughts, actions, and things unseen ancestors have a strong influence. It does not matter whether we are aware of this genetic memory or not.
Courage in saying this hypothesis I give Ivanisheva research Nikolai Dmitrievich (1811-1874) on Russian agricultural communities, based on the ancient tradition of a mop RIGHTS. On the right of all known many. Just remember the Roman law, German law, but of Slavic law, and even more about the Russian, many do not even know.
To confirm my guess I would like to tell you about a mop of law and then to let the readers decide whether there are grounds for such a hypothesis.
A shock of law — is the oldest form of self-government within the Slavic rural community. It is transmitted orally from generation to generation.
The word "right" to our native and comes from the Old Slavic root "rights" (remember the reality, Nav and right). "Rules" has a lot of one-root, is used to this day, the words true, correct, just, manage, etc.
"Cop" ("Coop") also is an ancient Slavic root. As such, he is now out of use, but kept him from cognates, which make it easy to restore the secret meaning of the root. Think about them: a crowd, set the assembly, shock, save, digging, etc.
Copa — collections skhodataev to address issues related to the life of the community. Kopa could discover and prosecute criminals, try and punish them, and deliver award offended reward, and finally, to prevent violations of the law cops. At the meeting (assemblage) was established, under the law of cops, mutual responsibility, when the whole community is responsible for the misdeeds of its members, and vouched for the safety of life and property as their own, as well as newcomers.
In Kopa was part of 4 to 9 surrounding villages (Vesey) skhodatai that collected in a particular place ("place"). Location is still preserved the name of the chief of the village (now the district center) — "Mist". Over time, the main village could develop into a city, which remained in his administration's dig right, and its inhabitants were called mischanami (commoners). Most Russian cities grew it from Cope, except the border that once built as a fortress, and then they trade boomed and crafts.
Another name for cops — is enormous. Hence the "Community", ie collect anything together (for example, to collect a haystack hay).
The cop was going to meetings, that is, at the Chamber. Hence our Russian words prophetic, ve-schat, inform, etc. So VETCHE — is the meeting of the cops. A famous Novgorod Veche — this is the city's dig right.
In ancient times, COPA, and it alone, expressing the will of the people. But not all people have the right to come to the cop. This right is used only householders who had but property and permanent sedentary life. They were the elders — Heads delivery. They are called skhodatai, judges sheaves, muzheve, obchie, ie muzhy community.
Were present at the Copa, and the elders, whose opinion was asked in cases where it was necessary to impose a sentence on the basis of long-standing decisions cops. However, the elders and SKHODATAI is not the same thing. The elders were not entitled to vote at the Copa, but their advice is crucial. Sons and brothers who did not have individual farms, and women were in the meeting only on the specific request of cops tend to testimony.
Cops Veche was both practice and school for the study of the law, the holy of the provisions of which, without using letters preserved in the memory of their husbands-skhodataev were passed down orally from generation to generation. And the elders jealously watched over compliance customs of their ancestors.
The number of cops could range from 100 to 300. Going to a meeting in the center of a village community, or in a protected oak forest, in the sacred grove with natural or specially narytymi hills. Necessarily had to be next to a river, pond, lake, spring. The place was called KOPovische, KOPische, temples. Copa often engaged in research and controversial decision, and all other cases in the open air.
Kopovische was a favorite place to cope national holidays Red Hill, Pancake, Kolyada, bathing and other
Copa going to the ringing beat, bells, and the visual signal — fire.
And any small business or a crime was solved on the spot they incurred. The criminal case led Copa "rasprosy" and seeking criminals, established its "face" (this makes the word "evidence").
Cope to encourage individual offender forgiveness victims and sincere repentance nationwide criminal. Be sure to take into account the forgiveness smertelnoranennogo and his last will, which was considered by the law.
Cops decision is made on all good faith and with great enthusiasm. So the knowledge of any of the "executive committee" Cops, the content similarity "police" and there could be no. Cops rights violations, as well as its decisions, has never been observed, and if it happens sometimes, it was an emergency. Copa widely used the "self."
Of broad self-amplified elected office: desyatskogo — one 10 yards and Sotk — from 100 yards. Included Kopu village communities formed parish. Cops at the gathering of selected rural municipality (typically three years), as well as the local court and district court. As required chosen by the applicant for Public Affairs — petitioners in capital city.
Cops way possible to ensure a high birth rate and the recovery of the population in the event of war or epidemic, educate male warriors, maintain perfect health condition of the area, to protect and restore forests. In particular, not much chance of work and effort invested in the cultivation of flax, because it is dressed in linen not live insect pests. Followed and the preservation of lime groves. Harvested from the bark of linden bast of bast shoes, pads, baskets, etc.
Kopa was originally common to all Slavic peoples. But with the beginning of the Christianization of carrying on their shoulders that called feudalism, it is beginning to replace first in Western Europe, and then with the territory of Russia.
So to XYI-XYII centuries., For example, in the South-West of Russia from the shock of the right has nothing left. That was then, and tried to revive the ancient customs of the Cossacks, and constitutes Dashkevich beyond the Dnieper rapids famous Sich. And the fact that the Cossack way of life is the highest form of development of the Russian community — so many researchers believe the Cossacks. The Cossacks and carried through the ages "zvychay kopnago our rights."
A shock right waiting to be explored. One must study the written sources richest period of his fading (XY-XYII cc.). This documentary books southwestern cities. Of course in this book of the law no one spetsiano cops did not write down. They record the endless litigation emerging from feudal Kopoy. By the middle of XIX century remained around 400,000 books in cities such as Kiev, Vilnius, Luck, Vitebsk, Vladimir, Zhitomir, etc. But to Russia from the West actively beginning to advance to the Scriptures, Pospolitnoe (Polish) law, and Magdeburg rights to the big cities.
To take such a "right" to city residents on Kopa were no longer, as already ruled by different laws. Nearby is the village of arbitrarily attributed to this area and called "beating about the bush." But still a shock of law has continued to operate, but Cope was to attend from the city Uryadov Fuss, who was protocol cops and drove him to the city for inscribing in the assembly of the book.
Together with the Magdeburg Rights to rural communities began to spread the power of the landlords.Initially, the landlord owned the land only formally he collected taxes, and power was held by Cope.
But time passed, and the onslaught of the fortress 'rights' Copa gradually degenerating into a rural court, to which are invited from each village one skhodatayu and landowner with a priest, the sergeant and several of his friends heard by business as they need. Guys have bezmolstvuyut — uncomfortable. And since 1557 the landowners are entitled even to kill his peasants.
In some places the Copa, while still viable, continued, albeit in a weakened form of the structures rated new management. Skhodatai but could not prove the validity of their claims, but to the prescription of the right. Increasingly, the landlord said: "I'm naked WORD muzhik pay not command." Sometimes landlords simply taken away their peasants with cops, and XYII century and does prohibit them from attending kopovische.
That carried the Copa and strongly guarded high spiritual principles, says and started spoiling the people. She followed the inevitable destruction of communal ownership of the Earth Mother. and settlers, rather than to prevent crime, discover and punish criminals themselves robbed, burned and looted villages rich owners. Hence the onset time of troubles, outbreaks of popular uprisings.
Even under Vladimir Monomakh in Russia there was "Russian Truth" — the first written criminal code of our feudal past. Its analogs have long existed in Western Europe. "Russian Truth" strongly defended the interests of the people of specific princes (feudal landlords future). It was they who were the first exponent of the persecutors of the cops as the people's interests. New Princes fought not only with the cops in the village. The throat and the city was named Kopa. The whole history of Russia is a never-ending struggle supreme princes with the still powerful city cops. Cities like Novgorod called long free and voluntary precisely because islets contained a mop of law.
Recalcitrant cities decimated by fire and sword. But again and again, their rural communities due to population growth and improvement of crafts. They were filled with vitality thanks again to Cope. Reading "Russian Truth", can be traced following communities and national legal traditions, but with a touch of German law, such a sweet heart of the princes (and later kings).
According to an old Russian custom, the princes as professional soldiers Kopoy invited to defend their land from the enemy and good order (of the law) in the country. If Prince did not suit Kopa, his banished. For the maintenance of the Prince and his men, border to border towns and the construction of defensive lines Kopoy stood tithe (a tenth of income householders). In addition, the villagers voluntarily carried compulsory labor for the construction of particularly important or urgently needed facilities, and in time of war all the warriors rose to the defense of the Fatherland. Only by honoring traditions's dig right Svetoslav Khorobrit able in a few days to gather 10,000 men, each of whom was armed, had a horse and stock feed.
In the time of a shock of Law Lords were chosen from the representatives of the most influential and hard labor, which accounted for the honor and glory of our country. As head of the country chosen worthy of dignity — Stolny Grand Prince of All Russia. This occurred Vsezemskom Council (meeting with the princes of the land.) It gradually evolved Autocratic Monarchy (the power of "higher mind", which is based on the people will behave). From Monarch needed to protect people from the enemy lands, observe the laws mop of law and not in any way violate them.
My attempt is not new. In the middle of the XIX century in Russia, lived and was active on the excitation of interest to Cope glorious son of our Fatherland Nikolai Ivanishev. He has made great efforts to ensure that the opening of the Kyiv University Department of Ancient mop of law, but it literally ridiculed the "peasant" right! But ND Ivanishev could leave a book "On the ancient rural communities of southern Russia," where he spoke about the shock of the basic principles of national law, studying the many, many volumes of ancient documentary books.
Thus, it is no coincidence in the Russian people pull to the community, to the earliest forms of popular self-government. And in the education of the younger generation should be actively used the team. Groups as tools of education, should be established and supported in every way and in every way to promote the experience. Finally, we recall that the "collective" and the Latin word means "community."