First, it is worth noting that the artificial intelligence — the science is quite young. First experiments in this area have appeared soon after the end of the second World War, and the term "artificial intelligence" appeared slightly later — in 1956. At the same time, if in other areas of science to the majestic opening is rather difficult, this area of science opens up great prospects for developing talent.
In real time problems of artificial intelligence has a long list of different scientific areas, including general concepts as perception and learning, and special tasks, namely, confirmation of the theory, the game of chess, the diagnosis of disease.
In this area, the analysis and classification of mental tasks, such Makar, artificial intelligence concerns all spheres of human intellectual activity, and therefore it can be considered a universal domain of science.
From the above it can be concluded that the scope of the scientific mind is a very exciting area of science. Noteworthy that one definition exists AI. In various scientific papers devoted to it, there are different interpretations of the phenomenon. They may enfold not only the thought processes, and statements regarding the behavior of the individual.
If you carefully study the history of the development of artificial intelligence, we can behold the checks being carried out on several fronts. Hence imposed concluded that between those scholars who conduct research of human capabilities, and those who engaged in neuvvyazkami rationality, there were some disputes.
The scientific approach, which focuses on the study of man is bound to have its own base in the nomination of a huge number of hypotheses, and experimental confirmation. At the same time, the approach aims to study the concept of rationality — is a kind of combination of technology and arithmetic.
To check if your computer is able to commit acts like a man who was made an approach that relied on the basis of its own Turing test. It got its title from the creator, Alan Turing. Test used as a satisfactory operational definition of the mind. British mathematician who laid the foundations of computer technology, in 1950, published a scientific article, the worn the title of "Computing Machinery and Intelligence", in which the test has been proposed by which it was possible to find a mental level and nature of the mind computer.
The creator of the test concluded that there is no point in developing a huge list of requirements in order to make an artificial mind, that everything possible will be another very controversial, and therefore proposed to test which was based on the fact that in the end will not be able to distinguish the behavior of an object endowed with artificial intelligence, the behavior of human beings. So Makar, the computer will be able to successfully pass the test if man-experimenter who asked him questions in writing, will not be able to find from whom in fact had been received — from the same person or from a specific device.
With all of this creator derived a formula that defines the border, where the artificial mind could reach the level of natural. According to the findings of Turing, if the computer is able to fool people when responding to 30 percent of the issues in this case, we can assume that it has artificial intelligence.
Coupled with the fact in order to computer failed to respond to the questions he has to do a lot of action. So, that is, he must possess such powers as a means of information processing in natural language, which would have allowed fully successful talk with the device in one of the available languages in the world. In addition, it should be to equip the means of knowledge representation, by means of which the device will be able to write to the memory of the new information. There should also be a means of automatic formation of conclusions, which would provide an opportunity to use the available information to find answers to the questions and the formulation of the new findings. Machine Learning Tools are designed to provide a computer to adapt to new incidents, and in addition, to detect signs of a standard situation.
Turing test to deliberately exclude the possibility of a specific physical interaction between the person conducting the experiment, and the computer, so the process of the creation of artificial intelligence does not require a physical imitation of man. With all of this in the case of the full version of the test the experimenter can use the video to check the computer's ability to perceive.
Since the passage of the full Turing test to the above means to availability and machine vision for the perception of the object, also means the ability of robotics to manipulate objects and move them.
All this is a result and is the basis of artificial intelligence, and the Turing Test is not lost self-worth and a half a century. Together with the fact it is worth noting that the scientists who are engaged in research and the creation of Artificial intelligence, never actually solve puzzles aimed at passing this test, considering that even more fundamental study carefully the principles which lie at the base of the mind, than to make a copy of the 1st of natural carriers of the mind.
Coupled with the fact the Turing test was considered a model, but to the nearest time scientists could not make a program that would successfully overcome the test. So Makar, the researchers could find no particular problems, with whom they discuss, with a computer or a person.
But a few months back in the media disk imaging was reported, scientists for the first time in 50 years managed to tightly close to creating artificial intelligence that was able to think like a man. As it turns out, was the creators of programs from Russian group of scientists.
At the end of June in England was a global scientific competition cybernetic mind, which was held under the auspices of the Institute of Reading. The competition was held in the main center of the encryption Bletchli Park. Russian scientists have presented example program titled "Eugene." Apart from her, took part in the testing 4 more applets. Russian development has been recognized as the winner by replying to 29.2 percent of the questions just like people. So Makar, the program lacked only 0.8 percent in order to materialize so long-awaited event — the emergence of artificial intelligence.
South American scientists also did not lag behind the Russian. Thus, they were able to make the software robots that have been designed specifically for computer games. They have no problems and fully confident to overcome the modified Turing test. It is worth noting that it was made with great success more than it was the people who were tested with bots. And from this we can draw some conclusions about what artificial mind is able to reach a level where automatic system is not able to find where the responsible person, and where — the computer.
Of course, argue that overcoming so specific variant of the Turing test, which is the game Schutter, is an indication of the artificial creation of human mind, it is too early. Coupled with the fact it gives the full right to talk about the fact that artificial intelligence is uniformly close to a human, the fact that the game bots already have gained a level of development which may well prick fully automatic system designed to determine human behavior.
The creators of game robots were scien
tists from the Institute of Texas, Jacob Shrum, Risto Miikkulaynen and Igor Karpov. They managed to make an artificial intelligence, which can play the game on a human level. Was created by a large virtual platform on which fought a lot of robots and real people. The best part played anonymously. More than half the game robots have been determined by the arbitrators as people. At the same time, some people thought they were bots. So Makar, imposes the conclusion that computer-generated characters already in the game behave like humans.
The experiment was conducted in the framework of the competition under the title BotPrize, which started in America in 2008. Its participants to scientists and developers whose programs from computer to be able to impale people. Posing as a completely real players. But first successes in this field were achieved only in 2010.
Favorites of a first prize of $ 4.5 thousand pounds, and will continue to work on his program notes. And there is still aspire to anything, because to admit the creation of artificial intelligence, the program should assure everyone that a person in the conversation. And this requires deep zaniya on the work of the human brain and the principles of formation of speech. At the current time to pass the Turing test in its unique form no one has. But can be fully imagine that this could happen in the not to distant future …
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