Paul V. Chichagov — professional naval commander, Navy Minister Russian Empire, and a very lucky captain, whom court society fully charged with the responsibility for the disaster on the Berezina. In practice, public opinion put an end to the career of Pavel Vasilyevich after 1812, that hardly benefited the municipal affairs.
Pavel Chichagov was born July 8, 1767 in the family of a naval officer Basil Chichagova. Soon, the family moved to Kronstadt — the father of the post, and in 1776 returned to St. Petersburg, where Pavel was educated in the German school of St. Peter.
In 1779 Chichagov been enlisted for military service sergeant of the Life Guards regiment. January 1782 marked the first offshore campaign Pavel Vasilyevich. It is defined in the 1st Marine battalion adjutant to the Pope, then the vice-admiral, and under his command was walking from Kronstadt to Livorno and back.
In 1783 Paul Chichagov Navy as a lieutenant, and 4 years later received the title of a senior officer on the ship, "Ezekiel", which in the squad under the command of Admiral T. Kozlyaninova involved in the raid to the island Bornoholm. After receives a mission to own the pope in St. Petersburg.
Russian-Swedish war in 1788-1789, the required return to the fleet of professional officers.
In April 1789, Paul V. promoted to captain of the 2nd rank and got into submission flagship battleship "Rostislav".
In this rank was in clashes near the island of Öland in July 1789, and in the spring and summer of next year in Vyborg and Revel. Revel under the battleship Chichagova at the center of military bands and took the brunt of the Swedish squadron. For this fight Pavel was awarded the Order of St.. ZHoru IV degree. In the Battle of Vyborg Chichagov also proved to be a good commander, and was promoted to Captain 1st rank by the Empress Catherine II, and he was granted a golden sword with the inscription "For Bravery".
After the war Chichagov Jr., over 8 years of service, considering the depth of problems of the Russian fleet, which seeks permission from his father to raise their education abroad. Last redirects the request of the Empress, and she agrees. Peter and Paul Chichagovs managed by a distinguished mathematician Guriev, are sent to the UK. There, thanks to the Russian ambassador in London, Semyon Vorontsov, they come to the British naval school and study English intensively and naval sciences. After a while, Chichagov even tried to get to the English ship to the New World, but for some reason, the ship returned to Albion.
After spending about a year in the UK and enriched by knowledge of shipbuilding and modern organization of a powerful fleet of sea power in the world, Pavel returned to Russia. In 1793 he received the trophy for the purpose of the ship, "Sophia Magdalena" in 1794 transferred to the commander of the ship "Retvizan", which in the squadron of Vice-Admiral Hanykova runs along the coast of the UK. During this campaign met with the family's own future wife — Elizabeth.
In 1796, Paul Chichagov promoted to the rank of captain the team-leader rank. In the same year, came to power governor Paul I, for Chichagova, who had wit and disdain secular chatterbox, to amass a lot of enemies, it's languid times.
In 1797 Chichagov sent into retirement, and later, not satisfied with this, Paul I refuse Chichagov away to the UK for his wife. Then on the slander count Kusheleva in 1799 the Government deprives Chichagova George Cross, and sends the Peter and Paul Fortress, but thanks to the intervention of the Governor-General Count von der Palen, the monarch change the decision and returns to the service allowing Chichagova marry Elizabeth. Soon Pavel in the rank of rear admiral commanding the expedition to the core of Texel. For success at landing landing gets the Order of St.. Anne 1st degree.
The reformist spirit "captured" with the accession of Russia Alexander I not allowed Chichagov lost. In 1802, Pavel takes an active role in the work of the committees of the Ministry of the Sea, and in 1807 was appointed associate minister and the rank of admiral. Slap career intensified already unfriendly attitude of the courtiers. In this position, according to contemporaries, he slipped a tremendous job for the reorganization of fleet management and port towns. Made Chichagov system with insignificant changes will last until the twentieth century.
In 1809, due to constant conflicts with other ministers and bureaucrats inside the department Chichagov taking foreign holidays and the Ministry now has practically no control. Officially, he is removed from office only in 1811.
Even before the transfer of the Neman Napoleon, Alexander I sent Chichagova command the army of the Danube, the Black Sea Fleet, and at the same time appointed him to the position of Governor-General of Moldavia and Wallachia. The governor of the Russian Federation was not happy with the slowness of Kutuzov and had his own plan. Chichagov arrived in Iasi is the 11th of May, but kopotlivy Kutuzov had already made peace with the Porte, a plan the governor has remained plan. Chief newcomer was nothing to do on the banks of the Danube.
The case was found with the beginning of Russian war, when it became clear that the forces of the 3rd Army under the command of Tormasov will not be enough to smash or prinevolit combined forces to retreat tattered body Rainier and Austrian Schwarzenberg. Housing Tormasov joined the Army of the Danube in the town of Lutsk, bringing the total number of Russian troops in the south to 60 thousand Allied Command defected to the Chichagov. After a series of maneuvers Schwarzenberg stepped beyond the Russian Empire, and the troops Chichagova freed for action against the main forces of Napoleon, who have already departed on an old Smolensk road.
According to the initial plan, we were to meet the Berezina 160 thousand Russian troops: army Chichagova from the south, Wittgenstein's body from the north and the main force of Kutuzov, pursuing the French. On Chichagova been assigned task to occupy the town Borisov and make a fortified camp of the Beaver River. Actually meet these guidelines proved to be very difficult, not only because of the lack of experience — land army Chichagov never commanded, and because of the retirement of experienced and professional tactical commanders (Lambert, for example). To intercede in his place Lanjeron not spent much bearable, or reconnaissance. Posted on exploration Palen was ambushed by the French and, having lost 600 people, retreated, leaving the train. The court intriguers have inflated the figure to 2000, the data in this form and they did to St. Petersburg.
In the end, going to the Berezina, Napoleon had the strength of 45 million with 250 guns against 20-24 million with 36 guns in Russian, which for all that has been stretched between the Berezina River and the village joyful.
In addition, at a critical moment Chichagov was not supported by General Wittgenstein, which ultimately played a decisive role. Unanswered is the question of the reasons for delay, Wittgenstein which different determination in fighting on the north, having won several victories over the sparkling Uda,
Saint-Cyr and Victor.
On the other hand, can not be provided in view of the obvious strategic miscalculations Chichagova, among which as noted Kutuzov were the wrong choice of tactical positions, missing reconnaissance areas, rather weak attention to guard duty drawback and initiatives, manifested in the formal observance of orders in chief, despite the changing environment.
It seems however, success of the Berezina Napoleon very cheap cost 56 thousand killed, among them 21 thousand combat-ready fighter against 6 million of losses in Russian.
But the court society such subtleties do not motivate. How not to motivate them and what specifically Chichagov rapid march-throw captured Minsk — an important stronghold of the French, whose loss has forced Napoleon to venture on a ferry across the river in 10 degree weather.
While acknowledging their mistakes, Paul V. at first ability rents command Barclay de Tolly.
In 1814 Chichagov goes into exile, from which shall not return, even at the invitation of Nicholas I in 1834. Closing of the Napoleonic soldier has not led to the beginning of the reforms, Alexander I felt the taste of absolute power and brought to discover the 1st of the most prominent conservatives — General Arakcheeva, scoring the final nail in the coffin of hopes for reform.
Life balance Pavel live in Italy and France, the main town in Co, which is not far from Paris.
Pavel died on August 20, 1849, by sending a letter to the death of Alexander I and all of its services to Nicholas.