Ferdinand Magellan: hapless hero

It so happened that most of Discovery, for that matter, or any other, make lucky — people everywhere that promotes success and are able to easily go where any other certainly cannibals eat or be shot by bandits. Fernand Magalyaynsh, better known to all as the Magellan — the first person to organize a successful circumnavigation — never to breed Winnings not belong. His success, he was only obliged ability to achieve the goal in spite of all the problems, difficulties and troubles.

Wounds to the award

Fernand Magalyaynsh, better known to all as the Magellan
Fernand Magalyaynsh, better known to all as the Magellan

Birthplace of the great explorer in 1480. With regard to place of birth, it is not reliably known. Some authors indicate as such Sabroza Portuguese town, others — Porto. On the Family, in which he grew up, we know that it belonged to the nobility, and that, in addition to Ferdinand, it had four children. It is also known that a child served as a page at the Fernand Portuguese queen, received a good education, he studied cosmography, navigation and astronomy, as well as that from an early age, he was in love with the sea.

At that time, Portugal — a small country in the south-western edge of Europe — came out on top in the world in the number of open and occupied lands and wealth. It controlled the main trade route from Europe to Africa and Asia. In 1505, the conquest of the eastern lands dispatched another army, this time led by Admiral de Almeida. Among a thousand Portuguese and was Ferdinand Magellan.

European competitors have organized an attack on the Portuguese squadron, when she was in India, the Muslim army of Calicut. Two dozen ships with troops on board attacked the Portuguese, but they have been warned
sympathize with them Italian traveler Ludovico Wartema. Therefore, Muslims met organized volleys naval guns and muskets. Muslims defeat was complete, and Portugal established itself as ruler of "gold" trade routes of the East.

However, for Magellan and other rank and file of the next battle only "reward" for winning were received in it wounded. Recovered Magellan was sent to North Africa, then reconnaissance expedition he reached the harbor of Malacca — modern Singapore. In this dangerous enterprise Magellan showed courage at a crucial moment, when the ship was attacked by hundreds of Malays and half Portuguese, was killed. Ferdinand Magellan led the left, and the Malays fled. Friends urged him to stay on the tropical islands of grace, but he chose to return home without honors and capital.

During the seven years of his absence coastal town of Portugal fantastically transformed: get rich trading institutions, rose as if by magic, new houses, forts and temples. But there are still some enriched, while others could only rely on the courage and ability to own weapons. At the siege of the fortress Azamor Magellan lost his horse, the next fight he was wounded in the leg, after which he was lame.

New homeland

The route, which passed expedition
Fernand Magalyaynsh, better known to all as the Magellan

Birthplace of the great explorer in 1480. With regard to place of birth, it is not reliably known. Some authors indicate as such Sabroza Portuguese town, others — Porto. On the Family, in which he grew up, we know that it belonged to the nobility, and that, in addition to Ferdinand, it had four children. It is also known that a child served as a page at the Fernand Portuguese queen, received a good education, he studied cosmography, navigation and astronomy, as well as that from an early age, he was in love with the sea.

At that time, Portugal — a small country in the south-western edge of Europe — came out on top in the world in the number of open and occupied lands and wealth. It controlled the main trade route from Europe to Africa and Asia. In 1505, the conquest of the eastern lands dispatched another army, this time led by Admiral de Almeida. Among a thousand Portuguese and was Ferdinand Magellan.

European competitors have organized an attack on the Portuguese squadron, when she was in India, the Muslim army of Calicut. Two dozen ships with troops on board attacked the Portuguese, but they have been warned
sympathize with them Italian traveler Ludovico Wartema. Therefore, Muslims met organized volleys naval guns and muskets. Muslims defeat was complete, and Portugal established itself as ruler of "gold" trade routes of the East.

However, for Magellan and other rank and file of the next battle only "reward" for winning were received in it wounded. Recovered Magellan was sent to North Africa, then reconnaissance expedition he reached the harbor of Malacca — modern Singapore. In this dangerous enterprise Magellan showed courage at a crucial moment, when the ship was attacked by hundreds of Malays and half Portuguese, was killed. Ferdinand Magellan led the left, and the Malays fled. Friends urged him to stay on the tropical islands of grace, but he chose to return home without honors and capital.

During the seven years of his absence coastal town of Portugal fantastically transformed: get rich trading institutions, rose as if by magic, new houses, forts and temples. But there are still some enriched, while others could only rely on the courage and ability to own weapons. At the siege of the fortress Azamor Magellan lost his horse, the next fight he was wounded in the leg, after which he was lame.

New homeland

The route, which passed expedition
The route, which passed expedition

Among the endless trials and tribulations Ferdinand Magellan had time to think about the future of their country. With great difficulty he obtained an audience with the king and asked him to draft morskoyekspeditsii the "Spice Islands" by the west, skirting South America. The monarch listened to the report, looked at the card and, without thinking twice, refused. Portugal already flourished in her power was the only water route from Europe to India.

Then Magellan took a difficult decision: he settled in the Spanish Seville, where she was a colony of Portuguese emigrants and took Castilian subjects. Here he found supporters and patrons, who managed to interest the project Magellan young King Carlos I.

Portuguese agents in Spain did everything to frustrate the expedition, but in spite of all the intrigues of September 20
1519 fleet of five caravels left the port of Sanlucar de Barrameda at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. The expedition consisted of a staff of 230, another 26 taken on board beyond that. Among these was a young supernumerary seamen educated Italian Antonio Pigafetta, who had a habit of keeping a diary, so that was the most valuable chronicler of the expedition.

Already at the beginning of the biggest sailing captain caravel — "San Antonio" — Juan Cartagena demanded that Admiral Magellan accepted by the route. As undivided in such responsible expeditions — one of the main keys to success, Magellan arrested troublemaker. In the north-eastern coast of South America is a group of Spanish officers mutinied. In their hands were three ships.
However, Magellan did not give up at this time. The rebellious ship "Victoria" for negotiations, he sent a true police officer and several sailors. When the captain refused to submit to the caravel admirals, officers drove the dagger into his throat, and brother-in-law Duarte Barbosa, Magellan took over command of "Victoria." The two remaining rebel ship soon surrendered. One of the Captains rebels Magellan ordered to cut off his head, and Cartagena-conspirator with the priest landed on a deserted beach.

Irony of Fate, or the first circumnavigation of traveler

In June 1520, when the southern hemisphere winter raged, one of the caravels, making exploration, smashed on the reefs. After that, on the shores of the earth, called navigators Patagonia expedition wintered. In October, the flotilla moved on. After a tortuous and narrow strait between the mainland of South America, and the archipelago of Tierra del Fuego Magellan conducted an expedition to the Pacific Ocean. At the same time on one of the caravels officers rebelled again, and she took the opposite course. After returning to Spain, the rebels began to pour Magellan mud.

The path through the other caravels Pacific Ocean was full of difficulties. Four months, people have not seen the land. Records kept by Antonio Pigafetta, "We eat biscuits, but they were not crackers, rusks and dust mixed with worms … It is very stank of rat urine. We drank the yellow water that was rotting for days. We also ate ox-skin cap on the mainmast. We soaked it in salt water for four or five days, and then put a few minutes on the hot coals and eaten. Rats were sold at poldukata apiece, but for the price they can not be got. "

In March 1521 the Spanish first among Europeans reached the Philippine Islands, which Magellan named the archipelago of St. Lazarus. Finding a desert island, sailors staged it infirmary, where all patients were transferred. Fresh food fast cure sailors and fleet went on a long journey, weaving among the countless islands.
On one of them a slave Magellan Enrique, born in Sumatra, found people who spoke his language. Circle, and Henry was the first person that went round the Earth.

The last battle of Admiral

Caravel "Victoria" - the only ship fully complete circumnavigation
Caravel "Victoria" — the only ship fully complete circumnavigation

April 7th flotilla entered the port of Cebu on the same island. Places were civilized, and a lively trade. For articles of iron islanders willingly gave gold and food. Impressed by the Spanish military force, the ruler of the island of Raja Humabon agreed to surrender under the protection of the King of Spain and soon baptized by the name of Carlos. Following Raja baptized his family, many members of the nobility and ordinary islanders.
Favoring Carlos Humabonu, Magellan sought to bring under his power as much as possible of the local rulers. However, one of the leaders of the island of Mactan named Lapu-Lapu opposed to the new order, and there was fighting. Shore of the island was very gentle, so the Spanish caravels could not get close to him and fire support to land troops, headed personally by Magellan. In the melee more numerous maktantsy forced the Spaniards to retreat.

Antonio Pigafetta wrote, "on the heels of the islanders pursued us, fishing out of the water had once used a spear, and thus threw the same spear five or six times. Having learned from our admiral, they took aim mainly at him, twice they managed to knock the helmet off his head, and he remained with a handful of people in his post, as befits a brave knight, and so we fought for over an hour, until one of the natives could not cane spear wound Admiral's face.
Furious, he immediately spear pierced his chest assailant, but it got stuck in the body of the murdered, then tried to take the sword, Admiral, but could not do so much as enemies dart wounded him in the right arm, and it ceased to operate. Noticing this, the natives of the crowd rushed at him, and one of them wounded him a sword in his left leg, so that he fell on his back.

At that moment, all the islanders jumped on him and began stabbing spears and other weapons, they who had. So they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true leader. "
Eighteen months later, a fully completed circumnavigation, he returned to Spain, only one ship — "Victoria" on board which had 18 sailors. Injustice continued to pursue Magellan and after death. Lost all his records, the original diaries Pigafetta remained in Spain, were kept secret, and their fate is unknown.

Over the years, justice still prevailed. In the name of Ferdinand Magellan was named the strait between South America and Tierra del Fuego, sill near the Marshall Islands in the Pacific, who lives on the banks of a small South American penguin, two galaxies — satellites of our Milky Way — and a crater on the Moon. His name also wore interplanetary station NASA has carried out a full and detailed radar mapping of Venus in 1990.

Category: Mystery stories

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