During the second world war aircraft was one of the main types of troops and played a very important role in the process of fighting. Not the case any of the warring parties sought to ensure the continued increase combat effectiveness by building its own aviation aircraft production and their continuous improvement and renewal. More than ever extensively in the military sphere was involved scientific and engineering potential, employed a huge number of research institutes and laboratories, design centers and test centers, whose efforts created a new military equipment. It was a time of unusually rapid progress aircraft. Immediately seemingly ended with the era of the evolution of aircraft with piston engines, sole control of the aircraft from its beginnings. Warplanes end of the second world war were a better standards of aircraft made based on reciprocating engines.
The big difference of peace and war periods in the development of military aviation was the fact that during the war effectiveness of the technique was determined specifically by an experienced. If the peacetime military aircraft makers and experts at booking and creating new standards in aircraft were based only on speculative ideas about the future disposition of the war or as guided by the limited experience of local conflicts, the large-scale military actions have dramatically changed the situation. The practice of dogfighting has become not only a massive catalyst in accelerating the progress of aviation, and the only aspect when comparing the properties of the selected aircraft and the main directions of future development. Either party has improved its aircraft, from my own experience of combat operations, the availability of resources, capabilities and technology of aviation industry as a whole.
During the war years in the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the U.S., Germany and the Land of the Rising Sun had created a huge number of aircraft that played a perceptible role in the armed struggle. Among them are many outstanding examples. Enthusiasm is a comparison of these machines, as well as comparisons of the engineering and scientific thought, which were used in their design. Of course, in the midst of numerous types of airplanes taking part in the war, and represents a different school of aircraft, it is hard to highlight the best by far. Because the range of machines in some measure is provisional character.
Fighters are the primary means of gaining dominance in air combat with the enemy. On the effectiveness of their actions in almost all depended success of military operations of ground forces and other types of aircraft, safety rear objects. It is no accident that the specific class of fighter aircraft developed more actively. The best of them is usually referred to as the Yak-3 and La-7 (USSR), the North-American P-51 "Mustang» («Mustang», USA), Supermarine "Spitfire» («Spitfire», UK) and the Messerschmitt Bf 109 ( Germany). In the middle of many modifications Western fighters to compare selected P-51D, «Spitfire» XIV and Bf 109G-10 and K-4, in other words, those planes that were mass manufactured and supplied to arm the Air Force to step ends with the war. They are all created in 1943 — early 1944 in these machines found reflection rich combat experience already skoplenny by the time the warring nations. They have become like characters combat aircraft of its own time.
Prior to compare different types of fighters, costs little to say about the main principles of comparison. Importantly, there must be understood the conditions of combat deployment, for which they were created. War the East has shown that the presence of the band edge, where the main force of the armed struggle are the troops on the ground, from the air required is comparable small altitude. Experience aerial combat on the Soviet-German front, indicating that the vast majority of them was carried out at an altitude of 4.5 km, regardless of altitude aircraft. Russian designers, improving fighter jets and engines for them, could not take into account of the incident. At the same time, the British "Spitfire" and South American "Mustangs" were more high-rise, as the nature of actions for which they were calculated, was completely different. In addition, the P-51D had a much greater range, desired to accompany bombers languid, and was therefore considerably heavier than the "Spitfire", the German Bf 109 fighters and Russian. So Makarov, as British, South American and Russian fighters were created under different field conditions, it is meaningless question, which of the machines are generally more effective. Associate advisable only the main technical solutions and features of cars.
However the situation with the German fighters. They were intended to fight in the air as on the East and on the Western Front. Because of their completely reasonable to compare with all the Allied fighters.
So what did the best fighters stood second world war? What was their fundamentally opposed to each other? Let's start with the brain — a technical ideology lays the designers of these projects in the aircraft.
The most unusual in terms of the concept of creation were, perhaps, "Spitfire" and "Mustang".
"This is not just a good aircraft, it is" Spitfire "- the assessment of British test pilot G. Powell, of course, applies to one of the latest version of the fighter who fought this family -" Spitfire »XIV, the best fighter of British air forces of the war. Specifically on the "Spitfire» XIV in a dogfight was shot down a German Me 262 jet fighter.
Creating a "Spitfire" in the middle of the 30s, the designers have tried to cooperate seemingly disparate things: the higher the speed, the characteristic time in the life of the incoming high-speed fighter monoplane, with beautiful agile, and high-altitude takeoff and landing characteristics, a biplanes. The goal in the main, been achieved. Like many other high-speed fighters, "Spitfire" had a scheme of a cantilever monoplane perfectly streamlined forms. But it was only the external similarity. For its own weight "Spitfire" wing had comparable large that gave a small load on the bearing unit surface much lowest than other monoplane fighters. Hence, good maneuverability in the horizontal plane, the highest ceiling and excellent takeoff and landing characteristics. This approach was not something exceptional: in a similar way there were, for example, Japanese designers. But the creators of "Spitfire" went on. Because of the huge drag of the wing is so important dimensions could not be relied on to achieve the highest top speed of flight — 1st of the important characteristics of the properties of fighters at the time. To reduce the resistance applied is much lower profiles relative thickness than the other fighter and gave elliptical wing shape in plan view. This further reduced the aerodynamic drag in flight at high altitude and maneuvering modes.
Company has managed to make an exceptional combat aircraft. This does not mean that the "Spitfire" was deprived of any shortcomings. They were. For example, because of the low wing loading, he conceded many fighters on the upper stage properties in a dive, slower than the German, South American and Russian fighters even more s
o, the slope react to the actions of the pilot. But these shortcomings were not fundamentally character, and in general, "Spitfire" was certainly one of strongest fighters of the air battle, which in fact showed good properties.
In the middle of the many options fighter "Mustang" greater success fell to the lot of aircraft, engines are equipped with a British "Merlin." It was R — 51B, C, and, of course, P-51D — the best and most recognizable South American fighter second world war. It is these aircraft in 1944 to provide security languid American bomber B-17 and B-24 attacks on the German fighters in the battle showed their an advantage.
The main distinguishing feature of the "Mustang" in terms of aerodynamics was laminar wing for the first time in the world aviation industry installed on combat aircraft. About this "flavor" of the aircraft, born in the laboratory of the South American research center NACA other day of the war, deserves mention. The fact is that the world of professionals about the need for the introduction of a laminar wing fighters of the period versatile. If before the war laminar wings lozhili great hope, as under certain conditions they have the least aerodynamic compared with the ordinary, the experience of working with "Mustang" diminished initial optimism. It turned out that in actual operation is not perfect wing. The reason was that the implementation of laminar flow on the part of the wing itself required very laborious surface finish and accuracy in maintaining the highest profiling. Because of the roughness that occurred when applying a protective coloring on the plane, and even the smallest impropriety in profiling, will inevitably appear in the series production (small undulation narrow iron plating), the effect on the laminar wing of F-51 is very reduced. According to its bearing properties of laminar profiles yielded routine that led to difficulties in providing good-quality maneuverability and landing parameters.
For small angles of attack laminar airfoils (sometimes called them laminizirovannymi) have the least wind resistance than the profiles of ordinary type.
Apart from low resistance laminar profiles have the best speed properties — with equal relative thickness of the effects of compressibility of air (wave crisis) were manifested in them at tremendous speeds than on the profiles of ordinary type. Since then it has had to reckon with. In the dive, especially at a great height, where speed Sound is much smaller than that of the land, the aircraft began to reach speeds at which already manifested features associated with the approach to the speed of sound. Increase the so referred to as the critical speed can be, or applying more velocity profiles, what were laminar, or lowering the relative thickness of the profile, reconciled with all this with the inevitable increase in weight of the structure and the reduction in the volume of the wing, is often used (including by P-51D) to accommodate the fuel tanks and guns. It is curious that with much lower relative thickness profiles, wave crisis on the wing "Spitfire" appeared at a higher speed than on the wing of "Mustang".
Studies in British aviation research center RAE showed that due to significantly lower the relative thickness profiles fighter wing "Spitfire" at tremendous speeds had the lowest drag coefficient than the "Mustang". This is explained later manifestation of the wave flow crisis and more than a "soft" his temper.
If the air battles were fought on relatively small heights, the crisis compressibility of air, almost did not show up, because the need for special high-speed wing acutely felt.
Very unusual was the way the creation of the Russian Yak-3 and La-7. As such, they represent a profound modification of Yak-1 and LaGG-3, designed in 1940 and mass-produce.
In the Russian Air Force to step terminates the war was not a fighter more popular, than the Yak-3. At that time it was the easiest fighter. French pilots of the regiment "Normandie-Niemen" who fought in the Yak-3, since responded on his fighting ability, "Yak-3 allows you to complete an advantage over the Germans. The Yak-3 can fight together against the four, and four of them — against sixteen! "
The radical redesign Jaka was undertaken in 1943 to dramatically improve flight characteristics at very moderate power propulsion. The crucial focus of this work was a relief aircraft (including by reducing the area of the wing), and a significant improvement in its aerodynamics. Perhaps it was the only way to advance is excellent plane, because of new, more massive engines, suitable for installation on the Yak-1, Russian industry is not yet commercially released.
A similar, but hard to implement, the path of development of aviation equipment was substandard. Ordinary means of the development of the complex aircraft flight data was then to improve aerodynamics without noticeable size airframe configurations, as in the installation of more massive motors. Almost always it is accompanied by a noticeable increase in weight.
Constructors Yak-3 with this arduous task coped brilliantly. Hardly period in aviation history second world war you can find another example of the same, and so the work done efficiently.
Yak-3 compared with the Yak-1 was much easier, had the lowest relative thickness profile and the area of the wing and had a beautiful aerodynamic qualities. Powered aircraft has increased significantly, which dramatically improved its rate of climb, acceleration properties and vertical maneuverability. At the same time, such important for the horizontal maneuverability, take-off and landing parameter as the specific load on the wing, not enough has changed. In war, the Yak-3 was one of the most common in piloting fighters.
Of course, tactically Yak-3 did not as a substitute aircraft, has a more powerful weapons and longer duration of the combat mission, but perfectly complements them, embodying in itself the idea of light, high-speed and maneuverability of air combat, intended at first to fight with enemy fighters.
One of the few if not the only fighter with air-cooled engine, which with good reason can be attributed to the best air combat fighter second world war. At La-7 recognizable Russian ace Kozhedub shot down 17 German aircraft (including jet fighter Me-262) of the 62 destroyed them on fighters La brand.
The history of the creation of the La-7 is also unusual. First, in 1942 on the basis of a fighter LaGG-3 was sufficient secondary fighting machine was designed fighter La-5 differs from its predecessors only power plant (engine cooling fluid was changed to an even stronger double-line "star"). In the course of the coming of the La-5 designers focused mainly on its aerodynamic improvements. In the period of 1942-1943. fighter brand "La" were more frequent "guests" in the full-scale wind tunnel leading Russian aviation research center TsAGI. The main purpose of these tests was to identify the main sources of aerodynamic losses and the definition of constructive activities that support the reduction of aerodynamic drag. The principal feature of this work was that the proposed design configuration is not achieved enormous alterations aircraft configuration and manufacturing process and would be relatively easy implemented production
plants. It was truly "jewelry" work, when, seemingly out of own who were little things out quite an impressive result.
The fruit of such work was the first thought in 1943 of La-5 FN — one of strongest Russian fighter ever since, and then the La-7 — the plane, which took place as of right in the middle of the best fighters the second world war. If the transition from the La-5 La-5 FN to increase flight performance was achieved not only by the best aerodynamics, and thanks to a massive motor, the improved features of the La-7 have gained only by means of aerodynamics and structural weight down. This aircraft had a speed of 80 km / h more than the La-5, 75% of them (ie 60 km / h) gave aerodynamics. Such a speed boost is equivalent to increasing the horsepower more than the third part, with no growth in weight and size of the aircraft.
The best of a fighter combat air embodied in the La-7: maximum speed, good maneuverability and rate of climb. In addition, compared with the rest of the fighters, which was a matter, he had more vitality, because only this plane had motor air cooling. As you know, these engines are not only more resilient than liquid-cooled engines, and provide specific protection from the pilot flame from the front of the hemisphere, as they have huge dimensions of the cross section.
German fighter Messerschmitt Bf 109 was created at about the same time as the "Spitfire". As a British aircraft, Bf 109 was one of the more successful models of the war fighting machine, and has come a long way of evolution: it equips more massive engines, improved aerodynamics, performance and flight characteristics. In terms of aerodynamics larger configurations were last carried out in 1941, when there was a Bf 109F. The imminent improvement flight data passed, priemuschestvenno, through the installation of new engines. Outside, the last modification of the fighter — Bf 109G-10 and K-4 is not much different from even more of early Bf 109F, although there were a number of aerodynamic improvements.
This aircraft was the best representative of the light and agile war machine of Hitler's Luftwaffe. As for almost the entire second world war Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters were in the middle of the best examples of a class of its own aircraft, and only at the end of the war, they began to lose their positions. Cooperate properties characteristic of the best western fighters, designed to combat the enormous height comparable to implement, with the inherent characteristics of the best Russian "medium-high" fighters proved unfeasible.
Like its English employees, designers Bf 109 aircraft tried to cooperate highest highest speed with good maneuverability and landing characteristics. But they solved this puzzle completely different: in contrast to the "Spitfire», Bf 109 had a huge specific wing load, provides a higher speed and maneuverability used to improve not only the perfectly known slats, and flaps, which are suitable moment of the battle could deflect a pilot at a small angle. The use of controlled flaps was new and unusual decision. To improve the landing characteristics than automatic slats and flaps were used controlled drooping ailerons, who worked as an extra section of the flap; was used and controlled stabilizer. In short, Bf 109 had a unique system of a particular lift control, in almost all modern aircraft with a characteristic inherent automation. But in practice, many designers do not catch on solutions. Because of the difficulty had to turn away from the controlled stabilizer, drooping ailerons, flaps of the system in action. As a result, in its maneuverability Bf 109 was not very different from other fighters — both Russian and American, though inferior to the best Russian engines. Similar properties and were taking off and landing.
Experience of aircraft indicates that the gradual improvement of the combat aircraft is almost always accompanied by an increase of its weight. This is due to the installation of more massive and more than a means of languid engines, increasing the supplies of fuel, increasing the power of weapons, the need to strengthen the construction and other related activities. Eventually there comes a point when the reserves of this design have been exhausted. One of the limitations is the unit load on the wing. This, of course, not the only option, but one of the most basic and common to all aircraft. Thus, to the extent modification of fighters "Spitfire" on the option 1A to XIV and Bf 109 from B-2 to G-10 and K-4 unit load on the wing in their increased by about a third part! Already have Bf 109G-2 (1942), it was 185 kg/m2, while the "Spitfire» IX, which was also released in 1942, there were about 150 kg/m2. For the Bf 109G-2 is the load on the wing was close to the limit. With the coming of its growth deteriorated sharply aerobatic, maneuverable and landing characteristics of aircraft, despite the very efficient lift devices (slats and flaps).
Since 1942 German designers were improving their own best air combat fighter in the criteria are very strict weight limits, which is very high suzivalo ability to improve aircraft. And the creators of "Spitfire" had yet sufficient reserves and continued to build capacity and strengthen the motors mounted weapons, especially not being considered at all this with an increase in weight.
A huge impact on the aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft is the quality of their mass production. Neglect the ready can negate all the efforts of engineers and scientists. This does not happen so much now and then. According to the documents captured in Germany, spending at the end of the war a comparative study of aerodynamics German, American and British fighters, have concluded that the Bf 109G had the lowest-quality production run, and that is, for this reason it was very bad aerodynamics, that We can probably be extended to the Bf 109K-4.
Spoken of shows that in terms of the technical concept of creation and the aerodynamic characteristics of the assembly of any of the compared aircraft is completely original. But they also have much in common: excellent streamlined shape, careful nosing engines, perfectly fulfilled the local aerodynamics aerodynamics and cooling devices.
As for the design, the Russian fighters were much easier and cheaper to produce than the English, German and, in particular, the South American cars. Scarce materials in their applied in a very limited quantity. Because of this the Soviet Union managed to ensure the highest rate of aircraft production in the criteria of the toughest real limitations and shortcomings of skilled labor. It must be said that our country was in a very languid state. From 1941 to 1944. including a significant part of the industrial zone, where many steel companies, was occupied by the Nazis. Some factories were evacuated into the country and to make the creation of new places. But a significant part of the production capacity has been all the same irretrievably lost. In addition, a large number of skilled workers and professionals took to the front. In machines have changed their ladies and kids who could not work up to par. And yet, the Soviet aircraft industry, though not immediately, but was able to meet the needs of the front in the aircraft equipment.
In contrast to the all-metal western fighters, Russian machines widely used wood. But in almost all of the power components, and in fact determined the weight of the structure, used metal. That's why in terms of weight perfection Yak-3 and La-7 is actually no different from the foreign fighters.
The technological soundness, ease of access to the individual units and ease of maintenance in general somewhat better look Bf 109 and "Mustang". But the "Spitfire" and Russian fighters were also perfectly adapted to
the conditions of the combat operation. But on this very fundamental features, the quality of equipment and the level of automation, the Yak-3 and La-7 inferior to Western fighters, the best of which is the degree of automation were German planes (not only the Bf 109, and others).
An important indicator of large aircraft flight data and its combat capability is generally powerplant. Specifically, in the first aircraft engine construction are reflected recent achievements in the field of technology, materials, systems and control. Motor industry — one of the most high-tech industries aircraft industry. Compared with the aircraft the process of creating and refining new engines takes more time and requires large efforts.
During the second world war the leading position in the aircraft for the UK motor industry. Specifically engines of Rolls-Royce equipped with "Spitfire" and the best options of "Mustang" (R-51B, C and D). It is no exaggeration to say that just setting the British motor "Merlin", which was implemented in the U.S. under license by Packard permitted to bring a huge capacity "Mustang" and led him into the category of elite fighters. Earlier, the P-51 was though unusual, but martial abilities enough middle plane.
The peculiarity of the British engines, almost all defined their good properties was to use high-grade gasoline, conditional octane number reaches 100-150. This made it possible to use a huge degree of pressurization air (more precisely, working consistency) into the cylinders and thus make huge power. The Soviet Union and Germany could not meet the needs of aviation is so high-quality and expensive fuel. Usually eat RON 87-100.
The relevant common feature of all the engines that were matched by the fighters, was the use of two-speed drive centrifugal compressors (CMS), providing the desired altitude. But unlike the Rolls-Royce engines was that their blowers had not one, as usual, and alternately two stages of compression, even with the cooling of the workability of the perineum in a special radiator. Despite the complexity of such systems, this technology is one hundred percent justified for high-altitude engines, as markedly reduced the loss of power consumed by the motor injection. It was a very important factor.
A unique system has been pumping motors DB-605, driven by a fluid coupling that is under automatic control smoothly regulated gear ratio from the motor to the impeller. In contrast to the two-speed drive compressors, standing on the Russian and British engines, turbo coupling allows to reduce the loss of power that took place between the injection rate.
The principal advantage of the German motor (DB-605 and others) is the application of a particular fuel injection into the cylinders. Compared with ordinary carburetor system is increased reliability and efficiency of the power plant. Of the other engines only Russian AL-82FN, standing on the La-7, had a similar system of a particular injection.
A significant factor in improving the flight data of "Mustang" and "Spitfire" was that their engines have a relatively short operating modes for over-capacity. In combat, pilots of these fighters could for a time use except for long, in other words, nominal, or combat (5-15 minutes), or in extreme cases, extreme (1-5 minutes) modes. Combat, or, as it is called, the military regime has become central to the motor in a dogfight. Russian fighter engines had overestimated the power mode at a height that limited the ability to further improve their flight characteristics.
Most of versions of "Mustang" and "Spitfire" was calculated to great heights combat introduction, suitable for air operations in the West. Because of their engines had enough altitude. The German engine builders had to solve complex technological puzzle. At comparable large motor design height, the right to fight in the air in the West, it was important to provide the necessary power at low and medium altitudes required for combat operations in the East. As you know, the usual increase in altitude usually leads to a growing loss of power at low altitudes. Because the designers showed a lot of ingenuity and used a number of non-standard technical solutions on their own high-altitude engine DB-605 served like the middle position between the British and Russian engines. To increase capacity at altitudes lower than the calculated injection used vodospirtovoy consistency (the system MW-50), which made it possible, despite the comparable low octane fuel noticeable increase boost, and, as it should, and power without the appearance of detonation. It came out the most typical mode, which, as an emergency, could usually be used up to 3 minutes.
At altitudes higher than estimated could be used nitrous oxide injection system (GM-1), which, being a massive oxidizer, like of offsetting shortage of oxygen in the rarefied atmosphere and made it possible for some time increment altitude engine and bring it closer to the properties of the data engines Rolls Royce. However, certain of increased weight of the aircraft (for 60-120 kg), significantly complicated the power plant and its operation. For these reasons, they were used separately and were not used at all Bf 109G and K.
Significant impact on combat effectiveness fighter has his arms. In terms of composition and arrangement of instruments considered aircraft differed very much. If a Russian Yak-3 and La-7 and the German Bf 109G and K had central placement tools (guns and machine guns in the forward fuselage), then the "Spitfire" and "Mustang" it was displayed in the wing outside the area swept by the rotor. In addition, the "Mustang" had only mnogokalibernoe machine gun armament, while on the other fighters were set to the same gun, and at the La-7 and Bf 109K-4 was only cannons. On the Western theater P-51D was intended at first to fight with enemy fighters. For this purpose, the power of his six machine guns are completely sufficient. In contrast to the "Mustang", British "Spitfire" and the Russian Yak-3 and La-7 aircraft were fighting with all the destination, including the bombers, which, naturally, sought a more massive arms.
Comparing the wing and central plant weapons, it is hard to answer which of these schemes are more effective. But still the Russian front-line pilots and aviation experts at, as well as German, favored central, which provided the largest grouping of fire. Such an arrangement is more profitable when the attack enemy aircraft carried out with the greatest of small distances. Specifically, it generally tried to act on the Eastern Front Russian and German pilots. In the West, the air battles were fought in the main at high altitude, where the fighter maneuverability considerably worse. Move closer to the enemy at close distance became much more difficult, but with the bombers are also very safe, because the fighter due to sluggish it was difficult to maneuver to evade the fire gunners. For this reason, they opened fire with a far distance and wing installation tools, designed for a given range of defeat, proved entirely comparable with the center. In addition, the rate of fire guns in the wing pattern was higher than that of guns, synchronized to fire through the propeller (guns on La-7, machine guns at the Yak-3 and Bf 109G), weapons turned out nearby the center of mass and the flow of ammunition virtually no effect on the its position. But one drawback was still organically inherent in the wing pattern — is overvalued moment of inertia about the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, causing a reaction worse fighter from the slope to the actions of the pilot.
By a huge number of criteria that determined the combat capability of the aircraft, the most b
asic fighter for it was the combination of flight data. Naturally, they are important, not for himself alone, and in combination with a number of other quantitative and quality characteristics, such as eg stability, handling characteristics, ease of operation, reviews, etc. For certain classes of aircraft training, e.g., these features are of major importance. But for the last war, combat vehicles are the defining properties of the specific flight and weapons, which represent the main technical terms of combat effectiveness of fighters and bombers. Because designers sought to achieve priority in the first flight data, and more precisely to those of them who played a major role.
It is necessary to clarify that the words "flight data" is supposed to an important set of characteristics, the most important of which were fighters for maximum speed, rate of climb, range or time combat flight, agility, the ability to quickly pick up speed from time to time, a service ceiling. Experience has shown that technical excellence fighters impossible to reduce to a single aspect, which would put it a number, formula, or even the method, designed for implementation on a computer. Question comparison fighters, as well as search for a rational combination of the main features of the flight, to this day remains one of the most difficult. How, for example, previously found that it was more important — an advantage in maneuverability and practical ceiling or the same kind of benefit to the greatest speed? Typically, the value of one by the other out. Where is the "golden mean", which gives the best fighting properties? Of course, almost all depends on the strategy and the disposition of the air war in general.
It is clear that the highest rate of climb and greatly depend on the mode of the engine. It's one thing long or nominal conditions, and quite another — an extraordinary boost. This is clearly seen from a comparison of the largest rates of the best fighters of the war terminates. The presence of excessive power modes significantly improves the flying characteristics, but only at the time of the short-lived because in the unlikely event the motor may be destroyed. For this reason, it is a short-term emergency mode of the engine, which gave the greatest power, was not listed at that time mainly for the power plant in a dogfight. It was intended for use only in the most dire, deadly unsafe situations for the pilot. This situation confirms the excellent analysis of the flight data of the 1st of the last German piston fighter aircraft — Messerschmitt Bf 109K-4.
The main properties of the Bf 109K-4 provides a large enough material report, prepared at the end of 1944 to the German Chancellor. Report highlights the status and prospects of German aircraft and prepared with the role of the German Aviation Research Centre DVL and leading aviation companies such as Messerschmitt, Arado, Junkers. The paper, which all have reason to believe is quite severe, the analysis capabilities Bf 109K-4, all cited his data are consistent with long-only mode of the power plant, and the properties at the highest power mode are not considered and are not even mentioned. And it is not surprisingly. Because of the motor thermal overload of the fighter pilot the climb with the greatest take-off weight for a long time could not even use the nominal mode and had to have a 5.2 Minutka after takeoff to reduce turnover and power respectively. During take-off with the least weight situation is not much improved. Because read about a real increase in climb rate through the introduction of emergency treatment, including the injection of water-alcohol consistency system (MW-50), simply do not have.
On the graph rate of climb (in practice this is a hell of climb) is not visible, which could increase to the introduction of the highest power. However, a similar increase is faster than the formal character, as do the climb at such a regime was unreal. Exclusively at points in the flight the pilot could turn the system on MW-50, ie, emergency power boost, well, then, when the cooling system had the necessary provisions for heat removal. So Makar, the system will force the MW-50 although it was useful, but it was not for the Bf 109K-4 actually needed and because it posed far less than all the fighters of this type. Meanwhile, the data are published in the press Bf 109K-4, specifically appropriate emergency mode with the introduction of MW-50, which is not at all appropriate for this aircraft.
The spoken up perfectly confirmed combat the practice ends with the step of war. For example, in the Western press often refers to the Advantages of "Mustang" and "Spitfire" of the German fighters in the western theater of war. On the Eastern Front, where dogfights were held at low and medium altitudes, out of competition were the Yak-3 and La-7, which is not once mentioned Russian Air Force pilots. But the outlook of German combat pilot V. Wolfrum:
The best fighters I met in combat were North American P-51 Mustang and the Russian Yak-9U. Both fighters have a distinct advantage in the properties of the Me-109, regardless of the modification, including the Me-109K-4
Comments seems superfluous. You can only explain that the Yak-9U had a speed close to the La-7, and the rate of climb at face value a little lower than that of the Yak-3 and La-7.
A little differently than the Bf 109K-4, was the case with "Mustang" and "Spitfire» XIV. Engine V-1650-7, which stood on P-51D, was not only a 5-minute emergency, and the 15-minute battle modes of operation. Now it has been quite active for the conduct of air combat, and "Mustang" constantly had the advantage in speed over the entire spectrum of heights compared with Bf 109K-4. However, even in these criteria climb P-51D was worse than that of Russian fighter jets, "Spitfire" and Bf 109K-4. This defect is caused by his completely natural cause, yet a huge relative of supplies of fuel. A lot of fuel required to produce very significant for the fighter flight range, necessary to accompany the languid bombers.
Unlike the V-1650-7 engine "Griffon" 65 did not have the combat mode and the pilot "Spitfire» XIV could be used, or the nominal mode, or in some episodes air combat 5-minute maximum.
It would be a mistake to assume that the state of emergency power is not really necessary for the fighters. This is not the case. Already their presence added a pilot conviction in battle and gave the potential in some moments to get an additional increase available power, and because of this, to achieve a temporary advantages or else come off Prepare to attack the enemy. Although these modes are not determined by the ability of the motors fighters.
When comparing the altitude and speed characteristics can clearly see a big difference in altitude of Russian and Western military vehicles. At low and medium altitudes, the Yak-3 and La-7 had a clear advantage over the high-rise "Spitfire" and Bf 109K-4. At altitudes of 7-8 km an advantage in speed is entirely on the side of the Western fighters. The same can be said of the climb, but in this case its an advantage, "Spitfire» XIV and Bf 109K-4 exhibited at altitudes above 5 km. Below is "reigned" Yak-3 and La-7.
In fairness it must be stressed that the development of the latest versions of the Bf 109, such as the G-10, K-4 and K-6, German designers first tried to make the best high-rise properties of the aircraft, even to the detriment of its combat capability at low and medium altitudes, where Bf 109K-4 in speed and rate of climb conceded developed even earlier Bf 109G-2 (1942).
The emphasis on high altitude was needed to increase the combat effectiveness of the Bf 109 in becoming more violent air war on the Western Front.
There are several fundamental characteristics, the effects of which on the fighter combat capability is very high. One of them — a review of the cockpit. Case does not combat pilots often preferred aircraft with the best visibility, even in spite of a lack of data in flight. Lured by the opportunity to build without annoying traffic situation. There was no competition P-51D. Teardrop-shaped flashlight and the highest landing pilot gave an excellent overview, incomparably the best than the Bf 109K-4, "Spitfire» XIV, and even the Yak-3 and La-7.
In the middle of the first twin-engine jet fighter aircraft stand Messerschmitt Me 262 (Germany) and Gloucester "Meteor" (UK), which were mass manufactured and used at the end of the war.
Although the first jet aircraft and has a number of shortcomings, but, of course, their appearance marked the beginning of a qualitatively new step was the development of aviation and aircraft is not a small achievement in those years. Quite soon after the end of the second world war jet machines have become the basis of advanced fighter aircraft.
Paying tribute to the achievements of the German and British aircraft manufacturers, it should be noted that the said fighter jets were comparable to a narrow range of tactical use. Even the most perfect of their Me 262 was used in the main as a fighter-bomber and interceptor. Its main advantage was greater speed at 140-180 km / h greater than 109K-4 Bf. In the role of fighter-interceptor Me 262 had another advantage. It was the fact that although the Me Bf 262 was inferior 109K-4 climb, but thanks to a much greater speed on the climb he could storm the enemy on more distant frontiers.
I must say that the Me 262 and had a number of shortcomings, reduces the potential ability of the fighter. For example, when catching languid American bomber B-17 and B-24, flying at altitudes of 7-8 km, the pilot usually could not storm out of the most lucrative for the fighter position — back on top. Spirited acceleration Me 262 (engines at this altitude throttle forbidden) in this case could lead to penetration into virtually unexplored area then transonic speeds. Bring the aircraft from becoming unmanageable dive was virtually impossible. In addition, the Me 262 airfields sought perfectly cooked, at least two times larger than those on which was based tactical aviation. This event did not play a significant role in defensive actions, but for a role in offensive operations Me 262 is for this reason would not be eligible.
Summarizing, I note that Germany failed to make fighter, who could resist the perfect prototype fighter as allies in the West and the East. P-51D «Mustang", "Spitfire» XIV, the Yak-3 and La-7, optimized for specific conditions of struggle in the air, had an advantage over the Bf 109K-4 (a similar result would come out in a comparison of another batch of German fighter of the war ending in step Focke-Wulf FW 190D-9). At the same time, in the field of jet aircraft, Germany was the favorite, creating a superior fighter Me-262. Similar machines have appeared in the armies of the Allies only after a couple of years.