Until August 1943 the only secondary self-propelled gun (SPG), which consisted in the Russian armed forces, was the SU-122 with 122-mm howitzer division's M-30. But it is because of the small initial velocity howitzer shell (515 m / s) and low flatness line movement could well beat the German tanks. On the agenda of the day or there was a question about a special tank destroyer.
In April 1943, the Committee of the Head Artillery Artillery Directorate (GAU) of the Red Army sent Uralmashzavod tactical and technical requirements (PR) for the design of a self-propelled 85-mm cannon. The primary purpose of the latest ACS was to be the destruction of enemy tanks languid like "Tiger" at distances of 500-1000 meters to complete TTT offered to take over the base upgraded SU-122M and instead of 122-mm howitzers to equip it with a weapon ballistics of the 85mm anti-aircraft gun. In the second half of April URALMASHZAVOD design department, headed by LI Gorlitskiy, started to design the machine.
Than to arm?
May 5, 1943 T-bills has led to the creation of the timing and development of new tanks and self-propelled guns. Lock and Load ACS with 85-mm gun was assigned to Uralmashplant, with the Central Artillery Design Bureau (TsAKB), headed by VG Grabin was to design and plant number 9 Commissariat equipment (IEC) — a tool to do the installation.
But when TsAKB of drawings were obtained 85 mm gun S-31, it was found that it takes very many places in the fighting compartment and machine allows you to comfortably position the equipment and crew, and in addition, significantly increases the weight of self-propelled guns.
On Uralmash not only redesigned the cradle of this gun, and suggested the plant number 9 is also a latest 85-mm cannon. As a result, the Bureau of Plant number 9, headed by FF Petrov, was designed gun D-5S-85, much better suited for a future ACS. But at the end of May 1943 TsAKB entered preliminary design of the next gun — C-18. She had a certain dignity, because it used the cradle of serial 76-mm tank gun ZIS-5. But the C-18 is not very successfully linked in the fighting compartment created self-propelled guns.
Despite the obvious shortcomings of ACS with a gun S-18, TsAKB, using the authority of its own manager, try to see that car with his gun was made in metal. This conflict was resolved only 7 June 1943, when a special joint committee of representatives of the People's Commissariat of Tank Industry (NKTP), IEC, GAU and the Head of armored control (HBTU) decided to make comparative tests of three experienced self-propelled guns with standard 85-mm guns: SU- 85-1 with a gun S-18-1 TsAKB and modified cradle URALMASHZAVOD, Su-85 and with a gun D-5S-85 plant number 9, the SU-85-IV with a gun S-18 TsAKB.
Work on standards opytneyshemi lasted one and a half months. July 20, 1943 began their factory tests, which included running for 80 km and firing. With all this gun D-5C shoot in full — 129 shots. As regards guns still C-18 and C-1-18, they trigger device because of breakages could produce respectively 39 and 62 shots. From July 25 to August 6, 1943 at the Gorokhovetsky range (ANIOP) were municipal tests, during which it was found out the subsequent:
"The greatest ease of operation when shooting team provides a self-propelled gun D-5C-85 as a result of rather short length recoil guns, comfortable loading height bands, large capacity for charging. This creep out the most time on the strength of the weapon, a larger average rate of fire, four times higher than that of self-propelled gun with C-18.
Access to the recoil mechanism in the instruments of TsAKB not be achieved without removing the front bookings weight of 300 kg, which is very uncomfortable and what is required to spend 3-4 hours of time.
Cannon D-5S-85 samouravnovesheno in trunnions. To balance the system implements used TsAKB huge loads weighing about 210 kg, which limits the available space wasted in design and uncivilized to mind. Flywheels devices targeting the guns of TsAKB placed awkwardly.
Weight self-propelled gun with C-18 for 850 kg more than the self-propelled gun with D-5S-85. "
Once the machine did run for 500 km, Municipal Commission concluded that the on road performance, reliability in operation of the devices, maneuverability and cross-ACS does not differ from the T-34. According to the test results the committee members recommended the adoption of the Red Army self-propelled gun SU-85-H with a gun D-5C, which was decorated GKO decree number 3892 on August 7, 1943. The same document provides for the termination unveiled at Uralmashplant SU-122 and tridtsatchetverok. The company switched to the ready hundred percent self-propelled guns SU-85.
Assembly of units and aggregates of the SU-85 was similar to the SU-122, on the basis of which it was created. With all of this 73% of the parts were borrowed from the T-34, 7% — of the SU-122 and 20% of the projected anew. Placed in the box at the front hull gun D-5C with a barrel length of 48.8 was the starting-caliber armor-piercing projectile speed of 792 m / s. By armor-piercing gun is 57% higher than the gun F-34 T-34 tanks and 45% — the Howitzer M-30 self-propelled SU-122, which increased the effective firing range on German tanks in the half. Ammunition of the ACS consisted of 48 unitary shots with fragmentation grenades iron 0-365, armor-piercing tracer shells, BR-365 and BR-365K. Rate cannon with closed hatches of the conning tower was 6-7 rounds / min.
Uralmashplant produced SU-85 from August 1943 to October 1944. During this time the company sent to the troops 2644 self-propelled units.
SU-85 arrived on arms individual self-propelled artillery regiments (SAP) RVGK and used for fire support of T-34 tanks. These machines also received self-propelled artillery regiments, which were included in the composition of some anti-tank brigades.
The latest self-propelled gun used on the fronts pretty well. Here is a review of 1440 commander Lieutenant Colonel SAP Shapshinskoye: "The car is good, proven itself as a tank destroyer of the enemy. You only need to use it correctly. In the first battles of the Dnieper, where the regiment had to use a self-propelled guns as tanks, the regiment lost five machines. In the subsequent military operations regiment priemuschestvenno supported attacks its own tanks, following their battle formations at a distance of 200-300 m, and reflecting the counter enemy tanks. Crews are self-propelled guns, putting the enemy more heavily vulnerable spot — his forehead. SU-85 self-propelled hit the frontal armor of the tank "Tiger" from a distance of 600-800 m, and its board — from 1200-1300 m. "
Along with the positive feedback received from the factory of the army and the request for the necessary improvements and enhancements ACS. Thus, the commander of the 7th Mechanized Corps colonel Katkov, evaluating a car, wrote: "The SU-85 self-propelled guns in the current time is a more effective means of dealing with languid enemy tanks. Owning maneuverability and agility that is not inferior to the T-34, and armed with 85-mm gun, self-propelled proved in combat fine. But by using their own fire and armor tanks "Tiger", "Panther" and creep "Ferdinand", forcing the enemy to fight moder
n huge distances — 1500-2000 m These criteria Firepower and frontal protection SU-85 is not sufficient. A strengthened front armor of self-propelled and most essential — to equip his gun with increased armor-piercing power to strike languid tanks of the "Tiger" from a distance of 1500 m. "
BATTLE OF DESIGNERS
Finding ways to increase the firepower of the SU-85 was conducted from the beginning of its serial production. To illumine 1943 plant number 9 made a 85-mm gun D-5S-85BM with the initial projectile velocity of 900 m / s, increasing piercing armor by 20%. The size of the gun parts newest kept the same as that of D-5S and no severe shunt configurations not achieved. Since trunk D-5S-85BM was 1068 mm longer than that of D-5S, to equilibrate it delayed the trunnions back to 80 mm.
First, in January 1944 experienced a standard creep passed factory tests. Then he was sent to Gorohovets for municipal tests, which he passed, but on the arms was not adopted. In addition, in the fall of 1943 were carried out design work on the self-propelled guns mounted on larger caliber — 122 mm cannon A-19 and 152-mm howitzer D-15.
Question gain firepower decided by the ACS instrument on the implementation of a ballistics 100-mm naval gun B-34. Preliminary design of the machine in December 1943 passed the People's Commissariat of Tank Industry and the Office of the self-propelled artillery. 27 декабря 1943 T-Bills passed a decree number 4851 on the equipment of the average 100-mm self-propelled gun. In the execution of this decree NKTP Order number 765 of December 28, 1943 ordered the Uralmashplant:
"1) to 01/15/44, the average self-propelled design on the basis of units of the T-34 and arm it with a 100 mm gun S-34 design TsAKB;
to 20.02.44, the make and carry out the factory creep tests. The gun must be filed with the plant number 92 to 25/01/44, the;
to 02.25.44, the transfer to the municipal self-propelled tests. "
As we see, the terms were set very tight. The situation was complicated by the fact that the story of TsAKB repeated with mind-boggling precision. Having drawing tools C-34 on Uralmash sure that this gun is not suitable for creep: she had an impressive widths, place the mouse on the left rested against the second suspension, did not allow the driver position the flap. Needed in the serial configuration huge housing ACS, including its geometric pattern that was drawn for a remake of shields for welding and assembly.
We would have to go to the torsion bar suspension, move the workplace of the driver and the machine control all units of 100 mm to the left, expand the higher part of the hull to the dimensions of the track, which would cause increase in weight of 3.5 tons of ACS compared with the SU-85. With all this TsAKB again took an uncompromising stance departmental: giving your tank gun S-34 to be mounted on ACS, Office sought to use it only in the form in which it is, and insisted on the device SAU to the gun. Uralmashplant again turned to the plant number 9, and they have developed a 100-mm gun D-10S, which was much easier than C-34 and was located in the serial case without his significant configurations and growth without excess weight machine.
In February 1944, first experienced the standard ACS passed factory tests, which consisted of 30 rounds and 150 kilometers. From 9 to 27 March ANIOP Gorohovets held in the municipal tests, which produced the 1040 self-propelled gunfire and was 864 km. In his own opinion, the Commission noted that the machine can be put into service of the Red Army after some improvements. April 14, the plant was given an order for the immediate preparation for serial production artsamohoda SU-100.
But TsAKB again demanded a formal resolution of the T-bills, in other words, the production of self-propelled guns with the most experienced gun S-34. Moved again to discussions and correspondence on this issue. In the end, it was decided to partial alteration gun S-34, initially designed for languid arms of the JS-2.
Alteration is to reduce the width of the cradles of 160 mm, making new push-pins, the latest box, rotating mechanism, marching attachment removed by the tide coaxial machine gun and install the sight, made at the plant number 9. Self-propelled gun with C-34 received an index of SU-100-2.
Go with him built a second experienced shunt reference SU-100, which has become a head for serial production of machines and included all the improvements recommended by the state commission. His tests were run on ANIOP from 24 to 28 June 1944. After that, the municipal commission declared that "the tactical and technical characteristics of the SU-100 provide the successful defeat modern armor of the enemy at a distance of 1500 m for the tank" Tiger "and" Panther "regardless of the point of incidence of the projectile, and for artsamohoda" Ferdinand "- only when released into the side armor, but with a distance of 2000 m. "
Self-propelled SU-100-2 with gun S-34 special train brought to the site in the first Gorohovets July 1944. He was subjected to the tests in the same amount as the SU-100, but showed the worst results. SU-100, in contrast, GKO decree number 6131 of July 3, 1944 adopted the Red Army.
The upcoming IMPROVEMENT
Brand new fighting machine created on the basis of the T-34-85 and SU-85 self-propelled. All major units Thirty — the engine, transmission, chassis remained without changes. Just because a certain overload the front rollers increased their suspension by increasing the diameter of the wire springs from 30 to 34 mm. The case taken from the SU-85 was subjected to a small but very fundamental alterations: the thickness of the frontal armor increment from 45 to 75 mm, entered commander's cupola and viewing devices such as MK-4, have established two fans to saturated cleaning crew compartment from the powder gases. Overall, 72% of the parts were borrowed from the T-34-85, 4% — of the SU-122, 7.5% — of the Su-85, and only 16.5% were designed anew.
The initial velocity armor-piercing projectile gun D-10C with a barrel length of 56 calibres equal to 895 m / s. Ammunition consisted of 33 unitary shots with armor-piercing tracer projectile BR-412 and BR-412B, high-explosive grenades RP-412 and high-sea grenades. The armor-piercing projectile with a thick-headed ballistic tip BR-412B in the 1500 m at an angle of 60 ° punched meeting 110-mm armor.
Lock and SU-100 was launched in September 1944, but within 3 months it was conducted along with the release of SU-85. In this case, at the suggestion of LI Gorlitskiy both artillery system — D-10C and D-5S mounted in a very unified body, suitable for placing at least some of the 2-guns and boeukladok. Hiking mount, swivel mechanism, sights and body armor guns changed. From this unification has won many design features of the SU-85. Suffice it to say that the ammunition has increased to 60 shots.
The first unified ACS released in July. In August, the plant has finished the ready SU-85 and ran for the creation of "hybrids" that took the index SU-85M.
Release of the SU-100 lasted until March 1946, during this period of time was 3037 self-propelled units. According to some reports, in 1947 the creation of their resume and released another 198 ACS.
In the summer and autumn of 1944 in the experimental procedure have been made ACS ESG-100 with electric transmission and SU-122P with 122-mm gun D-25T.
Since November 1944 the average self-propelled artillery regiments of the Red Arm
y began to rearm the new ACS. Each regiment had a 21 machine. At the end of the year started to form self-propelled artillery brigades SU-100 self-propelled guns on 65 each. Regiments and brigades of the SU-100 fought the enemy in the final step majestically Russian war.
So, for example, from 6 to 16 March 1945 SU-100 on the 3rd Ukrainian Front had to engage in reflection attacks of the 6th SS Panzer Army in the Lake Balaton in Hungary. Here intensively operated 207, 208 and 209-I self-propelled artillery brigades, the armed SU-100, and several independent regiments SU-100 and SU-85. Almost all of them are due to the first day the German advent beginning to falter.
At the direction of the head hitting the Germans could not get out on the highway Nadbayom — Kaposvar. An important role in this area played a 1201-th self-propelled artillery regiment (12 SU-85), which not only reflected the fire from enemy's head, and with the infantry 113th Infantry Division had a successful counterattack, dropping wedged on the part of the enemy 1-1.5 km.
March 10, regroup and using the last reserves, the Germans tried to break through the Soviet defenses on a narrow section of its right wing. But by this time there were four spare deployed anti-tank artillery regiment, on the density of the Russian artillery guns have gained 49 per 1 km of the front. To break through such military orders was unreal.
In particular, distinguished themselves in these battles in 1951 and 1953rd self-propelled artillery regiments 209th Brigade smogshie organize not a bad interaction with the infantry, anti-tank and divisional artillery. During the day or the SU-100 battery commander Lieutenant Kocherha, combat vehicles and second lieutenants Vorozhbitskogo Samarin was killed by three tanks and assault guns. Battery SU-100, commanded by Captain Vasiliev of 1952 self-propelled artillery regiment during the fight has lined three "Royal Tiger".
SU-100, no doubt, the most successful and more powerful Russian tank destroyer period majestically Russian war. Being 15 tonnes lighter than it similar to the assembly and destination German ACS "Yagdpantera" SU-100 was similar to the best armor protection and mobility.
The initial velocity armor-piercing projectile 88-mm cannon German Cancer 43/3 with a barrel length of 71 gauge was 1000 m / s. Its ammunition (57 rounds) was greater than that of L-10C. The introduction of Germans armor-piercing projectile PzGr 39/43 with AP and ballistic tip provides the gun "Yagdpantery" the best armor in the far distances. We have the same goal — BR-412D appeared only after the war.
In contrast to the German self-propelled guns ammunition in the SU-100 and cumulative out-piercing projectiles. High-explosive action as the 100-mm high-explosive projectile was, of course, higher than the 88-mm. In general the two best medium self-propelled second world war had each other tangible benefits, but range from the introduction of the SU-100 was somewhat more extensive.
In service with the Russian army consisted of SU-100 and in the aftermath of the war. In 1960, self-propelled guns were modernized. As such, the SU-100 has long been in the army, took part in the exercises, as well as new self-propelled artillery put off long-term storage in the parks. These cars took part in the military parade May 9, 1985 and 1990. Again "revive old" they had only recently — SU-100 have become parties to the Victory Parade in Moscow in 2010.
SU-100 had a number of armies of the Warsaw contract, as Albania, Algeria, Angola, Vietnam, Yemen, North Korea and Cuba. In Czechoslovakia in 1952, the SU-100 is licensed and distributed in Egypt and Syria. They took part in the fighting during the Arab-Israeli wars of 1956 and 1967. In the armed forces of some countries, these self-propelled guns, apparently, there are at the moment. Thus, according to some reports, the SU-100 continue to use part of the Cuban coastal defense.