Cimmerians, who are they?

At the beginning of the first millennium BC. e. the transition from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age. The course of historical events leading to the transition of tribes of the North-West Caucasus to a higher level. This was connected with a man of iron. This leads to important changes in the economic life of the tribes.

Ability to obtain iron from ore open, as indicated by Engels, "… the Iron sword, and with it the iron plow and the ax. Man began to serve the iron, the last and most important of all raw materials, which played a revolutionary role in history … Iron is made possible by major crop growing areas, clearance large forest areas, it gave Craftsman tools such firmness and severity, which could resist no stone, no one known metal. "

Iron in the North Caucasus appears at the beginning of the first millennium BC. e., with VIII-VII centuries. BC. e. begins mass production of its application. Development of productive forces leads to the fact that part of the herding tribes goes to nomadic pastoralism. Others tribes, continuing to lead a settled life based on agriculture to a higher stage of development — to plow agriculture. At this time, and social changes taking place within the tribes. Production development in all fields of economic activity leads to a gradual accumulation of wealth in the individual families. The genus, tribe appear wealthy families forming tribal aristocracy, economically dependent on the weight that gets ordinary commoners. In response to growing populations there is considerable mobility of the tribes in search of pasture, which leads to frequent military clashes that arise from the capture of pastures, cattle rustling, looting neighbors. Captured prisoners are now turning into slaves.

Socially, typical of this era is the formation of tribal alliances and grows sometimes in public education, such as the Scythian in the northern Black Sea coast.

Since then, thanks to the written sources of ancient authors and neighboring peoples, first made known the names of tribes and peoples of the Northern Black Sea, Crimea, the Northern Caucasus. This — steppe Iranian nomads — Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, and tees, Cindy, Meots, kerkety, Zichy, Geniokhs, Colchians, and others.

The first known tribes, attested by written sources for the Black Sea steppes and the North-West Caucasus were Cimmerians.

Some researchers believe that the Cimmerians led the first tribal association in the steppe of southern Russia, and name them as a collective name has spread to all of the local population doskifskoe Northern Black Sea, Crimea, the North-West Caucasus.

According to the Assyrian and Greek data, "Cimmerian people" originally occupied the land on the shores of the Black Sea: the area from the west to Taman Zakubanye to p. Farce of the East, which takes place in 60 km east of Maikop (VIII-VII centuries. BC. E.).

According to the oldest written sources, the ancient population of the Northern Black Sea, and the whole of Russia, were the Cimmerians. That calls them the "father of history" Herodotus. It was very strong and powerful tribal education, they repeatedly went to war against Greece. This people mostly lived by war and looting.

According to Herodotus, the Cimmerians were driven out of their territory and the Scythians, fleeing from them, fled from the last along the Black Sea in Asia Minor in the VIII century BC. e.

According to some written sources, Cimmerians retreat occurred over the Kerch Strait, freezing in the winter. Then they went through the Kuban region and invaded the Caucasus (probably through Sancharskih passes).

About Cimmerians and their arrival in Asia and eastern mention (Assyrian, the Bible) sources. Interestingly, in the Georgian language in the form of the ethnonym "gmiri" came to mean "hero", "hero."

Cimmerians destroyed in raids VIII-VII centuries. BC. e. Anatolian state Phrygia and Lydia, as well as some of the Greek colonies in the region. Perhaps part of the Cimmerians joined the squad and the Scythians, having lost the title back to the beginning of the VII century. BC. e. in their native steppes.

Among scientists there is no common opinion, who are the Cimmerians, but most likely they belong to the Indo-Iranians. Found that the Cimmerians spoke one of the Indo-European languages.

Archaeologists have been associated with burial under barrows Cimmerians IX-VIII centuries. BC. e. in Severoprichernomorskih steppes. In Kuban monuments they have not yet been identified, though the settlements of local tribes marked fires and destruction that can be associated with the invasion of the Cimmerians.

Possibly associated with them a treasure bronzes at the village convenient and rich in burial mound Uashhitu in Adygea.

Paucity of written sources Cimmerians prevents us now determine the exact limits of their territory, the duration of their habitat, to judge the material and spiritual culture.

EI largest on the basis of the analysis of written sources, concludes that "with regard to the southern border of settlement Cimmerians and the influence of their cultural significance should be the territory of the North Caucasus, especially its western part."

Ancient Greek authors have kept a number of place names associated with the Cimmerians and was dated to the Kerch and Taman Peninsula — Cimmerian Bosporus (Kerch Strait), Cimmerian region (North-eastern part of the Kerch Peninsula), settlement (settlement) Kimmerik (Kerch Peninsula), Cimmeria (North part of the Taman Peninsula) Cimmerian ford, Cimmerian shaft (on the Taman Peninsula) and others. The country was inhabited by Cimmerians, and the memories of them are reflected in the names.

Historical information about the Cimmerians mainly devoted to the military campaigns of the end VIII-VII centuries. BC. e. the Near East and Asia Minor. Doubtless now is that the original area for hiking Cimmerians through the Caucasus to Asia Minor was the North Caucasus and, in particular, the Kuban region. So, stay Cimmerians in the North Caucasus is a historical reality.

The first time a historian of the Kuban region can be considered as the ancient Greek poet Homer. In his "Odyssey", he describes Cimmeria with such details which can not be denied that the resettlement areas Cimmerians was located on the Taman peninsula. According to the poem, Odysseus sailed on the ship to the Cimmerian Bosporus (Kerch Strait). As described by Circe, daughter of Helios, where he saw a low coast, covered with wild forest of willows, and black poplars, and found a "sad kimmeryan area covered eternally wet fog and mist clouds", which did not show the sun's rays. Find the entrance to Hades, he called them out of the pit of sacrificial blood, and talked with the Greek heroes, besieging Troy with him, and learned from the gods Tyrese about his future and his companions.

Undoubtedly, in many of the above facts mythical fiction, but the entrance to the underworld (Hades area), it is nothing like the Taman mud volcanoes with their bubbling craters, volcanic fire, smoke, and here, next to craters Escape of black, resinous and bright burning oil.

Some scientists believe that the Cimmerians in Homer are not relevant to the present Cimmerians that it is of the other world (shrouded mist and clouds). However, most have to agree with those who, based on reliable sources, historical and geographical information in the Homeric poems, and prone to these lines to see the real people of the Cimmerians.

Ancient Greek authors are very hostile to the Cimmerians, and no wonder — the latter repeatedly went to war against Greece, plundered the temple of Apollo at Delphi, invaded Asia to Eolidy and Ionia.

Eustace claimed that the Ionian Greeks, offended their religious feelings — the plundering of the sanctuary of the gods, had for Cimmerians strong hostility.

On the other hand, the same mythical indications suggest that the Cimmerians were cannibals.

Information about the Cimmerians in the cuneiform texts found since Darius Gistapa. According to them, the people Nimer consisted of two tribes — and Gomurha Tihrohuda. The prophet Ezekiel, 600 years before Christ, mentions Homer or dzhimer people living in the north.

Strabo mentions also the main city of the Cimmerians — Kimmerione built on the Taman peninsula.

Herodotus mentions in its literature that the Cimmerians were not always winners, so, at the beginning of VII century BC. e. Cimmerians were defeated by the Assyrian king Assagardonom, and a few years later, they subdued the king of the Medes — Giges.

The social system Cimmerians is little known. Sure, they were under a military democracy. It is known that they were the leaders, which Herodotus called kings. No one leader, but many. It is either a council of elders or council of tribal chiefs. It is known that they had a people's assembly. It is in the public meeting discussed the measures to be taken in connection with the invasion of the Scythians. Herodotus reports that at the meeting the people's opinion does not coincide with the proposal of the leaders. Interested in one piece, if entirely believe the story, it turns out that the opinion of the people, that is, the majority decision of National Assembly, it was not necessary for the leaders, but it can be seen as a rather far-gone isolation "kings" (tribal nobility) from operating of the population. Subsequent invasion of the Cimmerians in the Caucasus and causing adverse shocks armies of the Near East is indirect evidence of good military organization.

There is no doubt that such groups could create a separate tribe, and the union of the tribes.

All individual information known to us are already grocery Cimmerians. In the Bible there is a place called the "Table of Nations". Compiled this table in the VIII. BC. e. It tells the story of the descendants of Noah, escaped in the ark after the flood. Noah, the Bible teaches, had three sons — Shem, Kim, Japheth.

Last, Japheth, had quite many children — seven sons.

Their names Homer Maggog, Madai, Jovan, Tubal, Meshech, Tyre. Homer, in turn, had three sons: Ashkenaz, Rifat, Tagarma.

Why this list is called the "Table of Nations" and why there is shown a family tree of descendants of Noah? Upon recommendation of the creators of the Bible, all these many sons, grandsons and great-grandchildren were not ordinary people, and the ancestors of the peoples and their something of the people and were called. In fact, the "Table of Nations" — an attempt to systematize peoples known at the time the Bible. In the above names are hidden names of tribes. Thus, the name of Noah's "grandson" to the name of Ashkenaz ashkuza tribes, known by the Assyrian sources and Scythians — in Greek sources. And the name of the "father" of Ashkenaz — Homer meets cuneiform "Gimarai" Cimmerians and the classical authors. This mention of the Scythians and Cimmerians is considered one of the oldest.

To look out for — the Cimmerians were "fathers" of the Scythians.

Apparently, in this form was reflected earlier arrival Cimmerians in Asia Minor. This evidence is in common with Herodotus, the Scythians who invaded Asia in pursuit of the Cimmerians. That in the "Table of Nations" Cimmerians appear already in the Caucasus, confirmed by the analysis of geographical names Bible writers. It turns out that they did not know the Black Sea and the more nothing was known about the population of this sea. Cimmerians, therefore, could get into the "Table of Nations", but he found himself already in Asia.

"Table of Nations" dated VIII century. BC. e. So in the VIII. BC. e. Cimmerians were south of the Caucasus, but does this mean that they were there in the VIII. BC. e.?

Obviously, they could come back before. There are two documents dated: two letters, containing reports of the Assyrian agents and addressed to the Assyrian king Sargon II, who ruled in 722-725 years. BC. e. In one of them a Ashshurrisua said: "The country and the country Gurianiya Nagchu located between the country and the country of Urartu Gamirra, and when it was defeated by the people of Urartu …" followed by the text heavily damaged, but it is clear that the following description of the war Gamirry with Urartu. The second letter, drafted son of Sargon II Sinaheribom, reports the same events, and provides a summary of the reports of various agents, including, and already familiar Ashshurrisua. What is interesting about these letters? Obviously, Gamirra country — a country Cimmerians. It is difficult to say why Ashshurrisua begins his message, specifying the geographical location of the two countries. Probably, in Assyria there were any doubts about it. But the fact that as a guide Cimmerians are already curious. Perhaps the Assyrians this country was well known, and the location of her is not in doubt. To create such a situation, the Cimmerians had to live here for a while. In the future, the message text Cimmerians appear not as again reaching the people, and as a nation, are in a specific and, apparently, long-term relationship with its neighbors, in this case, with Urartu.

In science, there is a point of view, according to which the first appearance of the Cimmerians in the Near East is a rather early time. A case in point is not about the resettlement of all Cimmerians, and the campaigns of a group, settled in the Caucasus and Asia Minor.

These persons have not lost connection with compatriots who remained in the Northern Black Sea, and this has cultural links established with this time between the States and the Northern Black Sea coast of Asia Minor. Such connections can be traced to archaeological materials. The Ukraine has found a significant number of things "Mycenaean" type of the Aegean.

Since the end of the II millennium BC. e. preserved dagger "Near Eastern" type. To the same group of things are bronze statues, swords, printing of semi-precious stones banded origin.

Based on the study of these things and determined the first resettlement Cimmerians — the end of the II millennium BC. e.

It is also assumed that this group did not have enough Cimmerians larger military capabilities in order to come to grips with the powerful nations of Asia Minor.

The second stage — most of the Cimmerians relocation begins with an event has been repeatedly mentioned, the invasion of the Scythians in the northern Black Sea. Scythians pushed the Cimmerians, and they have collected a national assembly, which was already mentioned. You can lead a fully Herodotus (description enters the third legend): "When the Scythians, Cimmerians, referring to the large number of the approaching troops, took counsel among themselves, and their opinions expressed at the same insistence, divided, but the offer was noble kings; exactly according to the people, ought to retire and not to expose themselves to danger in combat with a great army, and the kings are asked to fight for their country and Happy. However, neither the people did not want to obey the kings, nor the kings of the people, the first planned to leave without a fight, leaving their homeland's enemies and the kings preferred to lie dead in his native land, and do not run with the people at the thought of the benefits which they enjoyed, and those Management, to be expected when running away from the homeland. Thinking in this way, the kings were divided into two parts of equal size, and began to fight among themselves. All kings, killed each other, Cimmerian people buried by the river Tiras (Dniester) — the grave they are still more visible — and retired after the burial of the country, so that the invading Scythians occupied the country, already devoid of people. "

Undoubtedly, the description of the events in this passage is somewhat legendary character. After Herodotus wrote this story is no less than 200 years after the events.

Herodotus attempts to try one of the contradictions of three legends, and found the need to explain why the Scythians believed that to them in this land uninhabited. After the third legend clearly contradict this. Hence the somewhat artificial explanation Cimmerians went away, and the Scythians could not have known that they lived there.

No message source is not without controversy among scientists. There are, of course, differences in this case. Consider a solution that offers a "people", not wanting to join the fight with the Scythians, the Cimmerians go. It would be understandable if they went to the deserted areas or try to take territory from weaker nations — neighbors. They are sent to the Near East and come to grips with the most advanced and powerful while the states. A bit strange. Therefore correct to think that the main reason for the "escape" Cimmerians was not an invasion of the Scythians, and the internal processes of social development, the structure of military democracy that before pushing them to march to the south. On the other hand, and the Scythians can not be withdrawn. Assuming that the Cimmerians were defeated, it is easy to understand their "flight" is to the south, because there they could reunite with their relatives, settled in the Caucasus. All this explains the contradictions that exist in science.

Some scientists paid attention to the last sentence contained the text of Herodotus. Because it implies that the Cimmerians and Scythians did not enter into contact, although the arrival of the Scythians and Cimmerians care coincide in time. Question was subjected to the last point. Maybe the truth is simply that the Scythians did not come to the occupied territory; Cimmerians can just leave it long before the arrival of the Scythians, and not because of their arrival, and keen for the enrichment through military plunder the largest states of the East. Decide who is right, it is difficult, without going into further discussion, we can assume that the invasion of the Scythians — one possible reason for hiking "flight" Cimmerians south.

Controversy is the question of how the movement Cimmerians. Some researchers say the motion through the Caucasus, based on Herodotus' Cimmerians constantly running along the sea, and the Scythians pursued them, with the right hand of the Caucasus. " In other words, the Scythians were moving along the Caspian Sea, and the Cimmerians on the Black Sea coast. Others believe that the Cimmerians were moving through the Balkan peninsula, and then, after crossing the Bosphorus, fell into Asia Minor. It is possible to refer to the mention of trerah with Cimmerians in describing the capture of the last capture of Sardis — the capital of the Median state. Since trery — Thracian tribe and lived in the Balkans, and the way that, in this case, very likely. It can be assumed that the Cimmerians used and that and the other way. One can assume that after the collision with the Scythians (if any) they used both ways.

Cimmerians to stay in the Near East is not possible from the available sources in more detail. We have mentioned about the relationship with the Cimmerians Urartu, the interest of Assyria to this relationship.

Known and Cimmerians clash directly with Assyria at Asahaddone, who ruled Assyria in 681 to 688 years. BC. e. Some researchers believe that a people who came "from the ends of the earth", the biblical writers also imply Cimmerians, that is, that the past and to reach Palestine. Particularly active, they acted apparently in Asia Minor, now Turkey. Herodotus reports that after the "escape" from the northern Black Sea region, the Cimmerians settled on the peninsula, is now the city of Sinop. On the capture of Sardis mentioned. The ancient Greek writer, the geographer Strabo (I century. BC. E.) Reported that they were "in the Homeric times or earlier raids devastated the whole area of the Bosporus until Ionia." (Ionia — the western part of modern Turkey). In Strabo also find information about the campaigns Cimmerians in Paflogoniyu and Phrygia. These campaigns have begun in the late VIII — VII centuries. BC. e. or a little earlier, and the particular scope achieved in VII. BC. e. Later Cimmerians is not mentioned among the existing nations. During his time in Asia Minor Cimmerians encountered come there Scythians. In this case, it was confirmed by the Assyrian documents and no doubts. It is known that the Cimmerians sometimes were in alliance with the Scythians, and sometimes against them, but the details of the history of their relationship remains a mystery for us yet.

About the life of the Cimmerians almost unknown, with only Arian Nicomedia mentions that the Cimmerians were an ancient custom of eating grass. It was also mentioned that they had their own kings and leaders that in important cases, consulted with the people.

According to some written sources, these tribes lived in the steppes of the Kuban. They raised cattle, sheep, and has been tamed by a horse. Tools of the Cimmerians were made of bronze, although they continued to exist and even stone. Monuments of their time were mounds and are found all over the Kuban steppes.

From historical records we know that in the VII century BC. e. Cimmerians faced with the Scythians, such as nomads, as they are. At a meeting of the Cimmerians threatened danger opinion was divided. Most ordinary Cimmerians, Scythians multiplicity terrified, offered to leave the country without a fight: the kings have decided to defend themselves to the last. But later, as a result of quarrels and feuds, the kings kill each other; Cimmerian people, burying chiefs on the River Tyre (now Dniester), retired from their homes. Defeated went along the eastern shore of the Black Sea, the winners also followed along the Caspian Sea through the current Derbent. Soon Scythians penetrated into Asia Minor. In 617 BC. e. Cimmerians were defeated Aliatom, grandson of Ardis.

So far there is no scholarly consensus on the future of the Cimmerians. According to F. Shcherbina, Cimmerians away from their homeland is not the same way, mentioned by Herodotus, and not in one of Asia Minor. Some of them, probably settled in Western Europe as Cymru, mingling with other people, in particular, with the Celts, part of the same does not go anywhere from the Taman Peninsula. Thus, Dionysius says, "… Since the neighbors Sauromates Cindy, Cimmerians and living near Evksina kerketii, Toretam Achaeans and strong. " There is no doubt that the Cimmerians merged with those and other nations, especially since all three ethnic groups (Cimmerians, Scythians, tribes proadygov) were related.

Controversial Homer is not the only message that raspolagae science Cimmerians. But in general, the sources are not many. These are the messages of the Greek authors who wrote when the Cimmerians have disappeared from the pages of history. They saved us some names, place names data, ie, the place names associated with the Cimmerians.

Greek authors — Herodotus and Strabo, — describing the Black Sea, saved us many names: Cimmerian ferry, Cimmerian wall area Cimmeria, Cimmerian Bosporus, a city Kimmerik and Cimmeria.

Strabo expressly says that "Cimmerians once had great power in the Bosporus, so that the Cimmerian Bosporus was named." Probably somewhere pomeschplis Cimmerian ferry. Thus, the group is given the names associated with the area of the Kerch Strait. The second area to associate with the Cimmerians, — it is the river Dniester, bearing the ancient name Tiras. It was here, according to Herodotus, were buried Cimmerian kings, who did not want to leave the country under pressure from the Scythians, kill each other.

Dionysius (source I and the beginning of II century. BC. E.) Puts the Cimmerians in the West Caucasus. However, the territory Cimmerians are not limited areas. Herodotus says, "… country, now occupied by the Scythians, originally belonged to, say, the Cimmerians, "and we know that the Scythians are widely dispersed in the steppes of the Black Sea, in particular, their main area were the steppe between the Don and the Dnieper.

In science, an attempt was made to confirm the widespread dispersal Cimmerians data toponymy. It has been suggested that the names were the Cimmerian with suffixes "SOS", "mod" and "mustache", but could not prove it.

It should do a little reservation about staying Cimmerians in the Dniester. Perhaps the mention of Herodotus tragedy played out here — the internecine battle Cimmerians — concerns not mainland habitat Cimmerians, and places where they retreated under the onslaught of the Scythians. Finally, a lot of place names associated with the Cimmerians, has kept us and the Caucasus, but the data are likely to reflect more than a late stage of history — hiking Cimmerians to Urartu and Assyria.

Difficult to determine the chronological framework of habitat Cimmerians in the Black Sea. The date of their occurrence is not known. It is assumed that they lived here a long time. Regarding their care data are available in the written sources: the Scythians and Cimmerians driven therefore gone from the Black Sea about VIII. BC. e.

These are the details of the Cimmerians, which can be derived from written sources. Historians could be limited and that, but archaeologists certainly raise the question — what archaeological culture corresponded Cimmerians what monuments they left behind? This question is the most difficult. If you rely on written sources, the Cimmerians can not be called "shrouded in mist." There are images of warriors of this nation, and Cimmerians, certainly mysterious people. There have been attempts to attribute Cimmerians Koban culture of the North Caucasus, the Kizil-Koba Crimean Mountains, carcass, and, finally, the catacomb.

Outline the arguments of all hypotheses is not yet possible.

Let us dwell on the last, according to scientists, most likely.

The most recent known monuments of the Catacomb culture in the Lower Don, Taman Peninsula and in the floodplain of the Kuban. These areas, especially the latter, known as the area associated with the Cimmerians. Both facts are the same in both time — pozdnekatakombnye monuments here about the same time reportedly written records of their stay in these areas Cimmerians. This agreement is an important argument in favor of this point of view.

Very interesting data give Kimmerika ancient site on the Kerch Peninsula. This is a small Greek town, but the name itself indicates some connection with the Cimmerians.

Already in the 40's of last century in exploratory excavations in the lower layer of the settlement, which preceded the Greek colonization, found fragments of pottery of the Bronze Age II millennium BC. e.

The same type of things have been met, and later, when the 50 years of the twentieth century expedition Kerch Historical and Archeological Museum began systematic excavation of the settlement. Were found flint arrowheads, fragments of stone axes and fragments of pottery with a distinctive pattern. All this is related to the late stage of the Catacomb culture. There's also a lucky find Kimmerike archaeologists and other settlements of the same culture and the same time.

Kimmerik not only monument stay catacomb tribes in this part of the Crimea. Known settlements near Feodosia (at p. Shchebetovka), in an area. Gliding.

Thus, the archaeological remains of the Cimmerians can assume those settlements that archaeologists refer to the Catacomb culture.

Later stage of the culture, and, therefore, with the Cimmerians, binds the last flowering of the production of bronze prior to widespread iron.

Now science has a large collection of such things. Among them are socketed axes, sickles, daggers, spears. All items are found in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia, and they are widely distributed not only in the former Soviet Union but also in the West.

Apparently, the Cimmerian tribal union, emerged at the turn of the last millennium BC. e., tied a large population of cultural ties in Europe and Asia.

Many types of severe bit, mentioned in connection with the emergence of nomadic pastoralism, are known in the Caucasus, Asia Minor, in Western Europe. This community was due, in particular, and distant campaigns Cimmerians in Asia Minor. An interesting category of things are metal vases, well known in the Caucasus, the Volga, the Dnieper.

A wide range of materials, including weapons, tools and household items that spread over large areas of Europe, the best evidence of the activity of the Cimmerian world.

All this enhances understanding of the Cimmerians, little else known to science. If I had only written sources, Cimmerians would have known only as destroyers of the major centers of ancient culture and nothing can be said about their contribution to the civilization of mankind. Cimmerian tribal union united not only the Cimmerians, but partially related and neighboring tribes.

This primarily refers to the brands of the Crimean Mountains (Taurica), early culture was known in archeology called Kizil-Koba. This is not an option Catacomb culture, namely a separate, distinct culture.

Number of features rather sharply distinguishes it from the catacomb. But while there is some relationship, makes them related. It is a culture of community.

Currently, the Taurus tribes studied well. There are open and fortified settlements, burial grounds. All these monuments are located in the Crimean Mountains, they are known and on the Kerch Peninsula. The earliest of them belong to the line I and II millennium BC. e. Somewhat later, they were mentioned in written sources. Later tees coexist with the Scythians and are known in the Crimea until the first centuries. e.

In some cases, in the lower layers of the later Greek city of Kerch Peninsula detected material owned by the Taurus Mountains.

So it was a nymph, Kimmerike, on the Azov Sea coast of Crimea. Tauri graves found on the headlands Zyuk Kazantip and were surrounded with stone slabs, and this type of burial structure received in the name of science stone boxes.

It is believed that the Taurus Culture of Crimea has a lot to do with the culture of the North Caucasus abroad I and II millennium BC. e. This similarity can also be seen in the type of funeral facilities and funeral rites. Thus, part of the Tauri coincides with the region of Cimmerian toponymy, which allows one group is identified with the Cimmerians brands. Opinion about the identity of brands and Cimmerians were made long ago on the basis of linguistic analysis and historical comparisons. But it is generally believed that the containers are not Cimmerians.

Another group of scientists believe that they were only part of the Cimmerians, a part of, the longest presence in the northern Black Sea coast.

It remains to add that the problem Cimmerians least complicated and confusing than, say, the problem of the origin of the Slavs.

The main dispute concerns a matter of culture and life of these tribes.

Solid A. Essays on the history of the North-West Caucasus

Category: Mystery stories

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