It is believed that at one time Bf.109 broke new standards of design fighter in the world. Almost all of it was an example and inspiration for many high-speed all-metal monoplane single-seat fighters ever since. Naturally, there is a shred of exaggeration, and some truth in this. Designed by Willy Messerschmitt and its main designer Walter Rethelem fighter in fact become the most perfect in its class at the time when the light. Moreover, this fighter able to support the success of its own debut in the upcoming, constantly being improved, to acquire new weapons and engines, he did not hand over their own positions within 7-8 years, for as long as the global aviation has developed unparalleled pace was undeniable achievement.
Fighter Bf.109 Design can be called a masterpiece. This machine was unlike anything done before. During its development the designers did not pay tribute to the ordinary looks of fighter aircraft, its design used only the most advanced developments in the field of design and aerodynamics, this plane was able to show outstanding year for those flying characteristics. Messerschmitt Bf.109 was a combination of little probable glider with one of the most massive engines, with the most advanced for those years of all-metal construction that was running trim, automatic slats and slotted flaps, retractable landing gear in flight and closed cockpit canopy.
Even by the summer of 1940, after 5 years, after the first flight of its own, Bf.109 still superior to all opposing fighters allies, except perhaps only the brain at the time of its own enemy — the British Spitfire, on which he still had an advantage in dive qualities of climb, the speed at altitudes below 6,000 meters. Naturally, as though no other plane Messerschmitt Bf.109 had its flaws. A radicalism of its design defines a number of them. But the designers of the aircraft revealed their own talent, who have not conceded in the upcoming cars and manufacturers. Germans managed to make a fighter that was superior to their own flight data of all the British, French, and later the Russian counterparts. Maneuverability was a good fighter in the whole range of speeds. Bf.109 perfectly responded to the handlebars even with the loss of speed and did not have a tendency to go into a tailspin, the plane showed the highest angles of attack at low speeds comparable; landing gear allowed to jam on the brakes and steer well at high speeds. The emergence of such aircraft was the real fortune for the Luftwaffe, which at the time of the formation of its own once the plane has received such caliber.
The design consists of a fighter nizkoplan engine with water cooling. Always for serial production of aircraft engine changed from Jumo-210, then the DV-600, and the latest versions of the machines — DB-601 or DB-605. Once this has grown and motor power from the initial 700 hp to 1475 hp, and the application of systems boost engine MW-50 or GM-1, its maximum capacity grew to 1800-2000 hp The cockpit was placed in the middle of the fuselage and one hundred percent locked lantern that leaned to starboard machine. Glazed canopy was made of high quality transparent plastic, which provided a good overview of the fighter pilot.
Usually installed on the aircraft oxygen unit in the rear fuselage was radio. In the most recent models of fighter aircraft was also used airframe Identification radio FuG-25A, which was a transceiver that perceived signals of terrestrial VHF radio and automatically transmits a response signal is conditional. Specifically, under the pilot's seat and behind the cab were two iron fuel tank capacity, the total capacity of 400 liters .. Some modifications fighter meant the ability to install under the fuselage auxiliary fuel tank.
Low-lying fighter had tapered wing, which had a running iron casing attached countersunk. Wing differed only low weight. For example, the console-wing fighter Bf 109 initial modifications and D having a weight of only 130 kg (without weapons). With the jack and the special docking port wing panel can be changed in the field criteria, with 1-2 mechanics. This was achieved due to the fact that the landing gear is not fastened to the wing and fuselage to the power node and in-flight retracted into the wing where they were provided for closing a special niche. With all this hard to call this solution perfect because track chassis was quite narrow, which, in turn, negatively affected the resistance fighter during taxiing on the runway during takeoff.
After the war, one of the most recognizable German aces E. Hartmann stated that the only problem of the Messerschmitt was taking off. The fighter had a very massive engine and quite a narrow track chassis. In this case, if it is very early to come off the ground, the machine could simply expand to 90 degrees, as a result of such accidents, the Germans had lost a lot of good-quality pilots.
Serial modification fighter
The first commercial version of the fighter received the title of Messerschmitt Bf.109B or Bruno («Bruno"). The aircraft was equipped with Jumo 210 engine 680 hp and was armed with 3 (in later versions — with 4) MG 17 machine guns, rifle caliber 7.92 mm. The highest speed of 463 km / h For the production of the aircraft started in February 1937 at a factory in Augsburg.
First, in 1938, German factories fled to the subsequent mass production model of the aircraft, which is known as the Messerschmitt Bf.109C Caesar «Caesar" ("Caesar"). The machine had a number of design improvements compared to Bf.109B, also equipped with little more than a massive engine Jumo 210A — 700 hp with the injection of fuel. The highest speed was 468 km / h Bf.109C was armed with 4 th machine gun MG 17: The 2 of them were placed on the engine, and one — at the base of each wing.
Right behind "Caesar" came Messerschmitt Bf.109D Dora («Dora"). His arms remained the same and consisted of 4 machine guns 7.92 mm, at Insignificance limited number of fighters armed only with 2 machine guns. The model has been the transition to a more perfect Bf.109E and had to get a new Daimler Benz 600 engine, rated at 960 hp, but because of their flaws, to "Dora" is also set Jumo 210.
Modification under the title Messerschmitt Bf.109E Emil («Emil") was, in fact, the first truly mass for this fighter. The fighter has a new pretty powerful engine Daimler-Benz DB 601A, power 1100 hp, filled hydraulic clutch in the drive supercharger system and a specific fuel injection. Aircraft speed increased to 548 km / h With all of this major was the fact that the engine was much more reliable than its predecessor. Fighters of this m
odification began to come into service units in 1939. In most cases, they were armed with 2 20-mm cannon MG FF, located in the wing and 2 7.92mm machine guns mounted on the engine. Starting with version 6 E7 plane was an armor-mm iron, located behind the tank and all the overlapping section of the fuselage, and bulletproof cockpit width of 58 mm, which is set at an angle of 30 degrees.
Air Battle of Britain showed that "Emil" is able to fight on equal terms with the new British fighter Spitfire Mk 1, but the emergence of new modifications Spitfire drove advantage there. Because on the replacement of the "Emil" came Messerschmitt Bf.109F «Frederick." He began to arrive in the spring of 1941, and by mid-year to 2/3 of the Luftwaffe fighter units were armed with this particular model. The car got a new, more powerful slider Daimler-Benz DB 601E, capacity of 1300 hp Speed fighter has increased to 610 km / h Armament consisted of 2 x 7.92-mm machine guns and 20-mm cannon MG-151/20, who shot through the propeller shaft.
Subsequent modifications, and became the most massive, was the Messerschmitt Bf.109G Gustav («Gustav"). The fighter has a new engine Daimler Benz 605 hp capacity 1475 Most speed increased to 650 km / h Was strengthened and weapons machine: instead of rifle-caliber machine guns MG 17 was installed new 13-mm machine guns. Along the edges of the hood steel motor signs to the appropriate tabs — fairings supply system for new guns. In conjunction with this growing and weight fighter. Compared with the "Frederick" by 10%, compared with the first "Bruno" by 46%. The new fighter began to come into force in May 1942.
In fact, in this particular moment Messerschmitt fighter Bf.109 headed for its own ceiling in technological development and in perfect situation, had to give way to other, more advanced models. But the fighter, who had to change it — Me.209 was still in the stage of creation, while the case at the front as in the past is in favor of Germany, and senior management of the Reich decided to go the way of improving the upcoming fighter. Specifically, the fighter first G-series in 1944 for the first time there was a central gun, 30 mm (MK-108), which was equipped with a ribbon on 60 shells. 1st such explosive projectile weighing 330 grams was enough for the defeat of a single-engine all-metal fighter bomber was required for 4-5 rounds.
The latest production version of the fighter became Messerschmitt Bf.109K Kurfurst («Elector"), the supply of which combat units began in September 1944. The fighter was equipped with a massive engine Daimler Benz 605 SDM / DCM, 2000 hp The highest speed of the aircraft was 695 km / h This fighter was different power arms: on some versions was set to 2 x 30-mm or 3 x 20-mm cannons. More vserasprostranennym was a variant with a 30-mm gun MK-108 or MK-103, also 2-15-mm guns MG-151.