Background of the Metropolitan turmoil. The situation at the court
Theodore A. III, the son of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Ilinichny and Queen Mary (nee Miloslavskaya) was very weak and painful, even walking with difficulty. For him, a heavy blow was the death of his wife of Polish noblewoman Agafi Grushetsky — she died three day or after birth (14 (24) July 1681) and son Ilya Fedorovich (died 10 days after his own birth — 21 (31) July 1681 ). The situation for the kind Miloslavskys become alarming. Prince Ivan was not fit for the throne — he was even more painful than the older brother Theodore. A party Naryshkin (adherents second wife of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich — Natalia Naryshkin and her son Peter) constantly increased. Their support and Patriarch Joachim, who was unhappy polonofilskimi reforms Fedor (they spent under the influence of his Polish wife). Was unhappy and a significant part of the Russian nobility, the boyars had been infringed abolition of regionalism. Part of the serving, the nobility would have preferred the power lords Matveev Matveev, manager of the Russian government at the end of the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, a close Naryshkin than bestalantnogo Ivan Miloslavskogo.
There were people who did not accept any Narishkins nor Miloslavskiis. It was pobkditeli Fedor — Ivan Maksimovic Languages and Alexei Likhachev T.. They were not of the nobility, and after the death of Theodore could not count on huge positions. Likhachev languages and I wish that Fedor still continued to own genus, and they Smalley become guardians of the heir. It took just six months after the death of Theodore Agafi and persuaded to marry again — to 14-year Matveyevna Apraksina Martha, the sister of the future associate of Peter I of Admiral Fyodor Matveevitch Apraksina. In addition, she was a relative of Yazikova. Doctors have warned that weak little health Fedor marriage can be fatal. But pobkditeli pressed through this decision. The wedding took place on 15 (28) February 1682. This wedding is also influenced by the fate of Matveeva (he was in exile). Queen Martha was his goddaughter, and begged the king to amnesty godfather and a friend of his own family. The ruler Fedor gave consent, and Matveeva declared not guilty, returned the property.
Miloslavskys position became increasingly precarious. At this time, dramatically exacerbated the health of King Theodore. Maybe the doctors were right, speaking of the threat of comfort with the young wife. For unhealthy took care Sophia. She was relentlessly at his bedside. In the end, it took over the municipal affairs — in her presence solve the key issues she passed the royal decree. The disease progressed, and hope for a cure is left.
Position archers. During the reign of Fedor control of the administration fell sharply. Corruption, abuse of various kinds have become commonplace. Reserve, this problem and Strelets troops. 22 musketeer regiment were considered the elite of the Russian Armed Forces. Sagittarians are received from the Treasury housing, salaries, land, the right to free trade and crafts classes. Serving in the army Streltsi was profitable, there tried to burn kids and relatives.
Evenly Strelets troops came a certain bundle. Part of the archers began to consider the service a secondary matter, trying to pay more attention to personal matters. Some commanders began to use the archers for their own personal needs, forced to work on his farm. There are delays salary. A clear reason for the delay unknown to: failure gave a reformed tax system, or the means left for other purposes (such as the royal marriage), maybe someone was caught stealing in the higher echelons of power. And the archers were accused of stealing a concrete heads.
Spring was filed first petition to the king of the underpayment of funds. Fedor own investigation commissioned Yazykovo winner. He reported that this insinuation petitioners commanded to peel the whip and sent into exile. April 23 followed by another complaint — by Colonel Griboyedov. Frame it delayed half pay, to build a suburban house. Fedor at this time was already seriously ill, because the court was not until the petitions. Redirected to the complainants Streletskiy order. The head of the order of 80-year-old Prince Yuri Dolgorukov was Chief serious. It held that the appeal directly to the king — is a violation of discipline and ordered to be flogged election. When the election took on the way met a familiar archers — he called them for help. Say, for the common cause of suffering. Elective recaptured. In the settlement Musketeers went dangerous ferment. But the central government was not up to it — it was a question of power.
At this time, there was a "third force" — Duke Gediminas kind of Ivan A. Khovanskiy. At that time he was the head detective of the order. Khovan distinguished himself in the Russian-Swedish and Russian-Polish war, has brought a significant contribution to the company of military affairs on the western borders of the country. But he was a bad politician, lest he dubbed the "hullabaloo", ie, "rattle", "talker." Khovan was offended by the fact that it, regardless of the kind of nobility and awards to the state, is not respected in the Boyar Duma. In addition, he was committed to an old belief, and devised a sort of "Old Believers revolution." Khovan went on the shelves and fomenting discontent archers. Sagittarians are adored him, he took them to respect the environment. The prince had read that the situation will only further worse. The authorities did not give any money nor food. Say, "boyars traitors" implement Moscow exterminate heretics and Orthodoxy in general.
Bane King and the following
April 27, 1682 at the age of 20 years died ruler Fedor A. III. He did not respect the order of succession. Naryshkin party led by Patriarch Joachim decided to take the throne. Patriarch prepared tribute way higher clergy and appealed to the boyars with the question — who should be king, Ivan or Peter? Much of the support the candidacy of Peter, but some were in favor and the convening of the Zemsky Sobor was required to do by law. Patriarch decided not expect the convening of the Zemsky Sobor and resolve the issue immediately — ask the people. Joachim went to Red Square and spoke to the people with the question — who are willing to build up the king? Clearly, the question was raised as, and even by the patriarch of the mass almost unanimously shouted — "Peter!" Sophie tried to argue that such actions are illegal, besides Peter was still young. She advocated "dvoetsarstvie", that took the throne at once, Ivan and Peter. Joachim simply denied her reasons, saying that mnogonachalie negatively, as a single sir pleasing to God.
It is clear that the government did not belong to the boy and his mother — Natalia. She was confused, municipal experience and capacity to manage i
t was not, though, and it supports most of the boyars. Natalia lozhila high hopes for nobles Matveev Matveev. He had to form a new government. Matveyev was slow, was driving slowly from exile. Greeted him with great hospitality everywhere, everyone knew that they face the real ruler of Russia. In his absence, the queen has entrusted management of the state and the Pope brothers. They behaved stupidly, puffed rise. The situation was left to chance.
April 30 petitions complaining of their own chiefs have already submitted 17 musketeer regiments. And they were not pleading and ultimatichesky temper. Sagittarians are sought to punish the colonels, otherwise they are "fishing of for themselves," destroy the offenders, and their property will go to compensation injuries. Here the Queen Natalia made a fatal mistake. She decided to appease the archers. Without trial colonels were arrested, their property has gone to pay off the debt on Streletskoye salary. 2-colonels heroes battle for Chigirin Griboyedov and Karandeev thrashed the whip, and the 12 — Batog. As a result, Fletcher's shelves were "beheaded" discipline fell sharply. The other commanders were outraged and horrified by Natalia actions, they have stepped back from the business. Those who are still trying to return the discipline, beaten, killed several people.
The situation heated Miloslavskiis who choose to use the appropriate moment. Their were agitators created battle groups. Matveev nobleman arrived in Moscow only on May 11. And here it is encouraging people met, tried to secure his position. Visits were made, went peers. Delegation came and archers, Matveev promised to look into their affairs.
Miloslavskiis not have come to expect and started a rebellion. Early in the morning on May 15, Alexander Miloslavsky and supporters of the party Miloslavskys archers began to raise a rebellion. They were shouting that the king Fedor via healers Narishkins traitors killed, and now they are destroyed by Ivan. It's a deal went lists of "traitors", which entered the adherents of the Naryshkin. Archers went to the Kremlin. Some were simply a mass of flags and icons, the other — ready for battle groups in advance poleaxes chop off shafts, so it was easier to fight on the premises. Naturally, in such a situation rumors "fine-tuned", already shouting that killed and Ivan and Peter. Sagittarians require issuance of guilty.
Queen Natalia put on the porch of both princes. People came out to calm the patriarch, then Matveyev. Supporters Khovanskii incited poruha at him, but did not. Matveeva many archers respected, he gently read. The dignitary promised that the incident will not have an impact. The situation has stabilized. The problem was that there was no officer, to lead the people. But supporters Khovanskii and Miloslavskys was enough to again "shake" mass. People began to buzz again. In a situation intervened only Misha Dolgoruky (son of the head of Archer's order). He tried to appease the masses alone. He was caught and thrown into spears. Once the blood has been spilled, supporters Miloslavskys had nothing to lose, and they rushed to the palace and destroyed Matveeva. Then take a ride Massacre "traitors" in the list. Killer running around the palace and found the "traitors." A reason to riot was long since forgotten. Queen and princes pushed aside. Peter, blood-spattered his supporters, has experienced a terrible nervous shock. Murderers were to Yuri Dolgoruky and povydelyvalis murder of his son. He stood mockery. But soon the killers was told that the old man had promised them all the chopping block. They returned after the bullying and destroyed an old leader.
Intoxicated by the archers seized on the street beautiful leader, who played a prominent role in the organization of military affairs at the southern border of Russia Prince Grigory Romodanovskii. His together with his son Andrew was beaten, and then lifted into spears, chopped up the body. Queen's brother died Athanasius Naryshkin, Languages, steward James Smith, duma ranks and Averky Ivan Kirillov and many others, more than 100 people. Smashing orders, houses, taverns. The next day riots and killings lasted. Doctors and catch Gaden Gutmensha after torture are admitted in all the sins that they absented. It's not got the best of them, destroyed them. Rebels claimed the issue brother of Queen — Ivan Naryshkin. His weight was given. Ivan tortured, trying to get a proof of poisoning and assassination of Tsar Fyodor Ivan. But he courageously made all the tortures and shall be cut in pieces.
After that, the rebellion has begun to decline. Messengers Miloslavskys entered into an alliance with Khovanskii and began to take control of the situation. By May 18 the conditions were developed modern political reality. Khovan became head of Archer's orders. Striltsiv renamed "outhouse infantry." On Red Square put a memorial pillar on which it was written that the victims were "traitors." Strelets shelves issued letters of praise. Diplomas met bell hum and solemnly brought to the regimental'll go in public. Sagittarians have the right to be elected, with free access to the palace. Sagittarius award and promised to pay all the debts from 1646 (240 thousand). Sagittarians times a day, two regiments were in the Kremlin. They were fed. Sophia them portages Charco, praised, winning popularity.
At the top of the imperative of Olympus popped energetic and power-hungry Sophia. She led the game. Sophia gave orders to bring their silver in Moscow and the means to pay off the archers. During that archers were making demands that were profitable and Sophia Miloslavsky. May 20 was demanded exile 20 enemies Miloslavskys. Kirill Naryshkin, the queen's father, was tonsured a monk and was sent to the Kirillov-Belozersky monastery. Then he claimed to convene the Zemsky Sobor. Took it immediately, because there was only represented by Moscow. May 23, Cathedral enthroned 2-princes: Ivan became "the first king", and Peter — the "second". May 29 archers claimed incapacity for princes to do with their regent Sophia.
June 25 was accomplished coronation of Ivan and Peter, why did the throne with seat, divided into two parts. Behind the bench was for Sophia, Sophia sits where and princes might give advice during the festive receptions and celebrations. For Peter made "Monomakh of the second category."
Queen Natalia shows Ivan V musketeers, so to prove that he is alive and well. Painting ND Dmitriev-Orenburg.
Khovanshchina and the end of the rebellion
Sagittarians are still some time buzili. He was killed by Colonel Yanov. Several other commanders captured, tortured, their homes looted. But soon, the situation began to stabilize. Sagittarians are aware that their shelves — it's not the whole army, and when necessary they can be put down by force. In addition, most of the involved only in the common events, they were not murderers. They were happy with the promise of payment of money, gifts, gentle appeal regent Sophia. "Legitimate" power has been restored.
But there was a "revolutionary" core. It was headed by Prince Khovanskiy. During the uprising, he has tasted power. In the role of musketeers favorite Khovanskiy seemed all-powerful. Prince indulged in all archers and by focusing on them, trying to put pressure on Sophia, assuring her: "When I am gone, it will go to Moscow to his knees in blood." In Moscow,
activists flocked to the Old Believers, who felt that their time has come. They preached a musketeer parts of a return to an old belief. Old Believers talk about the next fall "Nikonians". Weight conservatives and archers invaded the Assumption Cathedral, the church broke off and drove the patriarch. Khovan through archers claimed to organize the debate between representatives of the Old Believers and the reformed church.
July 5 in the audience chamber held a dispute. Reformed church defended the Patriarch and Archbishop Athanasius Kholmogorsky. Believers represented Nikita Pustosvyat and several of his followers. The parties did not listen to each other and almost ran over a melee already pulled each other's beards. Sophia suspended conflict. It turned out that in the middle of an old archers followers of faith is not enough. The best part was flegmantichno to the dilemmas of theology. Old Believers were expelled. Sofia invited to discover musketeer elected regaled wine to pour in funds and promises. Quite convinced that the forces of the Old Believers, no, she gave the order to grasp them. Pustosvyat executed, others were exiled. Excitement about it was not.
Plans Khovanskii failed. Sophia lulled care of enemies and went from Moscow to the temple prazdnichek in Donskoy Monastery. And from there came to Kolomenskoye, and then to the Holy Trinity Monastery. Sophia sends orders to collect troops in Pereslavl, Kolomna, Serpukhov. In the Holy Trinity Monastery caused by loyal troops from Moscow — Sukharev Regiment (strelets regiment, not accepted the role in the uprising), soldiers and Reitarska of loyal nobles and the nobles of the royal court.
Khovan receives praise diploma and an invitation to come to Sofia for a day of birth — 17 (27) of September. The prince hesitated, but, confident in their own abilities, has left. In p. Pushkin, where he braked to spend the night, his squad has arrested nobles. September 17 Khovanskii, his son and several associates had read a sentence of his intention to kill themselves kings and seize the throne. All unceremoniously killed.
The archers have received this message, first tried to fight back: seized arsenals, strengthened and threatened to take the Trinity. But, having lost his own favorite, without a capable commander, archers have lost all ability to act decisively how-ever, and without the help of others. They learned that all the roads are blocked troops from the capital, at the Trinity-Sergius Monastery collected 30 thousand troops. Sophia began to send petitions requesting not to deprive their own mercy and promised to serve her faithfully, sparing lives. Asked the Patriarch to intercede for them. Gave the ringleaders. Including younger sibling Khovanskii — Ivan (he was not executed, sent into exile). Finally, in October 1682 the archers sent a petition to which admitted their criminal acts on May 15-18 and the Kings pleaded for mercy. Themselves asked the Royal Decree on the demolition of the memorial column.
Severe repression was not executed 30 people, some were exiled. Stolen property was collected and returned to owners and heirs of the deceased. Head of the Archer's order was appointed clerk of the council Shaklovity Fedor, who returned to the firm hand of musketeer regiments order and discipline.
First, in November court returned to the capital. The archers have met him, fell down. There have been another consequence. Several ringleaders and, apparently, those who know much, was executed. 12 musketeer regiment was sent to the border police, began sformirovyvaetsya 5 new. At this very rebellion ended. Was set to rule Sophia Alekseevny at nominal reign of Ivan and Peter.