"Red Star" have told on the pages of the history of ancient Russia, which in many textbooks adopted shortened, wittingly or unwittingly promoting the formation of the Russian population of the complex historical inferiority. So this topic is not purely informative and philosophical significance. Present today view on the issue of our two compatriots — Alexander Samsonov ("Black myth of the" wildness "pre-Christian Russia") and Yuri Ulyanov ("Artania — Rus Aryan").
Pre-Christian history of Russia is often shown in a dark color, our ancestors in it — "wild" barbarians in animal skins, live by hunting and fishing in the woods and swamps, writes Alexander Samsonov. The only bright spot look Vikings-Normans, "brought" the light of the foundations of civilization to Russia (according to the Norman theory), and Princess Olga, trying to instill the principles of Christianity savages. As a result, the majority of Russian citizens pre-Christian history of Russia — a real terra incognita ("unknown land" in Latin).
Tribes or the state
When people talk about the Old State ("protogosudarstve"), you can often hear about tribes — clearing, Slovenia, Drevlyane, Krivichi, radzimichy and many others. At the word "tribe" there is an image of the North American Iroquois kakih-nibud or Papuans, but never developed community.
Although in reality any Slavic-Russian alliance or tribe was supersoyuzom tribes that controlled a vast area (equal to European kingdoms and many more). The union has been developed control system: an elected prince, the magistrates, the army (the squad), the council of the nobility — boyars, National Assembly (Chamber).
Tribal union was not a generic phenomenon, but a political and territorial. Each "reign" or "earth", was not only "his reign," but also "the laws of their fathers," ie, the legal system.
In Western Europe, while very serious about the titles. Thus, the report Bertinskie annals of the embassy of the "people Ros" the Emperor Louis the Pious francs (in 839), ruler of the Rus called the "king." After more than a century Princess Olga (her Christian name — Elena) called "Queen Helen" ("Chronicle Reginona successor").
Oriental sources called Rus rulers "kings" and "lords" (imperial title). Russian land is considered by the state. Thus, the Arab Ibn Haukal said: "Ar-Rus — as well as al-Khazar and al-Serir — is the name of the state, not the people and not the city."
And the fact that in the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) did not recognize the dignity of "kings" of neighboring lands, calling them "archons" (elders), said only about politics Constantinople. Romans considered themselves the heirs of the Roman Empire, and all the surrounding nations were to them "barbarians." In Constantinople, did not recognize the royal title, and for the Bulgarian king (although Bulgaria several times threatened the empire's capital), and the emir of Egypt, and the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
But for most contemporary Russia was a powerful nation — no worse than the kingdoms of Europe or the powerful and rich Khazar Khaganate.
Norsemen called the Old Russian state "Gardarika" (Gardariki), that is a "state of cities." No need to wonder what the term means "fence, fence, strengthening" or "yard, enclosed space." While the principal value of the city — is to strengthen the fortress.
For example, the largest city in the Mediterranean was called Constantinople Scandinavians Miklgard. And according to the German chronicler Titmara Merzeburgskogo Kiev was the capital of a rival of Byzantium — Constantinople. Noted a large number of cities in Russia and Eastern sources, Arabic Ibn Ruste wrote that Russ "many cities."
Orientals are familiar with Baghdad and Cairo, and Scandinavians, who saw the city of England, France, Spain and Italy, are unanimous in asserting that the pre-Christian era were Russes city. And in such numbers that it caused surprise experienced travelers.
Such a source, as "Bavarian geographer" (a list of people and tribal alliances, mostly Slavic origin, who inhabited the area in the east of the IX century Frankish state), reports of dozens and hundreds of cities in the East Slavic principalities. So, the bougie passed was 231 degrees (city), in Ulichi — 418.
And time was the city, so there were craft "ends" (quarters). Russia was famous for its craftsmen. Russian weapons had already been selling very good; Russian swords, according to contemporaries, did not yield to the Frankish or Arab blades. Ibn Rust mentions the beautiful armor of the Slavs, and the French poem "Renaud de Montauban" refers to "the magnificent armor of Russia", which became the main character.
Many believe our ancestors primeval pagan, though, if you try to understand the faith of their ancestors, it is clear that it was a sunny, bright belief, full of universal harmony, goodness and justice. The concepts of our ancestors that we absorb from childhood through fairy tales, old Russian epics, still do not give us completely degrade, become a "two-legged vegetables."
It is foolish to think that "paganism Russes" — a wild, backward beliefs. Modern Japan, India, but in many ways, and China retain their ancient beliefs and do not suffer from this. They make the lives of their peoples intelligent, can hold back the onslaught of "universal" (Western) values.
It is interesting that much faith Russes alive today. It has survived not only in fairy tales and epics, but absorbed into Christianity by making it Orthodoxy ("Glory of the Government"). Key mifoobrazy saved. Christian Trinity, the image of the Virgin and George defeating the dragon — Slavic Triglav, Mother Lada (rozhanits) and Perun, defeating the dragon (Vélez-hair).
Significant amount of work to restore the image of our ancestors, their history, religion, spiritual, and material culture. It may be recommended due to this wonderful encyclopedia M. Semenova, "We — the Slavs" (the author of the famous novel "Wolfhound"), research Prozorova Leo ("The Four Russian heroes", "Varangian Rus").
It all started in the basin of the Oka
Artania — State the territory of which was a large area of the North Sea to Tmutarakanskoy land (north to south) and from the Volga to the Bryansk forests (west to east), states, in turn, Yuri Ulyanov. Confirmation of such boundaries is very light brown-Aryan culture, expressed in the form of a special pattern — Yargi.
This "bow-legged" yargo-svasticheskaya ligature had its own characteristics, reflected in the plex chetyrehrozhkovyh Yarg in diamond. A similar pattern is found on the towels, skirts, bibs, tablecloths, towels, shirts and Kichko only in the following areas: Ryazan, Tambov, Penza, Voronezh, Bryansk, Smolensk, Vladimir, Vologda, Arkhangelsk, Tobolsk, and partly in the northeast of Novgorod.
However, some researchers believe that "Artania" located exclusively on the peninsula of Taman. The other version was the region Artania from Taman to Oka.
Right and those and others. All these lands were part of the "Arzanov" (Arsan, Artania) — one of the three Russian States mentioned since IX century earlier Persian and Arabic geographers (along with two other Russian states — Kuyavia and fame).
The first person to mention the country Artania as' Rusov Island ", was an Arab historian — Ibn-Rust. It is derived from one of the largest craft city Artania — Arty (according to some researchers, Art located at the junction of the rivers Oka and Pra).
Arab merchants who bought the goods from a rusichej T'mutarakan and Kujawy, wondered where such a good product (especially swords), to which he answered — "Out of Arta." And swords Artania really were one of the best on the continent (even better Damascus blades). The whole secret is in the special forging and Meshchersky bog ore, which added rusichi sacred manner charmed additives.
Sam smelted metal sheets forged in several layers, which gave him strength and elasticity. These forged plates called "posters". Sword forged from a steel can be easily bent into an arc, after which he took the starting position. Plate "posters" were kept in secret arts and basements were "strategic metal" for the whole Artania.
Besides good swords in Artania done and a good brew from a special yeast. This starter was made of leavened bread, called "Artus". When this gorgeous drink found its fans and admirers in the Balkans, the ancient Greeks would ask, "Where did this ferment is called?" To which he replied, "Artus of Artania." Thus, in the ancient Greek language, this starter and came as "Artos". Later, in the Christian religion, leavened bread, lit at Easter and named — Atra. For it is this bread, according to legend, was on the table at the Last Supper …
The capital was Artania beautiful city that time "RSHAN" (Rashan, Räsänen, cutting, Ryazan), standing on the bank of the deep river Oka near the place where it flows into the river Prony.
Do foreign authors of this town have not seen since the Rus-rshane to their country of foreign merchants were not allowed, but only traded with neighbors of Kujawy. In addition, they are in communication with aliens through its most southern port — Tmutarakan. Shortest way of Arta in Tmutarakan waterway was the Oka, then across the river to a couple of red tape, and from there through the river and Pozhva Voronzhets (Voronezh), the Don.
This path is carefully guarded by Cossacks from regimental belopomestnymi settlements (usually called Shilovo such settlement, and later simply — Cossack), and no foreigner could not pass them by unnoticed. Subsequently, the "Cossack settlement" became "Zasechnaya line" between the "Wild Field" and Russia.
Unfortunately, the descriptions that relate to the country Artania made with other people's words. Hence the distortion and the pronunciation of the name, and in determining the location of this ancient country.
Were mentioned capital Artania: Rshan, Rashan, Razhan, Räsänen, Razanov, cutting, Ryazan. And the natives of this land carried the reflection in her name — raseny. They, according to ancient historians of the Italian, came to Northern Italy from the East, led by Prince Rasen. There, they were subsequently addressed the Etruscans. In Italy, by the way, is still common surname Razin.
Great Ryazan principality can be considered the successor of the ancient tradition, when a center in the city was cutting. Now mound Old Ryazan rests on the bank of the Oka River. In ancient literature, in the annals from XI century, the Ryazan principality is referred to as the Great. In Ryazan Meshchora even have the name of the lake — the Great.
In oral mythology, ancient legends, and in the research center of Russian folk traditions yargo-svasticheskogo pattern is exactly Meschera. Ryazan Region is regarded as the spiritual center of ancient Vedic tradition. And not without reason there is a perception that it is the land of the legendary and mysterious Artania.
On campus there is Ryazanschine Skopin which anciently famous for its pottery, especially jellied dishes greenish color, painted white circular patterns svasticheskimi with points on the edges. These signs yargicheskie make a lasting impression by its special shape and hidden meanings. Yargichesky ornament Ryazanschiny presented in the Volga-Oka-Don region, and among the many samples of weaving and embroidery, where there is a wide range of intricate svasticheskih patterns.
In many cities of the Ryazan principality flourished all kinds of crafts. In ancient chronicles describing "Gardar Rousskie", there is mention of the Old City and Lvove-Ryazan, and later — Lvove-Volyn (now Lviv was founded as a fortress Ryazan warriors on their path to the west).
On ancient maps of the eastern territory of the Volga-Oka-Don region called "Earth Ripskih tribes." This Kostenki-Musketeers archaeological culture (30,000 years BC).
Russ came to this land from the Urals (Ripskih Repeyskih or mountains) during the last glaciation, and not by chance bur was another sign of the ancient traditions of our ancestors. It fits well into an intricate pattern, called "Repeyki." These patterns — "Repeyki" — a special way of old embroidered on the prince and the royal robes (carrying special sacred meaning.) Fabrics with a symbolic ornament called repeychatymi …
Mentions of Artania as an ancient country is not only in Arabic, but also in the Byzantine sources. Thus, the patriarch Nicephorus in his short stories for the year 764 mentions of the bloody strife in the Danube in Bulgaria, so that these lands have left 208,000 Slavs, Alans, Huns and Bulgarians. They are, according to Nicephorus, moved to mate Artania whose southern lands were devastated by the invasion of the Arab commander Marwan in 737 year. These many immigrants from the Balkans have settled between the Don and the Seversky Donets, occupying vacant land and join the ranks of the Cossacks belopomestnyh to "Zasechnaya line."
It is noteworthy that in contemporary Spain (in the province of Castellón) is an autonomous community — art. With the same name exists and commune in France. Natives of Slavic Artania preserved the memory of the ancient homeland?