Destroyer "Shattering" referred to a series of destroyers of the "7". The destroyers of the "7" (or, as they are commonly called, "Seven") rightfully occupy a prominent place in our naval history. And it is logical — after all, they were active participants majestically Russian war, were the most widespread Russian surface ships built 30's, specifically from the "sevens" trace their ancestry back several generations of Russian destroyers, huge rocket ships and even cruisers. One destroyer of the "7" became the Guards, four — of the Red Banner. At the same time, on their written and said a lot of controversial. This applies in particular to the fighting "sevens" in the war — then the real, often tragic actions over time supplanted legends. Especially there were a lot of rumors are always around the catastrophic death of the destroyer "crushing". First 6 "sevens" managed to lay at the end of 1935, and the next year — and all the others. By the beginning of stateliness Russian war, the Russian Navy including 22 destroyers of the "Angry". It was our most massive ships built before the war.
Destroyer "Shattering" was built at number 189 Ordzhonikidze. The serial number C-292. Laid 29.10.1936 year, launched on 23.08.1937, the acceptance certificate signed 13.08.1939 year. Soon after the entry into service transferred by the White Sea-Baltic Canal (September — November 1939) to the Northern Fleet. In November destroyer arrived in the Arctic. During the war with Finland carried on patrol and convoy duty, then engaged in combat training. On July 18, 1940 on July 4, 1941 was a factory warranty repair number 402 in Molotovske. Just before the Russian war, he majestically walked 10,380 miles.
After the end of the test run, "Shattering" was included in the White Sea Flotilla, where he remained until September 29. During this time, a couple of times he escorted the transports made three mine-laying (set 90 minutes of KB-1 and 45 minutes, the standard 1908), was a short-term preventative maintenance.
October 1, "Shattering" arrived in the Arctic and became part of a separate division of destroyers.
The Northern Fleet during the Russian war Lofty was the youngest and the most numerous, but at the same time more intensely acted quickly mix of our Navy. By June 1941 naikrupneyshimi his ships were specifically "sevens." 5 destroyers of this type ("Loud", "Terrible", "Rumbling", "Swift" and "crushing"), together with 3 "Novik" were 1st separate division of destroyers. At the end of 1942, with the arrival of the Pacific "Reasonable", "Furious" and a favorite of "Baku" was formed by a team of destroyers (commander — Captain 1st rank, then Rear Admiral, P. Kolchin).
Prior to January 1, 1942, he went 11 times to bombard enemy positions, issued a 1297 130-mm shells. In addition, in conjunction with the "Terrible" and the British cruiser "Kent" was involved in the search for the German destroyers (though without results), escorted transports. More languid campaign was the joint with "Terrible" escort operation December 24-26. During the 9-point storm with a 7-point wave and the strong inclination of ship superstructures glaciation reached 45 °, and because of the salinity of the fridge had some time to go for a MAL. By some miracle, the huge ships escaped damage. At this time a "crushing" just lucky, and he reached base.
On 28 March, after the end of preventive maintenance, "Shattering" together with "GREMJASHCHY" and the British destroyer "Oribi" went out to meet the convoy PQ-13, and a day later in the day or take it outposts. At 11 hours and 18 minutes in bad visibility was heard shooting, and 2 at the left side Minutka "devastating" rose bursts from 5 artillery shells. After 6-7 seconds on the bow and stern has fallen 3 shells. The destroyer increment move. After a few seconds on a course of 130 ° angle and distance of 15 cables was found silhouette of a ship that was identified as a German destroyer type "Roeder." "Crushing" opened fire and a second volley headed for cover with a shell hit the area of the second pipe enemy ship. He Zapara and turned sharply to the left. Our destroyer made after 4 more volleys, but more hits were observed. Naletevshy snow hid charge the enemy out of sight. Total "Shattering" produced 20 130-mm shells.
This fleeting battle occupies a prominent place in the history of Russian naval warfare, as it is the only in the entire episode is stately Russian war, when our surface combatants faced with an enemy the same class of its own, and even went out of him like a winner. As an enemy "crushing" usually indicates a German destroyer Z-26. But soon appeared in the press materials, which are put forward in the other versions. So, the creators of a number of publications, we have to indicate that to a point in Z-26 was very damaged and returned fire on the cruiser "Trinidad" from the only surviving instruments, and circling around a convoy of Z-24 and Z-25 were quite far from the place of a hassle, state guess, like "Shattering" was fighting with the British destroyer … "Fury". It seems unlikely, because getting to the Union destroyer (by the way, for the next day came to Murmansk) probably would find reflected in the documents and in the historical literature. It is more reasonable to imagine that the target gunners "devastating" still served as Z-26, except that the fire on Russian destroyer led by someone else, as the first 5-gun salvo was not able to do any of the destroyers stationed nearby ( and English, and German ships had 4 guns on the head caliber). By the way, in a report to the commander of a "crushing" and nothing is said about the conduct of the Germans fire. So the two have fallen off the board completely volley could belong to the same cruiser "Trinidad", taking "crushing" and "Rumbling" for the Z-24 and Z-25. In any case, the specific explanation of some inconsistencies in the Russian, German and British descriptions of this battle there.
In April, "Shattering", being escorted by convoys, not once reflected the air strikes, again suffered a 9-10-point storm In the evening on April 30, he joined the outposts of German submarine torpedoed the cruiser "Edinburgh", which took on board five tons of gold, created for payment of U.S. Lend-Lease. But the lack of fuel forced the "crushing" 8 hours to leave the base. Replenished in store fuel oil, "crushing" in the evening on May 1 returned to th
e location of the cruiser, but it would be a shame as it may sound, it was too late. 6 hours before the arrival of the destroyer "Edinburgh" was sunk. Later, the British voiced complaints about what Russian destroyers leave their warped cruiser in the most grievous moment. To the commander of "devastating" and his team, these claims had no case and one hundred percent belong to the Northern Fleet Command, which is in the planning of the operation is not allowed for supplies of fuel and fuel for their own vehicles.
May 8 "Shattering" twice went into the lip Ara to bombard coastal targets. According to intelligence reports, both were successful and shelling inflicted a certain damage. Second campaign, but almost ended in disaster. During the bombardment of coastal targets "crushing" at one point stormed the outright 28 German planes. Destroyer managed to urgently otklepat anchor chain (weigh anchor did not have time), and successfully maneuvered to avoid the hits rained down on him from the hail of bombs. With all of this ship's gunners managed to knock out 37-mm automatic one bomber.
From 28 to 30 May, "Shattering" together with "Terrible" and "Kuibyshev" was escorted by convoy PQ-16 convoy transports all the time been a massive attack of Nazi bombers and torpedo planes. May 29 only one attack on the Germans overthrew the court convoy 14 torpedoes, but none of them did not hit the target, but the torpedo "Focke-Wulf" was shot down by a 76-mm projectile with a "crushing" of the race 35 cables. The next day direct hit from a 76-mm projectile destroyer was destroyed by another aircraft, is now "Ju-88", and two others — are damaged. And then the team "devastating" was the best of the best. What's all the same for the anti-aircraft gunners destroyers, they are rightfully among the best in the whole Northern Fleet. In the evening on May 30 convoy transports, tightly covered up our destroyers safely have gained the Kola Bay.
July 8, "Shattering" together with "GREMJASHCHY" heading towards sadly famous convoy PQ-17. Along the way, the destroyers were in a 4-point floating ice. Obliged to slow down to a small and lacking the ability to maneuver, they are on the night of July 10 were attacked by four S-88 bombers who have thrown at each ship 8 bombs. Fortunately, there was no direct hits, but from close gaps "Shattering" received minor damage and deformation of the casing. Later, the attack was repeated, but again destroyers lucky — they are lossless and repulsed the attack. Meet our transport ships, but did not succeed, and they had to go back to Vaenga.
During the summer and autumn of 1942, "Shattering" was a short-term preventative maintenance. At this time, the ship also was used to convoy transports engaged in combat training. Since the beginning of the war until September 1, 1942 "Shattering" has made 40 military campaigns, going into the general difficulty of 22,385 miles for the 1516 running hours. Without hesitation, it was one of the Russian Navy warships at that time.
During the war, "Shattering" produced 1639 130-mm shells (including 84 — on the aircraft), 855 — 76 mm, and 2053 — 37-mm projectile, knocking at all this six enemy aircraft (two of them together with other ships). During this time, the ship there were two versions of spontaneous firing torpedoes (during the 1 st of them died sailor Starchikov). Another two sailors drowned in the unfortunate result of cases — those exhausted by the loss of the personnel of the ship right up to his last campaign. The impact of the fighting on the enemy's "devastating" hurt no one.
November 17, 1942 from Archangel sailed another convoy QP-15. Disembark in the port of Arkhangelsk 26 Allied transports and 11 British escorts vorachivalis to Iceland for the latest batch of military supplies for fighting Russian Union.
At the first step in the transition zone of responsibility of the Northern Fleet covering force convoy always amplified ships of the Northern Fleet Now to accompany QP-15 were isolated favorite of "Baku" by Brady pennant division commander, Captain 1st rank PI Kolchin (commander favorite — Captain 2nd Rank VP Belyaev) and the destroyer "crushing" (commander — Captain 3rd rank Kurilekh MA). In the conditions of a fierce storm, which reached the morning of November 20 hurricane force, with frequent snow squalls and virtually zero visibility, vessels and convoy escort ships lost sight of each other. The convoy dispersed and guard became, in essence, a. For vessels of the convoy offset the severity of the storm safety from possible attacks of German submarines and aircraft. Storm in a stormy sea when the wind speed is so large and bolshennom excitement was unreal. Because, with the permission of the commander of the convoy, Russian ships before reaching the designated point support, steel without the help of others vorachivatsya on base.
When returning to the Arctic on favorite "Baku" shock wave forces disrupted a nine-density housing, all nasal premises at the 29th rib were flooded, the water leaked into the 2nd and 3rd boiler rooms — in action was only boiler number 1. Condition of the vehicle was critical, the slope reaches 40 ° to the side. The personnel of the led a desperate struggle for status. With severe injuries, but the "Baku" still reached the base, where had to stand in for repair.
Destroyer "Shattering" had much worse. Strong winds with snow charges threw a huge wave. Speed "devastating" fell to a minimum, ship kept his nose against the wave. But this is not enough help. Soon the "Baku" was lost sight of, and in order to find it, from the destroyer began firing shells and lighting to shine a spotlight, but to no avail …
It is unclear whether he gave the battalion commander Capt. 1st Rank Kolchin commander orders a "crushing" Kurilekh go into the database without the help of others. The fact that a "devastating" gave rockets, trying to find the "Baku", states that, most likely, no team from the division commander on the destroyer were reported in general. So Kurilekh had to act on your own risk.
So Makar, you can read about the failing division commander own direct obligations — because he, as commander responsible not only for the favorite, which was holding its own pennant, and for subordinate destroyer. Kolchin is essentially threw a "crushing" to fend for themselves. The only thing that justifies the division commander, in this case, it is the plight of the "Baku", which almost made it to the base. Obviously, in such a state favorite could not give any meaningful assistance destroyer. Most likely, this particular argument has been taken into account at trial of what happened with the "devastating" and Kolchin anybody what is not vinyl. Oh it seems to be simply forgotten.
Provided for himself, "Shattering", in turn changing the rate of 210 to 160 ° and evenly slackening speed to 5 knots, with difficulty, "rowing" against the waves, with the action of the main boi
lers number 1 and 3 (№ 2 was in the "hot standby "), 2 turbo, 2 turbopozharnyh pump, supplies, fuel accounted for about 45% of the total (exclusively in the engine and boiler room), other supplies were within normal limits. November 20 at 14 h 30 min. in the aft cockpit heard a loud crack (audible and on the bridge) — it burst sheets decking aft of the upper deck between the superstructure and the 130-mm gun number 4, just where the stringers ended and started the housing area with a transverse framing system (173rd frame ). Once formed corrugations on the outer skin of the left side, then followed the break both shafts. Within 3 minutes the stern broke off and sank, taking with him six sailors, who had not managed to leave the tiller and other feed compartment. Soon followed by a powerful explosion — it worked, having reached that depth, fuses depth charges … The situation in an instant become critical.
The remaining feed compartments rapidly filled with water to the aft bulkhead of the 2nd engine room (159th frame). Lost speed ship deployed along to a wave, rolling headed for 45-50 °, pitching — 6 °. Came the stern, stability decreased slightly, which was noticeable for longer periods pitching; ship "lie around" in a lopsided position. Deck and superstructure be covered without annoying wave motion on the upper deck was very difficult, raged across the bottom is hard work, reinforce and compacted aft bulkhead of the engine room, dried sections 159-173rd bulkhead, using not only regular kicker, and electric oil pumping. All mechanisms operated smoothly, one hundred percent of the work was provided dewatering equipment and lighting, water filtration is almost over, the aft bulkhead sucked crash of the waves, the ship was better stability and reduced trim. Have put in place even emergency boiler number 2 (shown initiative commander electromechanical warhead) to "load operation personnel." Could only expect help. But this hope in the criteria for a severe storm was pretty questionable …
Upon learning of the tragedy, Golovko ordered favorite "Baku" immediately go to the aid of "shattering". Immediately orders were given to destroyers "Uritzky" and "Kuibyshev" being in Iokanke, and the destroyers "Reasonable" located in the Kola Bay, also go to help the "shattering" and, finding it, lead to the Kola Bay, rescue vessels " Flurry "and" Memory Ruslan "tug number 2 to be ready to put to sea.
Destroyers came out as intended. And an hour later, came another radio message from Kurilekh "Feed blown off a wave to the engine room. Feed drowned. Holding on to the surface. Wind — south, 10 points … "
Place "shattering" — latitude 75 degrees 1 minute, longitude 41 degrees 25 minutes. It is four hundred 20 miles north of Iokanki.
About 18 hours, 15 minutes, came "Kuibyshev" (commander Gonchar) and "Uritzky" (commander Ship Kruchinin) under the command of Simon (the battalion commander). Later came the "reasonable" (commander Sokolov).
State of the sea in the area where found, "Shattering" was not better than the other day. Samples were "reasonable" approach to the victim and the tragedy of the ship to take it in tow failed. Twice wound up tug and tow exploded twice. Meanwhile, the weather is still more aggravated. Report this, Sokolov asked for permission to take off and people turn away from the towing. Apparently, people take off — the only way to save them. Sokolova correct decision in the first part, but turn away from the towing advance. First you need to remove the people, then we will see.
From the following message is clear that Sokolov was unable to neither one nor the other. Approach the board, "shattering" was unreal. Ships thrown so much that they are very tightly during the approach had to be broken by blows with each other. Samples hold "Reasonable" machines in place at the approach to the most probable distance of success had not. Many times "Reasonable" approaching "shattering" in order to give people the opportunity to move to the warped ship deck "reasonable." It was possible to safely jump on board the "shattering" on deck "reasonable" only one person. Those trials and ended Sokolova remove people.
Soon came "Kuibyshev" and "Uritzky", both types of "Novik". Ships of this type are best kept on a wave.
Because of the naval staff sent notification of enemy submarines in the area, Sokolov at a "reasonable" took the puzzle to provide anti-submarine ships, and "Kuibyshev" and "Uritzky" engaged in the removal of personnel from "shattering".
From Simon's intention to bring "Kuibyshev" broadside to the "shattering", of course, nothing came of it. It was necessary to establish a ferry people with gazebo. Immediately from the Rescue Ship produced fuel oil, which is somewhat reduced at the side of the sea state. And yet the iron ends almost immediately broken. Then there was a wound hemp rope with "Kuibyshev" and is attached to a cable gazebo. Smuggle people in this way, in such a wave, and even in snow squalls seemed impossible. And yet it was manufactured. Simonov disposed of at the stern, where the cable wound up and started to pass people, "shattering", and the commander, "Kuibyshev" Potter with engine telegraph machines ran, trying to maneuver so moves, so as not to break the hemp rope. Both Simonov and Gonchar, acted not only skillfully, and with great skill, both wholly owned maritime skill, flair and will.
Ninety-seven man "Shattering" has already been transferred to the "Kuibyshev" when and hemp rope to break.
The weather continued to deteriorate. Had to resort to another method: take pictures of people with life-buoys, got involved every two meters to the new hemp rope. Such cables, each with a length of 300 meters, were served on "Crushing" from the 1st board "Kuibyshev" in reverse — "Uritsky." Hard to imagine how it looked in the snow squalls, and then the covering ships at sea seven or eight points, in the darkness … Yet there is a message that the method to pulling the buoys with people in them, failed to take on board "Kuibyshev" 70 more nine people. "Uritzky" took eleven.
On board the "shattering" left 15 people, among them Lieutenant miner doctor and deputy commander for political affairs, BC-5 Lieutenant Vladimirov. Where is the rest of the faces of the team? With Kurilekh clear: he rushed to save his person, and where the deputy, first mate, navigator, gunner, and others? Neuzh then followed the Kurilekh? ..
Staff requested the fleet, Vladimirov said that the command had left the ship. Here he very sensibly reported on its efforts: a pair of raised, ran mechanisms. The final words of the reports Vladimirov: — destroyer kept perfectly.
In connection with the departure of the destroyers of the "shattering" Golovko gave the order to immediately put off there, "Loud." He went out in 17 hours. For information about its movement very comforting. At 18 hours 10 minutes, at the outlet of the Kola Bay, lay on a course of 60 degrees, was sailing at 20 knots with feeble winds and a moderate sea. But as you move the ship north to 21 hours, the wind and wave uniformly increased to 6 points. Because of the strong impact waves into the body move "Loud" s
lackening of up to 15 knots. After 45 minutes the wind and wave For seven points. By reducing the speed to 10 knots, "Loud" to ease the pounding waves, turned into the wind.
Golovko later recalled in his memoirs:
"I regret that I had not sent yesterday to the" shattering "trawlers. Rumyantsev offered to send them, but I did not accept his proposal. It's my fault. I was sure after the destroyers found a "crushing", they will be able to take it in tow. Lost day, because you still need to send minesweepers.
Calling PV Panfilov (battalion commander trawlers) and put him puzzle, go to the "shattering" with 2 minesweepers — TIH-36-39 and minesweeper, remove all those who remained on the ship are broken down, then take it in tow and carry on the Kola Bay, if the weather will allow, if the weather is not allowed to remove any people or tow a boat, then be at the "shattering" and to keep it until the weather improved, but if the destroyer for the condition can not be towed and with good weather, to remove from it all staff, then ship to undermine and kill. In 23 hours the two trawlers out as intended. "
"Reasonable" in 15 hours and 15 minutes, "Kuibyshev" and "Uritzky" 15 hours 30 minutes left on the "shattering" because rescue personnel continue using all lifebuoys and can not, but expect improvement in the weather does not allow fuel in store : it on all 3 ships left to bleed on the working path. Before leaving, Simonov gave a semaphore to "Shattering" that all who remained on board of a broken ship, a submarine will be lifted as the weather improves.
Continue lifting personnel "shattering" on destroyers in the situation that has developed, it was unreal. Waves began to roll through the ships, and threatened the lives of all people on all vehicles. Removal of personnel accompanied the victims of eight people died from shock waves against the hull and under the screws, 10 people have been raised on board "Kuibyshev" and "Urickogo" in instinctive able to save their life failed.
Total received: on "Kuibyshev" 179 people, to "Uritzky" — 11 on "Reasonable" — one.
Asked in the end as man remained on board. With the destroyer said, "Fifty-oil." The question was repeated, adding that trawlers are on the way. Then on the "seven" rocket soared, later two, three … On the bridge decided first that used language code, but went fourth missile, 5th, and it was clear — any missile — is a farewell volley over yet dug the grave and such missiles calculated fifteen.
Both trawlers (TIH-36 and minesweeper-39) by dead reckoning arrived in 9 hours 10 minutes on Nov. 25 in the area of the tragedy of "shattering" and began the search systems of the front, shifting the tacks to the east. The ships were kept at the limit of visibility of each other. Visibility at the start of search by cables 10 to 12. Search is carried out in the criteria snowy charges in the north-west winds up to 5 points. Sea state four points. Nothing similar to what was within a few days. "Shattering" was not found …
November 26 Commissar of the Navy NG Kuznetsov signed a directive on the investigation of the death of the destroyer "Shattering» № 613 / W and 30 November — a directive on the training of the order on the death of the destroyer "Shattering» № 617 / S.
In the middle of December 1942 Commander of the Northern Fleet, Vice Admiral Golovko with pain in the heart, as he writes in his own memoirs, ordered: the search for a "crushing" finish, the ship presumed dead.
Were brought to the tribunal Kurilekh, Rudakov, Kalmyks, Isaenko. Navigator, communicator and medic platoon sent to the penalty. The commander Kurilekh was shot.
History disaster destroyer "devastating" has identified not only examples of timidity, and the majestic self-sacrifice in the name of saving his comrades. And so wrong those who try to hide the truth about this catastrophic page of our naval history. "Shattering" was, and we have to keep in mind about those who died fighting for his positions by running to the end of its own military and human duty.
1. Lekarev Gennady Antonovich, born in 1916, lieutenant, commander BC-3.
2. Vladimirov Ilya A., (1910), Political Officer WH-5.
3. Vasily Belov, S., (1915), Sergeant-Major, Sergeant team hold drivers.
4. Sidel'nikov Simon S., (1912), Warrant Officer, Chief Boatswain.
5. Boyko Trofim Markovic (1917), Petty Officer 2nd Class, squad-Turbinist drivers.
6. Nagorno Fedor (1919), the sailor, the signalman
7. Lyubimov Fedor, (1914), Senior Red, stoker older.
8. Gavrilov, Nikolai Kuzmich (1917), Senior Red driver-Turbinist older.
9. Purygin Vasily Ivanovich (1917), Senior Red, stoker older.
10. Zimovets Vladimir P., (1919), sailor, electrician.
11. Misha Savinov P., (1919), sailor, bilge driver.
12. Ternovoy Vasily Ivanovich (1916), Petty Officer 2nd Class, squad minders.
13. Artemyev Prokhorov S., (1919), sailor, stoker.
14. Dremlyuga Gregory S., (1919), sailor, stoker.
15. Chebiryako Gregory F., (1917), Senior Red, rangefinder older.
16. Shilatyrkin Paul A., (1919), sailor, stoker.
17. Bol'shov Sergei T., (1916), Senior Red, senior electrician.
Approximate location of death destroyer "Shattering": latitude 73 degrees 30 minutes north, longitude 43 degrees 00 minutes east. Now this area in the Barents Sea declared a memorable place, passing ships of the Northern Fleet is lower a little Andrew's flag.