First of all, what are these images and marks on the surface of the desert, or geoglyphs, as they are sometimes called? From the top, they look like lighter than the surrounding area, line, area, geometric shapes, line drawings of various animals.
Up close, the surface of the earth, it is clear that the soil of the desert is covered with numerous small stones (pebbles and gravel dark brown because of their covering so-called "desert varnish" — salts of iron and manganese). Line drawings and is a shallow furrow, from which these dark stones are removed, so that was exposed light sandy clay subsoil. Stones as if stripped from the surface of the ground and pushed to the edges of the furrows, where they piled up in the form of rolls. In the same way free from strips of dark stones are sometimes only a few meters, and larger sites in the form of elongated triangles, trapezoids and rectangles. Their width is 80 meters, the length of the large rectangle — 730 meters.
The climate is extremely arid Peruvian Pampa — the south-east trades, bumping into the Andes, leave any moisture on their eastern foothills and over Pampa rush hot dry winds. This helps save the image for centuries, if not millennia. But the exceptional dryness of the climate here makes it impossible to carry a farm and residence of people. Irrigated agriculture is possible only in rare river valleys, and one is able to feed a valley not more than a thousand people — it's one or two villages.
Archaeologists believe that the giant figures on the surface of the desert Indians left the so-called Nazca culture, which existed in the II century BC — V century AD, the material traces of which (ceramics, household items) were found in the excavations of the Nazca Valley. The same ceramic (sherds vessels) found in some places on the pampa. The basis for the classification of drawings of the desert to the Nazca culture was that some of the scenes painted ceramics depict birds and animals of the same type as the drawings in the desert. But this conclusion is not convincing. Pottery found on the surface of the figures, trapezoids, therefore, pictures of ancient ceramics and drawings creators copied stories ceramics, but rather the opposite. Not like both and the style of performance. According to M. Scholten:
"If we compare the figures on the surface of the Pampa — smooth, somewhat elongated and executed with confidence workshop, demonstrating the large figure — that is, in my opinion it is impossible to put them on a par with drawings on pottery — rough and angular. Sometimes the stories of both are the same: the animals Peruvian coast. But naskanskaya ceramics differs primitivism rude, it is not specific to figures Pampa. "
And one more argument: in recent years the discovery of new sites Pampa, covered the same lines and drawings, as well as in Nazca. They are located in the Peruvian province of Arequipa (Desert Maya and Sigua, Osmar river valley near the town of Moquegua), as well as in the Chilean province of Antofagasta (desert and highland Tarakatar Pintados). In general, these images are confined to the strip extends along the Andes for more than 1,300 kilometers. Very unlikely that all this was done in one small indigenous tribe, which occupies only a small river valley. Even here, in Nazca, an area of about 700 square kilometers of the amount of work done is so huge that it was quite a daunting task for a small tribe. Maria Reiche, estimates that only one manual removal of stones from the surface of large areas had to spend 500 man-years of work! And counting all the pictures and holding thousands of lines long in kilometers! How could a primitive society, all the power it takes for food on their families, to divert as many people to do the work of a giant? And all this, remember, in hundreds of kilometers away from their villages, with complete lack of water, the absence of any grazing and fuel, without draft animals (their ancient Peruvians did not know), and the climatic conditions, which the locals fair to compare Glow oven.
So, the first two questions, who and when, none of the proposed hypotheses clearly can not answer. We do not know when and who "painted" Peruvian-Chilean pampas. One can only conclude that this was done long before the Conquest, and the pre-Inca and that the scope of the work was enormous. The problem becomes even more complex when we get acquainted with the quality of work done.
Among the images predominate straight lines (their width on the ground about ten centimeters). They lined pampas in all directions. They extend for thousands of feet (there are such long and five and even ten kilometers). As noted by Hawkins, these lines are "… a surprisingly direct.
The average deviation in the direction of not more than 9 minutes of arc. This figure is the limit of accuracy provided for photogrammetric work. In fact, the ancient lines were made more accurately than can be detected by modern methods of aerial photography. "
No the visual methods (say, using exposed veshek are reputed archaeologists) to achieve such precision is impossible in principle. This was the definitive answer Surveyors (one of them is not without sadness noted that not everyone can spend surveyor on the ground as a straight line length of five kilometers even with an optical theodolite).
It should also be noted that the Nazca lines are, so to speak, regardless of terrain. It is clearly seen as two parallel lines is (strictly speaking, they are not even two, but three, because the left line — double) first stretch through the valley of the river dried up, and then, not deviating one iota from the same direction, on a fairly steep climb, ravines slope for a good couple of hundred meters up to the next higher plateau. The impression is like a beam of a searchlight fantastic traced on the surface of these grooves …
Yet, in the confusion of lines marked by at least one pattern. Specifically, many of them out of certain centers, differing from them in different directions in the form of rays. They usually sit on top of a small hill and connected to each other by lines. However, sometimes these centers are not only on the surface of the pampa, but at a fairly steep river well below the surface. In terms of the surveyors, it is unclear. If such a center is the reference point a network (such as triangulation) on the surface of the Pampa, the ones that were located on the slopes of the river (a few tens of meters below the surface), have been deprived of any meaning. Indeed, such a center was not visible from the other reference points and himself had to the network cabling. Each line coming out of such a center, it was necessary to first "reach" a steep ravines slope to the surface Pampa, observing the same incredibly high accuracy direction and then continue on this surface. This, I may say, "reference point" in the network completely superfluous and even harmful (in terms of accuracy of work). Not it be easier to do not come down to the plains, and put all this "triangulation" network on it?
It seems that such problems did not care the creators of "drawing" Nazca. They are riddled with extraordinary ease surface Pampa thirteen thousand lines, the accuracy of which envy modern surveyors, and it must use a core network, which only creates additional difficulties in the work. And after all this, historians and archaeologists tell us that all this cyclopean in scope and stunning precision work is done sparsely tribe is on the technological level of the Stone Age, who knew no written language, unfamiliar with the magnetic compass? Here, in Nazca, we again encounter a paradox, which we presented the Great Pyramid in Egypt, the amount and quality of work is many times greater than the possibility of a primitive society, which, by the officially accepted view, ostensibly all it did. We again urge that the jet plane invented and built the Chukchi, because their camp is located next to the wreckage of the aircraft …
In addition to the lines in Nazca there are still hundreds of "roads" (a slang name given to researchers Nazca). It is your band width of up to 60 centimeters on the surface delineated as a line of rollers removed from the surface of stones. There are also numerous "sites" — rectangles, trapezoids and triangles, purified from the dark surface of rubble. They are dominated areas in the form of narrow, highly elongated triangles, vertex angle of less than 17 °. Sometimes expensive and elongated triangular area also fan out from a single center. Finally, among the chaos of lines, "roads" and "sites" scattered dozens of giant images of animals, plants (?) And some fantastic creatures. These images are most known to readers, because most of them mention the authors writing about Nazca.
Category: Mystery stories