In 2013, Poland marks anniversary "January Uprising" 1863 , when the part of the nobility of the Kingdom of Poland was in favor of separation from the Russian Empire and the restoration of Polish independence of the country — within the boundaries of the Commonwealth in 1772, ie including the lands of modern Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania. On the territory of the North-Western Territory Empire (present-day Belarus and Lithuania) units of the Polish nobility ruled Vincent Kalinowski, more recognizable in the Belarusian literature as "Custom Kalinowski." Belarusian peasants did not support Polish riot-intensive speaking on the side of the legitimate authorities, that did not prevent Russian historians to declare the performance of the Polish nobility "peasant" revolt "national liberation" and almost detached from Warsaw's nerve center. The Seimas has announced a special law in 2013 year year anniversary of "national liberation uprising" in 1863. Belarusian authorities are deliberately not conduct any activities — like last year, when the anniversary was celebrated Russian war of 1812.
According to the views Novick, actions in 1863 are treated differently in Poland and Belarus. The anniversary politicized, and important questions in this period require investigation.
"Revolt of 1863-1864 in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus was aimed at restoring the borders of the Commonwealth in 1772. This rebellion can be called Polish gentry, as Gentry was the main driving force of the uprising — said Novick. — Gentry lusted returned for themselves "golden gentry of liberty", which had in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Farmers, farmers in the main Belarusian own mass uprising is not supported, and supported the legitimate rule of the Russian emperor, for which he had problems from the rebels and the gratitude of the Russian Tsar. "
In pre-revolutionary Russian historiography of these actions were called "the Polish rebellion." In the Belarusian historiography of modern journalism and actions in 1863 are interpreted as "national liberation uprising of 1863-1864," "uprising in Lithuania-Belarus", "national liberation uprising" "rebellion Kalinouski. "Novick believes that dominate the modern Belarusian historiography naming events in 1863 do not reflect the fullness of the phenomenon and improperly narrowed — namely, to focus on the personality Vincent Constantine Kalinowski.
"Rebellion is not ruled Kalinowski, and Central State Committee in Warsaw. Kalinowski managed uprising in Belarus and Lithuania. He entrusted the management when it became clear that the uprising will have of success, when the troops of the Russian army began to destroy units of the Polish insurgents. Kalinowski took the management of the uprising, and laid his head on the block, "- said the historian.
"The modern Belarusian historiography terminology inherited from the Russian historiography, which was emphasized in the national-democratic, nationalist character uprising in 1863, the revolutionary temper" — directed the attention of the doctor. According to him, the Russian historiography was to a large extent ideologized, which is also typical for the post-Soviet historiography, interpretive activities 1863 — especially for journalists belonging to the camp of the pro-Western opposition or a "fifth column," as they named Alexander Lukashenko.
"Desire them is clear: to show that rebellion 1863 was anti-Russian and the national liberation of the Belarusian people. These creators, using the development of Russian scientists, go to the opposite extreme — continued Novick. — In fact the performances were organized by the Polish gentry, supported by the Polish gentry in Belarus and Lithuania. Managed uprising Polish National Central Committee. Gentry opposed the government of the Russian tsar, against the Russian state, the creation of the Polish self-contained country. "
"As for the Belarusians in 1863 Belarusians supported the king-priest, Russia. Then and Belarusians — Belarusian farmers — were behind the Russian people, and so far so. Belarusians to no more loved ones, and for the moment. 'Cause at the the time between Belarus and Russia are cramped communications — said Novick. — In the XIX century the Belarusian people did not support the Polish insurgents, and supported the government of the Russian Federation, Russian power. This reads and percentage of farmers, not only Belarusian, Polish gentry in the units: about 20-30% in the western provinces, and about 5-7% in the eastern lands of modern Belarus. Local farmers refuses to fight a war of "Polish handle."
In Poland and Lithuania in 2013 year announced the memory of "national liberation" uprising of 1863. Implementing a set of events. One of them took place on January 22 in the Belarusian town of Grodno region Svislach: salting Poland, representatives of embassies in Lithuania and Latvia, laid flowers at the monument to the heads of units of the Polish nobility, hanged in Vilna and Warsaw after the suppression of the uprising. Ceremonies were held in churches and monuments of Polish insurgents in other villages Fri Belarus. With all this on the people killed by the rebels of the Belarusian peasants, no one remembered. Russian diplomats have not found it necessary to visit the graves of Russian fighter killed in the suppression of the Polish uprising of 1863.
"How many were killed by the rebels Belarusian farmers — is unclear. This is, indeed, a serious problem of which had long been a need to decide — the doctor said. — For the activities in Poland and Lithuania, and publications in the local opposition press:" Cuckoo praises for cock, he praises the Cuckoo "- remember that line out of a fable? Now the politics of these countries, some local opposition behold the opportunity to benefit from the celebration of the anti-Russian uprising. Unfortunately, it is."
"In Belarus, the anniversary of the 1863 is not marked. Are there any announcements on this topic in the media — on any activities of pro-Polish-minded politicians and some historians, but in general somehow passively and desolate. Now we are closer to Moscow than Warsaw, "- added the Belarusian scientist.
As reported IA REGNUM, January 20 in Minsk accomplished scientific conference "Polish gentry rebellion in 1863 gaze on action 150 years later," organized by the scientific-educational project "Western Russia" and the Center for Eurasian research Minsk Branch of Russian municipal public institution (RSSU) . "The conference is timed to the 150th anniversary of the start of the uprising of the Polish nobility in the Kingdom of Poland and the Western Region of the Russian Empire to the modern and objective examination of the events, the meaning of which has undergone a significant distortion, and the facts which continue falsified certain political forces in the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and in the far abroad ", — informed the website organizer zapadrus.su. Participants heard presentations from the event and took part in a discussion with the guests — representatives of NGOs.
Polish Embassy in Belarus January 21 informed that the senior official in Warsaw will accept a role in the events dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Polish uprising of 1863-1864, known in Polish historiography as "the January uprising." The event will perceive th
e role of salting of Poland in Belarus Leszek Sherepka. They will be held in throughout 2013, including on the terrain of Belarus and Lithuania. "A distinguished patronage of the activities associated with the celebration of this fundamental historical action received by the President of the Republic of Poland Bronislaw Komorowski, festive opening took place on 16 January 2013 at the presidential palace in Warsaw," — the embassy staff.
Diplomats from Poland, Lithuania and Latvia on January 22 visited the regional center Svislach in the Grodno region of Belarus, which honored the "victims of the uprising of 1863-1864" — that is, Polish insurgents who fought with weapons in their hands against Russia. According to the Lithuanian Embassy, "the diplomats laid flowers fighters for freedom," and held a moment of silence 2-makers of anti-Russian "national — liberation uprising."