Historical path of the Cadet Corps in Russia

February 28 marks the birthplace of our 280 years from the opening of the first day or Cadet Corps. Etymology of the word cadet is rooted in the indigenous dialect of Gascons. The Latin "kapitellium" meaningful literally "little captain" was transformed into "kapdet", and in the Russian language has sounded in his own contemporary terms.

First cadet corps appeared in Prussia. Approved the establishment of schools for military service of noble kids majestic Elector in 1653. Then came the spread of this kind of educational institutions all over Europe. In 1716 was established cadet squadron, which stood at the head of a four-Frederick, known then majestically. Monarch attention paid to military education and heir, as we know from history, not in vain. Before the emergence of the cadet corps in Russia noble kids had served in the Guards regiments Transfiguration and Semenov, and then enters the ranks of the army. Nobles also studied in made in the times of Peter the schools of mathematical, navigational and engineering sciences. For Soldiers babies were made garrison schools.

In Russia the idea of forming the Cadet Corps brought the mighty Teuton Munnich. Insisted on its establishment and pochetaemy Empress Paul Yaguzhinskii. At the end of February on a brand new style of 1732 Minich Anna Ivanovna proposed project newest school for sons of the nobility, arguing the need for an impartial institution such time need. All the students had to wear uniforms, also observe the strictest discipline and diligence to learn. Corps Director cadet was appointed Major-General Grigoriev. In the framework of the project was initiated device Prussian cadet institutions.

Elizabeth issued a decree on the development of the Sea Cadet Corps in order to regain its former power of Peter's fleet. Catherine Lofty organized the second housing Peter the stateliness, as the first cadet Capital housing. More than fifty different agencies for cadets were opened for 280 years gone. In each of them to develop their own charter of, personal and educational programm form. Students can post not only get the highest rank of officer, and accepted without testing in higher education. Graduates were counted among the elite youth and intelligent forms the active layer in the society of the country. A huge number of professional writers studied in these institutions and fondly remembers the years of his youth in his own work.

At first, the management of educational institutions Cadet produced solely Director, from which mainly depended programm training routine day or pupils, their everyday duties. Change of control could lead to the transformation of the whole institution, and even change disciplines.

In 1734, the first military school, named gentry, established the position of chief professor who tracked down the quality of education and to identify opportunities for each of the students coming to their advice to one or another post. The structure of the school were two sotennye company housing, which were attributed to the boys. The rooms are furnished with a moderate descent lived for seven and in the best case, six cadets, one of whom played for the senior and responsible for order and discipline. With babies constantly was an officer, of noble origin, literacy, and other subjects. Apart from the military and civilian science, cadets were taught the rules of etiquette. Teachers believed their own duty to eradicate vices midst of the disciples and engaged in their multilateral development. Three times year examinations were carried out personally like and once in the presence of the Empress or more officials. The duration of training was 5, and from time to time 6 years.

The formation of the educational process and the specific rules was almost 10 years old. The first generation of cadets had a different age, and often do not know how to read and write. Many of the students do not learn lusted. Some outright refuses to attend classes, while others pretended to be unhealthy and pretended for months. As a result, the Empress in 1737 signed the order that is not assimilated to the program from the age of 16 cadets to be sent into service as sailors. The threat of being classified as a discharge from the rootless and uneducated sailors had done its work, and the vast majority of students have to pass exams successfully. Curiously, Alexander 1 ordered to enroll in the cadet corps is not only a noble kids, and members of the royal family, including TSESAREVICH. Already during his reign considered institutions have established themselves as elite. It was believed that education acquired cadet universal, multilateral and very profound.

1752 Catherine majestic imperial decree organized the Sea Cadet Corps. Strictly speaking, the decision to develop it belonged to Peter 3, but the formation was delayed due to a palace revolution and the advent to the throne presvyaschennoy Germans. After 10 years, Catherine establishes Artillery and Gentry Cadet Corps of Engineers on the basis of Peter's aristocratic schools. Formed Empress approved and new cadet wearied in 1766. The draft of the new document were introduced following configurations:
• acceptance of the cadet corps was permitted for kids under the age of 6 years;
• cadet must have been for 15 years, constantly remain in the walls of the institution, only occasionally allowed Short-term visits from relatives;
• the control system except in the person of one-man management, have also been introduced in the form of peer members of the Council;
• Cadets were divided into three age groups, each of which lived and studied separately.

Configuration had a beneficial effect on the quality of education, which has been proven very special to his level of confidence on the part of pravitelskogo yard. Cadets to achieve 14 years of their spread on two fronts: military or civilian. Graduates who brilliantly passed the examination carried out in the title of lieutenant, others became ensigns and cornets. If the cadet's performance was at a low level, it is assigned a non-commissioned officer rank. During the period of enlightened absolutism in Russia revealed a huge number of professional historians, researchers, writers, served as Director of the cadet corps. Among them were such famous names as Musin-Pushkin.

In 1792 Shklovsky generous school founded by means of a nobleman Zorich for the poor noble families, was transformed into a military school. In 1806, the Corps of Cadets is revealed in Smolensk, which in 1824 was transferred to Moscow and renamed the Capital.

Has brought its contribution to the development of schools under consideration and Paul I. In 1798 he created the Military order of the orphanage, in what is meant to teach kids from an impoverished aristocratic families and the soldiers' sons. Pupils from different backgrounds needed to teach separately. In 1829, Emperor Alexander ordered convert institution in Pavlovsky Cadet Corps, and in 1863 it ceased to exist. Renaming and conversion lasted. Paul brings the atmosphere of the Prussian cadet drill and look for military discipline, but immediately after the coup policies cadet changed. Alexander was the successor of his own thoughts stately grandmother, and during his reign the number of institutions for the training of officers has increased from four to seventeen. In the middle of graduates of military schools were Rumyantsev, Mellisino, Miloradovich Sumarokov, Kamensky and a number of known and famous personalities.

Elitist character wore Pazhesky Cadet Corps, pribredshy this status in 1804. The base pension is
dated 1742 year. Examinations at graduates perceive himself ruler, and the right to enroll kids and grandkids get full generals or holders of artillery. Was in the middle of the best cadet corps Pag Decembrist Pestel.

In the first quarter of the nineteenth century created the cadet corps Finland, Kalisz, and Noble's Regiment, later renamed Constantine Cadet Corps.
In 1810, in order to improve the social status of teachers to enter their military benefits. Teachers provided the dignity of the 1st rank, and much was rising wages. In cases of corporal punishment is widely used by most of the rod. Evenly midst of the disciples there is such a phenomenon, "as an old cadets."
Fragmentation of buildings, gymnasiums and other military educational institutions was liquidated in 1832. Alexander I was made General Staff who coordinated the entire system of military education.

Bimbo reform of military education occurred under Nicholas I. All scientists establishments were classified into:
• ordinary cadet corps;
• Corps of Pages;
• Marine Corps and Artillery and Engineering School.
In addition, we had made seventeen buildings in different parts of the country, the management of which was made from the district center. Total for the country was created three military educational Metropolitan Area, West and St. Petersburg. In 1841, the government sent a special attention to the life and power of students. Was increased funding also revised norms.

Has brought its contribution to the development of military education and Alexander III. His politics differed in regard to the tightening of criteria cadet life and focused on the training of future officers to the formidable army of reality. Attention was paid to cleanliness and discipline. Were again taken the structural transformation of the system, and the purpose for the post of teachers in the corps was strictly monitored. As a teacher cadets could only work officer, and all military training institution became known as corps. All cadet number of middle schools, and to anticipate the programm only educational level.

By tipping 1917 Russian Empire consisted of 40 cadets institutions. But the Bolsheviks saw the danger of Russian authorities and during from 1917 to 1918, the body had been eliminated. Only in times of war in 1943 and appeared Nakhimovskom Suvorov schools to train new officers to secure the ideological setting. The first edition was in the mid 1950., But because the first students took on the principle of abandonment, it has become necessary to develop the order of admission to the school. Since 1950, the institution began to be credited not only orphaned during the war, boys, and kids from 11 years of two-parent families. For admission, the baby had to have four initial education class and be healthy.

Since 1960, passed a new reform, as a result of which the age of the incoming increased to 15-16 years, and the training period was reduced to 2 years. Russian military education system has given excellent results. Among the graduates for a small clearance time 65 people became Heroes of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation or of Socialist Labor, more than 1000 received the rank of general, stood an unlimited number of professional scientists and engineers, military commanders and other distinguished people of the country.

The modern system of education Cadet fragmented. A huge number of institutions operating on the basis of various documents belonging to different departments. Not counting again shown to successfully operate Suvorov and Nakhimov schools. The purpose of modern education is the formation of a Cadet present harmoniously developed personality, who knows how to think. The program is aimed at developing a cadet's eagerness to serve their own homeland, it is also the development of high moral principles and patriotic views. At present in Russia there are more than 200 educational institutions that call themselves cadet.

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