Discovery of the islands
The issue of opening the Kuril Islands is disputed. According to the Japanese side, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun first set foot on the island in 1644. Map of long coated with a notation — "Kunashiri", "Etorofu" and other carefully preserved in the State Museum of Japanese History. A Russian explorers believe the residents of the rising sun, for the first time came to the Kuril chain only at the time of Tsar Peter I, in 1711, and on the Russian map of 1721, these islands are called the "Island of the Japanese."
But in reality the situation is different: in-1's, the first information about the Kuril Islands (with the Ainu language — "kuru" means "the man who came out of nowhere"), residents of the country of the rising sun have received from local residents of the Ainu (the oldest non-Japanese people and the Japanese Kuriles Islands) in the expedition to Hokkaido in 1635. And to the people themselves Kuril land of the rising sun due to constant conflicts with the local population is not reached.
It should be noted that the Ainu were aggressive inhabitants of the country of the rising sun, and by the Russian first treated well, considering them his "brothers", because of the similarity in the outward form and means of communication with the small peoples of the Russian.
In-2, the Kuril Islands opened the Dutch expedition Gerritsen Maarten de Vries (Freeze) in 1643, the Dutch found the so-called. "Golden Land". The Dutch did not like the land, and they sold their detailed description, a map of the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun. Specifically, on the basis of Dutch data inhabitants of the country of the rising sun and made their cards.
B-3, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun at that time had not only the Kuriles, and even Hokkaido, only its southern part was their strong point. Living in the country of the rising sun began their conquest of the island first of the 17th century, and the struggle with the Ainu was two centuries. In other words, if Russia were interested in expansion, it could be a Russian Hokkaido peninsula. This is facilitated by a good attitude to the Russian Ainu and their hostility to the people of the country of the rising sun. This fact, there are records. Since then, the Japanese government has not officially considered itself sovereign not only of Sakhalin and the Kuril land, and Hokkaido (Matsumae) — is confirmed in its own circular head of government land of the rising sun Matsudaira in Russian-Japanese negotiations on border and trade in 1772.
B-4, Russian researchers have visited the islands before the Japanese. In the Russian state first mention of the Kuril lands refers to 1646, when Nekhoroshkov Kolobov Ivanovich gave a report to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the campaigns of Ivan Jurevicha Moskvitina and said about living in the Kurils bearded Ainu. In addition, for the first Russian settlements in the Kuriles then report to the Dutch, Scandinavian and German medieval chronicles and maps. The first reports of the Kuril lands and their inhabitants have reached another Russian in the middle of the XVII century.
In 1697 during the expedition to Kamchatka Vladimir Atlasova have new information about the islands, the Russian looked up Simushir Island (peninsula average of Greater Kuril Islands).
Peter I knew about the Kuril Islands, in 1719 the governor sent a secret expedition to Kamchatka under the direction of Ivan Mikhailovich Evreinova and Fyodor Luzhin. Evreinov marine surveyor and land surveyor, cartographer Luzhin had to find whether there is between Asia and America Strait. The expedition reached the south of the island Simushir and led the local inhabitants and rulers of the oath the Russian state.
In the years 1738-1739 Sailor Martin P. Shpanberg (Dane by birth) went along the Kuril Islands struck all met at the map, including all Minor Kuril chain (this is huge 6 and a number of small islands, which are separated from the Great Southern Kurils Kuril Strait). He studied the land right up to Hokkaido (Matsumi), resulting in the local Ainu governors sworn in the Russian state.
In the upcoming Russian avoided voyages to the southern islands, mastered the northern areas. Unfortunately, at this time marked the abuse of Ainu not only by the Japanese, and Russian side.
In 1771, Lesser Kuril Ridge was derived from the Russian Federation, and ran across a protectorate of the Land of the Rising Sun. Russian authorities to improve the situation, were sent to the nobleman Antipin translator Shabalin. They were able to persuade the Ainu to the restoration of Russian citizenship. In the 1778-1779 years, Russian envoys brought into citizenship of more than 1.5 million people from Etorofu and even Hokkaido. In 1779, Catherine II, who took Russian citizenship freed from all taxes.
In 1787, a "lengthy zemleopisanii Russian state …" was a list of the Kuril Islands to Hokkaido right-Matsumi, the status of which has not yet been determined. Although the land to the south of the island of Urup Russia is not controlled, it acted residents of the country of the rising sun.
In 1799, by order of the Tokugawa seyi-tayseguna Yenaro, he led the Tokugawa Shogunate, Kunashir and Iturup constructed two outpost located there unchanging garrisons. So Makar, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun militarily secured the status of these territories in the land of the rising sun.
Gallaktichesky snapshot of the Lesser Kuril Ridge
In 1845, the Empire of Japan said in a one-sided manner of his own power over Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. This is of course not a good provoked a strong reaction from the Russian Emperor Nicholas I. But, to take measures Russian Empire did not have time to have prevented the action of the Crimean War. Therefore, it was decided to make concessions and not to go to war.
February 7, 1855 was signed the first a diplomatic agreement between Russia and Japan — Shimoda contract. It was signed by Vice-Admiral E. Putyatin and Tosiakira Kawazu. According to Article 9 of the Treaty establishes a "permanent peace and sincere friendship between Russia and Japan." Land of the rising sun moved away from the island of Iturup and south, have announced a joint Sakhalin, undivided ownership. Russia in the Land of the Rising Sun received consular yurispundentsiyu, Russian ships were allowed to enter the ports of Shimoda, Hakodate, Nagasaki. Russian Empire received more favorable treatment in trade with Japan, and won the right to open a representative office in the Russian ports to open. In other words, as a whole, especially given the difficult international position of, the contract can be assessed positively. Since 1981, residents of the country of the rising sun particular day of signing the contract Shimoda celebrated as "The Day of the Northern Territories."
It should be noted that almost the residents of the rising sun have qualified for the "Northern Territories" only "permanent peace and sincere friendship between Japan and Russia," more favorable treatment in trade relations. Their subsequent acts of de facto annulled the agreement.
Initially, the po
sition of the Shimoda contract on joint ownership of Sakhalin peninsula was more profitable for the Russian Empire, which had been active colonization of the area. The Empire of Japan did not have a decent fleet, because at that time had no such ability. But later the people of the country of the rising sun began to settle in the area hard Sakhalin, and the question of his membership began to get more and more controversial and hot temper. The contradictions of the Russian Federation and the Land of the Rising Sun have been solved by signing the St. Petersburg contract.
St. Petersburg contract. It was signed in the capital of the Russian Empire on April 25 (May 7), 1875. Under this agreement, the Empire of Japan Sakhalin transferred full ownership of the Russian Federation, and in return received all the Kuril Islands.
St. Petersburg contract in 1875 (Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archives land of the rising sun).
As a result of the Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905 and Treaty of Portsmouth August 23 (September 5) 1905 Russian Empire, in accordance with Article 9 of the agreement, ceded land of the rising sun the south of Sakhalin, south of 50 degrees north latitude. In Article 12 of the agreement was for a convention on fishing by the Japanese along the Russian coast of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea.
After the death of Russian Empire and the beginning of foreign intervention, the residents of the country of the rising sun occupied North Sakhalin, participated in the occupation of the Far East. When the Bolshevik Party won in the civilian war, Japan for a long time did not want to recognize the Soviet Union. Only after the Russian government in 1924 revoked the status of the Japanese representative office in Vladivostok and in the same year the Soviet Union recognized Britain, France and China, the Japanese government decided to restore the case with Moscow.
Beijing contract. February 3, 1924 in Beijing began formal negotiations of the USSR and the Land of the Rising Sun. Only 20 January 1925 signed the Soviet-Japanese Convention on the main principles of relations between the countries. Living in the country of the rising sun pledged to May 15, 1925 to withdraw its forces from the territory of the North Sakhalin. The Declaration of the Government of the USSR, which was attached to the convention, it was stressed that the Russian government does not share the former Russian Empire government politically responsible for the signing of the peace treaty of Portsmouth in 1905. In addition, the convention was secured agreement between the parties that all prisoners between Russia and Japan until November 7, 1917 agreements, treaties and conventions, not counting the Portsmouth peace treaty should be reviewed.
In general, the Soviet Union went on a huge concession: namely, the Japanese subjects, companies, and associations have been granted the rights to operate the raw natural resources of the entire country of the Union of Russian. July 22, 1925 signed a contract for the Japanese empire coal concession, and December 14, 1925 — oil concession in the North Sakhalin. Moscow took the agreement to stabilize the situation in such a Makarov Russian Far East, since the inhabitants of the country of the Rising Sun supported the Whites outside the USSR. But ultimately the people of the country of the rising sun began to systematically violate the Convention, to create conflict.
During the Soviet-Japanese negotiations, which took place in the spring of 1941 at the conclusion of the contract of neutrality, the Russian side raised the issue of the elimination of concessions land of the rising sun in the North Sakhalin. Living in the country of the rising sun have given us their written consent, but delayed the implementation of the agreement for 3 years. Only when the Soviet Union began to gain the upper hand over the Third Reich, the Japanese government agreed to the implementation of the earlier agreement. For example, March 30, 1944 in Moscow signed a protocol on winding up Japanese oil and coal concessions in Northern Sakhalin and the transfer of Russian Union of Japanese concession assets.
February 11, 1945 At the Yalta Conference Three majestic powers — the Russian alliance, the United States, England — have gained a verbal agreement to join the Soviet Union in the war against the Empire of Japan on the criteria of returning him after the second World War, South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.
The Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945 stated that Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to only the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku, and other more small islands, which would indicate the country favorites. The Kuril Islands were not mentioned.
After the defeat of the Land of the Rising Sun, January 29, 1946 Memorandum number 677 South American Commander of the Allied Powers, General Douglas MacArthur from the Japanese countryside were excluded Chishima Island (Kuril Islands), a group of islands Habomadze (Khabomai) and the peninsula Sikotan (Shikotan).
According to San Francisco Peace Treaty on September 8, 1951, the Japanese side has refused to renounce all rights to Southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. But the people of the country of the rising sun say Iturup, Shikotan, Kunashir and Habomai (islands of the Lesser Kuril Ridge) to the islands Chishima (Kuril Islands) is not included and from their they do not turn away.
Negotiations in Portsmouth (1905) — left to right: from the Russian side (the far part of the table) — Planson, Nabokov, Witte, Rosen, Korostovetz.
Joint Declaration. October 19, 1956 Russian Alliance and Japan adopted a joint declaration. The document ended the state of war between the countries and vorachival diplomatic affairs, also read about Moscow's consent to the transfer of the Japanese islands of Habomai and Shikotan. But they had to pass only after the signing of the peace treaty. But later, Japan was obliged to turn away from the signing of the peace treaty with the Soviet Union. The United States threatened to residents of the country of the rising sun does not give the whole of Okinawa and the Ryukyu Archipelago, if they renounce claims to the other islands of the Lesser Kuril Ridge.
Once in January 1960, Tokyo and Washington signed a contract for assistance and security, extending the military presence of the Yankees in the Japanese islands, Moscow declared that it refuses to consider the transfer of the islands to the Japanese side. The application was due to the issue of security of the USSR and China.
In 1993 he was signed by the The Tokyo Declaration of Russian-Japanese relations. It said that the Russian Federation — is the successor of the USSR, and recognizes the agreement in 1956. Moscow has expressed willingness to start negotiations on the territorial claims of the Land of the Rising Sun. In Tokyo, it is appreciated as a sign of future victory.
In 2004, the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov made the statement that Moscow recognizes the Declaration of 1956 and is ready to negotiate a peace treaty based on it. In 2004-2005, this position was confirmed by President Vladimir Putin.
But the people of the country of the rising sun insisted on the transfer of four islands, because the issue has not been resolved. And the people of the country are uniformly Japan increased their pressure, so, in 2009, the head of government land of the rising sun at a government meeting referred to the Small Kuril chain "illegally occupied territories." In 2010 and early 2011, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun as "razduharilis"
; that some military experts began to talk about the ability of the modern Russian-Japanese war. Only natural spring tragedy — the consequences of the devastating earthquake and tsunami, the tragedy of Fukushima — cooled the ardor land of the rising sun.
In the end, the Japanese sounding statements have led to the fact that Moscow has announced that the islands are a territory of Russian Federation on legitimate grounds on the basis of the second world war, it is enshrined in the UN Charter. And Russian sovereignty over the Kuril Islands, which has a corresponding international legal proof, can not be questioned. There were also announced plans for the development of the island's economy and strengthening the military presence there of.
The strategic importance of the islands
— The economic factor. Virtually undeveloped island economically, but there are deposits of precious and rare earth metals — gold, silver, rhenium, titanium. The waters are rich in biological resources of the sea, which washes the shores of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands are one of the more productive areas of the oceans. Are of paramount importance and shelves where found deposits of hydrocarbons.
— The political factor. The assignment of the islands will dramatically reduce the status of in the world, there will be an opportunity to review the legal and other outcomes of the second world war. For example, can claim to Kaliningrad region of Germany or part of Karelia in Finland.
— The military factor. Transfer of the islands of the South Kuril Islands will provide Naval forces land of the rising sun and the U.S. free access to the Sea of Okhotsk. Will allow our enemies to make it possible to control the strategically necessary torrential zones, dramatically worsen the ability to deploy forces of the Pacific Fleet, including the Premier League with intercontinental ballistic missiles. This will be a serious blow to Russia's military security.