History applets Spiral

Early 60's. Cool war in full swing. In the U.S., there are works on programmke Dyna Soar — hypersonic orbital rocket plane X20. As a response to this example program, work on developing their own rocket plane and are held in our country, many institutes and design bureaus, as commissioned by the government in the form of R & D, as well as in an active manner. But the development of aerospace systems "Spiral" was the first official large-scale theme, supported by the control of the country after a series of events leading up to the prehistory of the project.

In accordance with the direction of the five-year plan on certain subjects, and the Air Force for orbital hypersonic aircraft of practical astronautics aviation in our country in 1965 were committed Mikoyan OKB-155, where they led the 55-year-old Chief Designer Gleb Lozino -Lozinski. Subject to create a two-stage air-space plane (in modern terminology — Aerospace Systems — AKS) received index "Spiral". Russian Alliance seriously preparing for a large-scale war in space and from space.

In accordance with the requirements of the customer's engineers set about developing a reusable two-stage complex, consisting of a hypersonic booster aircraft (GSR) and military space plane (OS) from the rocket booster. Start system provides for horizontal, with the introduction of the booster carts, separation occurred at speeds of 380-400 km / h After dialing in using engines GSR right speed and altitude are separated OS and the upcoming crackdown came with a two-stage booster rocket engines running on hydrogen fluoride fuel.

Battle manned reusable single OS implementation foresaw the introduction of options for day fotorazvedchika, spy radar, interceptor gallakticheskih purposes or attack aircraft with rocket-class "space-to-Earth" and could be used for the inspection of objects gallakticheskih. Weight of the aircraft in all cases was 8800 kg, including 500 kg payload to a scout and interceptor versions and 2,000 kg in attack aircraft. The spectrum of the reference orbit was 130 … 150 km altitude and 450 … 1350 to the inclination in the north and south in the area starts with the Soviet Union, with the task of flight had to be done in 2-3 turns (third round of planting ). Ability to maneuver the OS with the introduction of on-board rocket propulsion system running on a high-energy fuel components — amidol fluorine F2 + (50% N2H4 + 50% BH3N2H4), had to provide the orbital plane change for the scout and interceptor 170 for an attack aircraft with a missile on board (and reduced the supplies of fuel) — 70 … 80. The interceptor was also able to perform a combined maneuver — a simultaneous change in the inclination of the orbit 120 with a lift to a height of 1000 km.

After performing an orbital flight and the braking engines OS should go into the atmosphere with a huge angle of attack, control of step descent configuration provided the slope at a constant angle of attack. In the line of traffic gliding descent in the atmosphere wondered ability to commit aerodynamic maneuvers in range 4000 … 6000 km with a lateral deviation of plus / minus 1100 … 1500 km.

In the landing area OS was supposed to be positioned with the choice of the velocity vector along the axis of the runway, which was achieved by choosing the configuration applets tilt. Aircraft maneuverability of reaching the landing at night and adverse weather conditions on one of the alternate airports Russian Union of areas with at least some of the 3 turns. Planting was accomplished with the introduction of the turbojet engine ("36-35" designed by OKB-36), on a dirt airfield II class at least 250 km / h

According to the approved GELozino-Lozinskii June 29, 1966 Preliminary design "Spirals", AKC, with an estimated mass of 115 tons was a stacked together the wide-winged reusable sets of horizontal take-off and landing — a 52-ton hypersonic booster aircraft (get the index of "50 — 50 "), and located on it manned OS (code" 50 ") with two-stage rocket booster — block excretion.

Because of the undeveloped as an oxidant watery fluorine to accelerate work on the game as a whole as a step crotch offers other development-stage rocket booster for an oxygen-hydrogen fuel and the phased development of the fluorine fuel on the environment — first introduction of a high nitrogen fuel for tetrakside and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine ( AT + UDMH), then fluoro-ammonia gas (F2 + NH3), and only after the accumulation of experiences planned to change the ammonia to amidol.

Due to the peculiarities inherent design solutions and selected the scheme allowed the aircraft start to realize a fundamentally new characteristics of launch vehicles for military loads in the space:

— placing into orbit a payload of at 9 weight% or more of the take-off weight of the system;

— reducing the cost of in-orbit delivery of the 1st kilogram of payload to 3-3.5 times compared with missile systems on the same components of fuel;

— gallakticheskih output devices in a wide range of areas and the possibility of retargeting frisky start with the change desired by the parallax range airplane;

— independent relocation booster aircraft;

— The need to minimize the number of airfields;
— high-spirited withdrawal of combat orbital plane in at least some point of the globe;

— effective orbital maneuvering the aircraft not only in space, and in step descent and landing;

— NIGHT MODE airframe and landing in bad weather at the aerodrome or the crew elected with at least some of the 3 turns.


Hypersonic booster aircraft (GSR) "50-50."

GSR was a tailless aircraft length of 38 m with a delta wing is a big variable sweep across the front edge of the type "double delta" (800 sweep in the area of the nose and the front of the influx, and 600 in the tip of the wing) span of 16.5 m and an area of 240.0 m2 with a vertical stabilizing surfaces — keels (an area of 18.5 m2) — on the wing tips.

Management GSR produced by rudders on the keels, elevons and landing flaps. Booster aircraft was equipped with a 2-seater pressurized cabin crew with an ejection seat.

Taking off with a boost carts for planting GSR uses the tricycle landing gear with nose bar, fitted twin pneumatics size 850×250, and let out a stream in the direction of "against flying." Main stand armed with a two-wheeled cart with tandem wheels size 1300×350 to reduce the required amount in the niche gear in the retracted position. Track the main landing gear of 5.75 m

In the upper part of the GSR in a special box was mounted in fact orbital plane and the rocket booster, the nose and tail fairing parts are locked.

On the GSR was used as a fuel liquid hydrogen propulsion system — in the form of block 4 turbojet engines (TRD) Developing AM Lyulka thrust at take-off by 17.5 tonnes each, with a common air intake and working on a common external supersonic nozzle expansion. With the empty weight of 36 tons of GSR could take on board 16 tons of hydrogen watery (213 m3), which was given to accommodate the internal volume of 260 m3

The engine received an index of AL-51 (at the time of the OKB-165 Turbojet developed the third generation of the AL-21F, and the new engine index was elected "with supplies", starting with a round number "50", all the more that this number appeared in the index of topics ). The terms of reference for its creation has r
eceived OKB-165 AM Lyulka (now — SEC AM Lyulka name in the "Saturn").

Overcoming the thermal barrier for the GSR provides a suitable selection of structural and thermal protection materials.

Booster aircraft.

In the course of the project work is constantly refined. One could say that he was in a state of "permanent development": constantly get out some inconsistencies — and had "douvyazyvat." In the calculations interfered realities — the available construction materials, technology, and the ability of plants etc. In principle, at any stage of the design engine was functional but did not give a damn those who wished to get away from it constructors. "Reaching" was going for another five or six years, until early 1970, when work on the project "Spiral" were closed.

A two-stage rocket booster.

Block removal is a single two-stage booster, located in the "semi-flush" position in the tool tray "on the back" GSR. To speed up the development of a preliminary design provided for the development of the perineum (the fuel for hydrogen-oxygen, H2 + O2) and ground (on fuel hydrogen fluoride, H2 + F2) option rocket booster.

When choosing a fuel component designers basis of providing in-orbit delivery can be no greater payload. Watery hydrogen (H2) was seen as the only promising type of fuel for vehicles and hypersonic aircraft as one of the most promising fuels for rocket engines, in spite of its significant drawback — low specific gravity (0.075 g/cm3). Kerosene as fuel for rocket booster was not considered.

Suitable oxidizing agents for hydrogen may be oxygen and fluorine. From the standpoint of workability and safety of oxygen is preferred, but its use as an oxidizing agent for the hydrogen fuel results in significant need huge volume tanks (101 vs 72.12 m3 m3), in other words to improve the midsection, and as follows, the drag plane, vehicle of that reduces its highest speed uncoupling up to M = 5.5 instead of M = 6 for fluorine.


The total length of the rocket booster (fuel to hydrogen fluoride) 27.75 meters, including 18.0 meters of the first stage with pop stekatelem 9.75 m and the second stage with the payload — the orbital plane. Option oxygen-hydrogen rocket booster was released on 96 cm long and 50 cm thick.

It was assumed that hydrogen fluoride rocket engine thrust of 25 tons of equipment for both stages of the rocket booster will be developed in OKB-456 VPGlushko on the basis of spent rocket engine thrust of 10 tons on ftoroammiachnom (F2 + NH3) fuel

The orbital plane.

The orbital plane (OS) was a vehicle length of 8 m and a width of 4 m flat fuselage, made in a "lifting body" having a very blunt feathered triangular shape in plan view.

The basis of design is a welded truss, which was attached a power bottom heat shield (Tze) made of plates clad niobium alloy VN5AP coated molybdenum disilicide, located on a "fish scales". The screen is suspended on clay bearings, performing the role of thermal barriers, removing the thermal stresses due to the mobility Tze relative to the body while maintaining the external shape of the device.

The upper surface is in the shaded area and heated under 500 C, because the body locked on sheathing panels kovar VC-99 and ANS steels.

The propulsion system included:

— LRE orbital maneuvering thrust 1.5 ton (specific impulse of 320 seconds, fuel consumption 4.7 kg / s) for the maneuver to change the plane of the orbit and the issuance of a braking impulse to de-orbit, then provided for the installation of more massive rocket engine with a thrust in vacuum 5 ts with adjustable thrust to 1.5 ton to perform precise correction of the orbit;

— two emergency braking rocket engine with a thrust in vacuum to 16 kgs, running from the main rocket engine fuel system with pressure feed system components with compressed helium;

— LRE orientation unit consisting of 6 engines rough orientation with a thrust of 16 kg and 10 engines with a thrust of clear orientation 1 kg;

— TRD bench with 2 ton thrust and specific fuel consumption of 1.38 kg / kg per hour for subsonic flight and landing, fuel — kerosene. At the bottom of the keel is placed adjustable air intake bucket, opened just before starting the turbojet engine.

As a first step in the perineum swatches combat maneuvering operating system provided for the use of fuel for rocket engines fluorine + ammonia.

For emergency rescue pilot on any part of the flight in the design provided for the detachable cabin faroobraznoy capsule form that has its own propellant engines for ejection from the aircraft at all steps of its movement from start to landing. The capsule was equipped with a control sliders to enter the dense layers of the atmosphere, the beacon BATTERY navigation and emergency unit. Landing carried by parachute with a speed of 8 m / s, the energy absorption at this rate is due to the residual strain special honeycomb angle capsule.

Weight detachable cockpit equipped with the equipment, life support system, a system of salvation cockpit and pilot, 930 kg, the weight of the cab when landing 705 kg.

Navigation and automatic control consisted of astroinertial autonomous navigation system, on-board digital computer, LRE orientation astrokorrektora, optical viewfinder and radiovertikali-altimeter.

To control the path of the aircraft during descent than basic automatic control system provides a lightweight replacement for manual control system Yagi signals.

Life-saving capsule

Use cases.

Daily photo reconnaissance.

Day fotorazvedchik intended for detailed operational intelligence compact ground and moving offshore for earlier this purpose. Placed on board the photographic provide ground resolution of 1.2 meters when shooting with an orbital altitude of 130 plus / minus 5 km.

It was assumed that the search target and the visual observation of the earth's surface will conduct a pilot in the cab optical viewfinder with smoothly changing multiplicity of growth from 3 to 50s. Visor was equipped manageable reflecting mirror to track the target with a distance of 300 km. Shooting had done automatically after manual alignment pilot plane of the optical axis of the camera and the viewfinder to, the picture size to 20×20 km area at a distance of photographing along the route to 100 km. During one round of pilot should have time to take a picture of 3-4 goals.

Fotorazvedchik equip stations VHF and HF bands for transmission of disk imaging on the ground. If need to re-pass over the command pilot maneuver is performed automatically rotate the plane of the orbit.

Radar espionage.

A distinctive feature was the presence of a radar spy outdoor deployable single antenna size 12×1, 5 pm Estimated resolution for all that was to be in the range of 20-30 m, which is rather the exploration of carrier-based naval units and large ground-based facilities, with a width swath on ground objects — 25 km and 200 km from the exploration of the sea.

Impact orbital plane.

To engage moving targets at sea intended impact orbital plane. It was assumed that the rocket launch "space-to-Earth" with a nuclear warhead to be carried out over the horizon in the presence of targeting other operating systems or reconnaissance satellite. The updated target coordinates are determined by the locator reset prior to de-orbit, and by means of aircraft navigation. Homing missiles at the link at the initial phases of flight allowed to carry ou
t adjustments to increase the accuracy of the missile guidance to the target.

Rocket with a launch mass of 1700 kg with an accuracy of targeting the plus / minus 90 km ensured the defeat of sea target (such as an aircraft carrier), moves at speeds up to 32 knots, with a probability of 0.9 (radial deviation possible warhead 250 m).

Interceptor gallakticheskih goals, "50-22."

Explore the option of fighting the last OS was interceptor gallakticheskih goals, to develop a 2-versions:

— Inspector-interceptor with access to the target orbit, rendezvous with her at a distance of 3-5 km and a speed of equalization between the interceptor and the target. After that, the pilot could carry out an inspection target by 50x times optical viewfinder (allowing the target of 1.5-2.5 cm) from the following photography.

In the case of the decision to kill the pilot goal in his possession had 6 homing missiles development SKB MOS weight of 25 kg, ensuring engagement of targets at ranges up to 30 km at relative speeds of up to 0.5 km / s. The supplies of fuel interceptor to intercept short 2-targets located at altitudes of up to 1000 km at the corners noncoplanarity orbits goals and 100;

— Interceptor far, filled homing missiles development SKB MOS optical coordinator gallakticheskih to intercept targets at intersecting courses at a miss interceptor to 40 km, offset by a missile. Most range rocket launch is 350 km. Weight of the rocket with the container 170 kg. Search and discovery in advance this goal, also aiming missiles at the target is the pilot manually using the optical viewfinder. The energy of this option also provides an interceptor to intercept 2 targets located at an altitude of 1000 km.

Astronauts "Spirals".

In 1966, Astronaut Training Center (CTC) group was formed to prepare for the flight to the "Product-50" — so the CPC encrypts the orbital plane by programmke "Spiral". The group consisted of five astronauts who have a good flight training, including N2 astronaut Gherman Stepanovich Titov (1966-70 years), and have not yet flown in space Anatoly Petrovich Kuklin (1966-67), Vasily Lazarev (1966-67 yy) and Anatoly Filipchenko (1966-67).

Personnel of the 4th department changed over time — trained to fly on "Spiral" at different times were Leonid Kizim (1969-73 biennium), Anatoly N. Birch (1972-74 biennium), Anatoly Dedkov (1972-74 biennium), Vladimir Janibekov (July-December 1972), Vladimir Kozelskiy (August 1969 — October 1971), Vladimir Lyakhov (1969-73 biennium), Yuri Malyshev (1969-73 biennium), Alexander Y. Petrushenka (1970-73 yy) and Yury Romanenko (1972).

The trend towards the closure of programs from "Spiral" led in 1972 to the numerical reduction of 4 divisions up to 3 people, and to a decrease in the intensity of training. In 1973, a group of astronauts to the theme of "Spiral" and became known as the OSI — Air-orbital plane (from time to time and found another name — Military orbital plane).

April 11, 1973 Deputy Head of Division 4 1 Management was appointed instructor test cosmonaut Lev V. Vorobyov. 1973 was the last year of 4 1 Department of Management CPC — the forthcoming history of the astronaut corps BOC came to naught ..

Closure of the project.

In technical terms, the work went well. According to the schedule of project development "Spiral" provided for a subsonic operating system to start in 1967, the hypersonic analogue in 1968 was due to experimental apparatus for the first time put into orbit unmanned in 1970, the first manned flight of its scheduled for 1977 . Works on GSR were to begin in 1970, when his four multi-mode THD will run on kerosene. In the event of a promising option, ie fuel for the engines is — H, then build it to be deployed in 1972 during the 2nd half of the 70th. could begin flying absolutely equipped AKS "Spiral".

But, despite the serious feasibility study of the project, management of the country's enthusiasm for the topic "Spiral" lost. Intervention Ustinov, who was then secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, was in charge of the defense industry and pleading for missiles, a negative effect on the course of applets. And when became defense minister Grechko, learned early 70's. with "Spiral", he expressed clearly and definitely, "Fantasia, we will not deal with." The imminent execution of programs from finished.

But thanks to product bolshennomu technological advance, the importance of the topics covered, the implementation of the project "Spiral" was transformed in different research projects and related design work. The program has been refocused evenly on flight tests of analog devices with no prospects of creation on their basis of a real system (BOR programm (unmanned orbital rocket plane)).

This history of the project, which is not even being implemented, has played a significant role in gallakticheskoy programmke country.

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