Fighter EDO HAZ — Grushin Gr-1 (IDS). USSR. 1940

One of the less recognizable languid fighters made the other day in our country the war was the so called distant fighter escort IDS made running P.D.Grushina.
Peter D. Grusin began working in the field of aircraft while still a student at the Capital Aviation Institute with the construction of the aircraft "Steel" MAI. After receiving a diploma in mechanical engineering in aircraft, Grushin was left at the Institute and has worked at the department of 101 (Aircraft), and later became the principal designer KB MAI. Working in this capacity from 1934 to 1940, he built a number of aircraft, among which the most famous was the light bomber BB-MAI.

In 1940, Grusin was able to prove themselves on the true basis of the serial production aircraft factory number 135 in Kharkov, where he was transferred to the position of head designer of OKB HAZ.
The main task set before the designer was to create a languid fighter escorts in the distant part of the overall aircraft development programs from such type.

Work on the project went fairly quickly. In December 1940, still unbuilt aircraft was given the name of Gr-1, in other words, the first Grushin.
Unlike the built immediately languid twin-engine fighter OKO-6, IDS Grushin was designed under the two liquid-cooled engine AM-37 AA Mikulin design capacity of 1200 hp At his own airplane aerodynamic configuration is quite very much like a perfectly recognizable at the time of the German multi-role fighter Messersshmitt Bf .110 and had similar dimensions to it.

However, in contrast to the Messersshmitta, Gr-1 was a single, and radiator cooling system motor located under the center of the wing and were made retractable. Manifolds engines were put on the top surface of the wing, as it was made on the Dis Mikoyan-Gurevich and Tisza Polikarpov. Cockpit was armored. It is interesting to note that this factor was used as a base of determining the number of crew — one pilot or two. At a weight ratio of double cab version with equipment for gunner-radio operator was not bronekorobki heavier, welded from iron sheets and completely protected the pilot. Yet Grushin vesovekam gave his job to analyze and he and the other option, so they came out, which is single-booked cab version will be 18 pounds lighter. And so there was this plane Single. Maybe this decision was somewhat hasty, since the need for a second crew member on the machines of this class was later proved by the war.

Armament IDS was pretty massive and not inferior to his main opponent — Bf.110. In the forward part of the fuselage were placed ShKAS two machine guns, and above them two 20-mm cannon ShVAK. Two ShKAS Fairings were installed in the wing. All guns have ammo for 1250 rounds per gun. In ammunition guns consisted of 300 shells. Provided for another lower ventral installation with 2 37-mm guns with ammunition, 200 rounds per gun.
Under the wing of the aircraft can be installed four beam holder for the suspension of eight 100-pound bombs or rocket projectiles 4 RS-82 or PC-132. In addition, instead of the ventral gun container on the inside of the suspension can be positioned up to 500 kg of bombs.

Despite the apparent similarities with the German Messersshmittom Bf.110, Grushinskiy IDS was at the root of the design of it better. Wing spars were box-shaped cross section. Their walls and shelves are made of tapered iron strips, cooked in a closed loop. Nodes connector spars had an unusual design with cross-chasers.
The construction of the fighter, who previously received the designation Gr-1, was completed in just nine months. Static tests on the strength of the construction took only a few days and, after removal of small defects, early spring 1941 model airplane was sent to undergo full-scale purges in TsAGI. To do this, Gr-1 in June 1941, had to make out and send to Moscow. The assembly of the fighter had to spend at the factory number 185, but on the way from Kharkov train came under bombardment. The layout was very damaged and burned all project documentation. In these criteria, subsequent work by Gr-1 decided not to continue. In addition, by September 1941 has built serially Pe-3, and the fighter Tairova Ta-3 was at the stage of testing and graduating, too, was ready for series production. But in the Gr-1 laid the impressive flight characteristics.
According to calculations by Grushin good at 7200 meters it fighter maksimalnuyuskorost could develop up to 650 km h and at an altitude of 5000 meters — 645 km h Service ceiling Gr-1 was 11,700 meters, the highest range (with full tanks of fuel in 2550 l.) — 1890 km. For all this, the plane had the run of only 400 meters and run 450 meters.

Even in comparison with the Ta-3 fighter Grushin looked very promising, but actually confirm the highest fighting properties Gr-1 and failed. As was done with warped plane and remains unknown. Perhaps, in order to avoid capture by the enemy layout remains absolutely killed.
Sam PD Grusin has been designed to work at the plant number 21, where he served as head engineer and then deputy head designer SA Lavochkin. After the war, he worked on the creation of anti-aircraft missiles, and then was awarded twice Hero of Socialist Labor.


Modification of Gr-1
Wingspan, m 16.80
Length, m 11.60
Height 3.88 m
Wing area, m2 42.00

Mass, kg
Empty 5420
normal takeoff 7650
Fuel 1860/2550

Motor Type 2 PD-37 AM
Horsepower 2 x 1250

The highest speed, km / h
at the ground 448
at 650

Ferry range, km 1890
Range, km 1380
Service ceiling 11,700 m

Crew 1

four 7.62-mm machine gun ShKAS (till 1250 rounds)
two 20-mm cannon ShVAK (by 300patronov)

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