ATRA is home to Germany
The creator of the first anti-tank — anti-tank guided missiles, as well as many other fascinating military developments, and Germany is directly engineer Max Kramer. In 1941, the BMW company started research work in the field of guided missile weapons. The development is the world's first anti-tank known as the Panzerabwehrrakete X-7 (defensive anti-tank missile) began in 1943. This missile was the title of the X-7 Rotkappchen (translated from German. "Red Riding Hood"). For the main anti-tank guided missile served as X-4 class "air-to-air." First 7 rocket test launches were made Sept. 21, 1944, and in late 1944 — early 1945 in Germany spent about another weave starts.
By the spring of last year of the war the company "Rurshtal Brekvede" produced about 300 Panzerabwehrrakete X-7, rocket was performed on the aerodynamic configuration "tailless." Cigar-shaped body length of 790 mm rockets. and a diameter of 140 mm. equipped with a stabilizer on the outrigger and 2 wings swept back. Wings mounted on the ends 2 of the container with wires. Aiming at the target missile systems produced using a special tracer placed in the back of her body. Of the gunner missiles required throughout its flight look to it that this marker was focused precisely on the target. Launcher "Red Riding Hood" was commonplace rail tripod length of 1.5 m and a weight of 15 kg. Mass anti-tank was 9 lbs. At present, did not match any of the 1st reliable evidence on the use of these missiles in combat criteria.
After the war, X-7 standards have been applied in the states of the favorites for the creation of its own missile systems. With all of this more significant success in the development of similar missiles able to reach the West. In France in 1948, on the basis of "Little Red Riding Hood" have made SS-10 missile systems in Switzerland with 2 years earlier constructed ATGM "Cobra".
First generation ATGM
May 8, 1957 in the Soviet Union, the government issued a decree on the development of jet guided weapons. And on May 28 of the same year to the creation of anti-tank "Bumblebee" started Kolomenskoye KB. Work on the creation of missiles headed young engineer SP Invincible. The basic principle that guided the founders of the rocket was her simplification of complex devices to display only the fuse and two-stage gyro. Missile control performed by the operator, with all this command to the missile passed by a two-wire cable that is unwound from a coil mounted in the missile systems. The design of the rocket itself was also the most common: the base was shaped-charge warhead, for it was a gyro, then coil the cable, and then start marching and solid engines.
In April 1958 held the first test-firing more unmanageable "Bumble", experienced in the summer and has already managed versions on August 28 ATGM ZM6 "Bumblebee" in the complex 2K15 was demonstrated military and political control of the USSR at the Kapustin Yar. August 1, 1960 "Bumblebee" was quite taken by the Russian army. His baptism of fire of the first generation ATGM systems have been in the war between Israel and Egypt in 1956 (using SS-10, produced in France). Russian anti-tank systems "Bumblebee" for the first time been applied to the Arab-Israeli war of 1967.
A feature of all the first-generation anti-tank was that suggest the missile target in manual mode (method of "three points"), an operator using a joystick cooperated rocket to hold it constantly in view. To commands from ATRA to the rocket has been implemented through the wire, which unrolls with special coils installed in the rocket itself. The rate of the first guided missile system was 150-200 m / s, the possibility of hitting the target — 60-70%, at such missiles was a "dead zone" of 200-400 meters, a small distance for the shooting was 500 meters, the highest — 3 kilometers. One of the most recognizable of the first generation ATGM was Russian complex "Baby".
The performance properties of ATRA Baby:
Range, small — 500 m, maximum — 3000 m;
Guidance system: teamwork, by wire, hand;
Armor piercing shaped-charge warhead — up to 400 mm;
Warhead weight — 2,6 kg.
Second generation ATGM
Analysis of the use of ATRA in real armed conflict has shown the need to improve this type of weapon, because the first-generation anti-tank due to manual control sufficiently effective only at a distance of no more than 1 kilometer. These missiles had a small marching speed and low rate of fire. For their implementation required highly skilled operators. All this has become a prerequisite that the designers have started to work on the complexes of the last generation in which attempted to remove certain difficulties or reduce their impact. Thus were born the second-generation anti-tank systems with automatic guidance system. Research and development work on their creation started in 1961.
Battle of the new anti-tank warhead with an equal weight in comparison with the first generation possessed, usually 1.5-2 times greater armor penetration. Average flight speed of up to 160-200 m / s. The transfer to the firing position has been reduced to an average of 1 minute. A small range of effective fire was reduced to 50-75 meters, which allowed to hit targets at a small distance. ATRA were supplied with special transport and launch container (TPC), which were used for storage and to start ATGM. But for all that was left, and a number of shortcomings, among which are the need for a gunner to accompany the entire flight of the missile to hit a target without changing its own firing position in for 20-25 seconds.
It should be noted that the top picks in the development of second-generation anti-tank systems have become Americans, who in 1970 adopted a set of wearable Ammunition-TOW (the main developer — the company Hughes Aircraft), and in 1972 a portable anti-tank systems Dragon (creator — the company McDonnell Douglas). At this time in Europe on arms made in West Germany and France LAW NOTES, also carried MILAN (created by the Franco-German concern Euromissile). First Russian anti-tank systems, are second generation to enter the army in 1970, 1974 and 1978 — a portable anti-tank systems 9K111 «Bassoon," wearable Ammunition ATRA-9K113 "Competition" and a portable anti-tank systems 9K115 "Metis", respectively. The developer of ATRA acted Instrument Design Bureau of Tula.
In fact, right from the assumption of weapons systems ATRA the second generation have been tested in real combat. New abilities complexes have led to a revision of strategies to combat use. It has been suggested the division of the complexes on the methods of transpo
rtation, and the firing range. Who or motorized rifle infantry platoon was given a portable package with an effective firing range — up to 2000 meters. Such a calculation of ATRA served 2 people. In turn, wearable Ammunition Ammunition or ATRA with an effective range of up to 4,000 meters ascribed to the larger units — or the company of the battalion.
The performance properties of ATRA «TOW» basic version of the BGM-71A:
Range, low — 65 m, maximum — 3750 m;
Control system: visually induced from a launcher on the wire;
Armor piercing shaped-charge warhead — 600 mm;
Warhead weight — 3.9 kg.
ATRA of 2 +
Build and upgrade a second-generation anti-tank systems was carried out without annoying and as new technical skills. Afterward, many systems have evolved to painlessly generation 2 +. Through the use of the latest scientific and technological achievements of ATRA have severe high precision instrument that allowed a wide range of excellent hitting targets. One of the more illustrative examples of effective use of the complexes of the generation was the use of ATRA "Storm". For example, in 2003, the Iraqi military by the use of anti-tank "Storm-C" and "Storm-In" were able to hit the enemy 43 MBT latest developments, as over 70 different armored infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, self-propelled guns, SAM and ATGM coalition forces.
Successfully applied these complexes during the Russian-Georgian conflict in August 2008. Then up to 2/3 of all purposes (weapons, military and special equipment as well as objects of the Georgian Armed Forces) were struck by the use of air-based missile systems. As part of the counter-terrorist operation in the North Caucasus antitank missiles used to attack different kinds of weapons and bunkers, pillboxes and other types of fortified emplacements, to defeat the enemy troops.
Feature of the second generation ATGM was that the missile target already be induced in automatic mode (two-point method). With this method, the operator of the complex crosstalk should only cooperate crosshair and target, and the missile is over the object of affection without the help of others. This would bring the possibility of getting up to 90-95%, with all this saving command from the complex to the missile via the wire kept at a level flight speed of 150-200 km / s. This problem was solved after the band appeared wireless communications. After which the connection between the complex and the missile was carried out using a special radio, noise immunity and possesses several overlapping each other frequencies. In addition, support was ATGM may be in the infrared range, on the second generation thermal imaging sights there.
The performance properties of ATRA "Storm" with ATGM "Ataka":
Range, small — 400 m, maximum — 6000 m;
Control: or radio command, or a laser beam;
Broneprobivaemost tandem HEAT warhead — up to 800 mm;
Warhead weight — 5,4 kg.
Immediately to the development of weapons of armored vehicles, and in some kinds of cases and ahead of the development of improved means of protection against them. Made their adjustments and new strategies for the use of units of combat. The main feature of the third-generation anti-tank is that the rocket was induced on the target at one hundred percent in the automatic mode. Racket armed seeker, she finds herself the target and destroys it.
The main directions in the development of third-generation ATGM now follow: increased ability destruction of armored targets with a single rocket fired, increasing the maximum firing range, increasing the survivability of the complex on the battlefield and his all-weather use; readiness and achieve the highest rate of increase, implementation of the principles, "see -shoot "and" "fire and forget", the highest noise immunity, as the implementation of a fiber-optic data transmission to the operator to control the flight of missiles and capture target seeker after completion of startup.
The extensive use of ATRA as a precision tool company level infantry units led to look different, namely to equip warheads. These days are the third generation anti-tank systems can be equipped with a massive tandem shaped-charge warhead providing armor at 1000-1200 mm, incendiary warhead (thermobaric) and explosive acts as high-explosive warhead. For more advanced Russian anti-tank systems 3rd generation can be attributed well-known outside Russia and complexes "Kornet-EM" and "Chrysanthemum"
The performance properties of the ATGM "Kornet-EM":
Range, small — 100 m, maximum — 10 000 m;
Control system: automatic with teleorientirovaniem in a laser beam;
Armor piercing shaped-charge warhead — 1100-1300 mm.
Warhead weight — 4.6 kg;
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