In the 1960s and 80s. in the Soviet Union made several 10-s test fighters satellites. The last such trial was held June 18, 1982 It was part of a huge Russian nuclear forces exercises, dubbed the West "seven-hour nuclear war." Exercises, which were launched during land and sea-launched ballistic missiles, anti-missiles, military satellites (including the interceptor), produced by the United States administration constant remembrance. "Seven Hour nuclear war" gave a compelling argument South American military and the politicians who demanded to start work on the creation in the U.S. anti-satellite and anti-missile systems of last generation.
The decision to develop and deploy anti-satellite system President Ronald Reagan announced a month after the "seven-hour nuclear war" — in July 1982 then, March 23, 1983 Reagan appointed the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). This example program soon named the "Star wars" in honor of the movie is popular.
In the U.S., work to create a martial gallakticheskih stations have turned first 70 years, before the announcement of Reagan's SDI applets. Offers the most exotic designs with the introduction of the kinetic, laser and beam weapons. So, for example, the possibility of in-orbit delivery of the massive X-ray laser. Provided the energy for it to be a nuclear explosion. But in fact not all that turned out just like on paper. A series of tests of the laser beam gun and found a lot of problems that South American scientists have failed to solve the right to work on the collapse of the official IDF in 1993
And what about Russian Alliance? In the middle 70s. work on the shock gallakticheskomu weapons were launched in the "Energia", headed by Valentin Glushko. Parent role of "Energy" has been issued a special Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers "On examining the ability of the creation of tools for fighting in space and from space."
In the official history of the RSC "Energia". S.P.Tsaritsa, published in 1996, was said about these works follow:
To destroy the military facilities were designed gallakticheskih two combat spacecraft to a similar design concept, kitted out different types of airborne weapon systems — laser and missile ..
The smallest mass airborne weapon system with a rocket gun, compared to the complex with a laser gun, allowed to carry on board the spacecraft in store more fuel, because it seemed appropriate to create a system with a constellation, consisting of military satellites, one part of which is armed with a laser, and the other — missile weapon. With all of this first type of devices had to be used on low-orbit objects, and the second — on the objects placed on the medium-and geostationary orbits .. "
Both types of military spacecraft development of "Energia", it was decided to make a constructive basis. Based on assessments of future massive hell combat systems as the basic platform was chosen space station type 17K DOS. "Energia" already had extensive experience operating machines such class. On the basis of this reference platform, as mentioned above, have been developed two combat the complex:
17F19 "Scythian"- A system that provides for the introduction of lasers
17F111 "Cascade" — a system with a rocket gun.
"Energia" was the lead organization for the entire program there and anti-missile weapons gallakticheskogo home. The parent company of the laser complex for "Scythian" was the NGO "Astrophysics" — a leading Russian company on lasers. Missile system for "Cascade" was developed in the firm A.E.Nudelmana known Russian designer tools for aircraft and spacecraft. In orbit "Scythians" and "Cascades" were the first (pilot) step RN 8K82K "Proton-K", and later — the orbiter 11F35OK "Buran". For longer alerting any of these types of spacecraft was able to refuel, which had to provide the "Buran". In addition, for the possibility of visiting the battle stations crew of 2 persons for up to 7 days to ship type "Alliance".
Rocket station "Cascade"
The smallest mass airborne weapon system "cascade" with a rocket gun, compared with a set of "Scythian" with a laser gun, allowed to carry on board the spacecraft in store more fuel, because it seemed appropriate to create a system with a constellation consisting of gallakticheskih combat vehicles, one part of which is armed with a laser, and the other — aircraft guns. With all of this first type of spacecraft was to be applied on low-orbit objects, and the second — on the objects placed on the medium-and geostationary orbits.
To start defeat ballistic missiles and their head blocks on the passive portion of the flight in the "Energia" to set "Cascade" project was developed interceptor missile gallakticheskogo home. In the practice of "Energia" it was the smallest, but the most power per missile. Suffice it to say that the starting weight, measured in tens of kilograms, interceptor missile had the characteristic velocity of supplies commensurate with the characteristic velocity missiles that bring modern payloads into orbit satellite. Highest properties are achieved through the introduction of technical solutions based on the latest achievements of Russian science and technology in the field of miniaturization of instrumentation. Authoring "Energia" was a unique propulsion system that uses non-traditional non-cryogenic fuel and heavy-duty composite materials.
For orbital missile tests it was decided to install them on the cargo ship "Progress". The first step in 1986-88. 5 were scheduled to fly these ships within applets "Cascade". On the basis of the production of "Energia" — Factory Experimental Engineering (MEM) started the ready these ships under the hull number 129, 130, 131, 132 and 133. But before the flight tests, it never came.
To defeat a particularly principled ground targets developed gallakticheskaya station, base station which was a series of dos and 17K which were to be based stand-alone modules with ballistic warheads or plan type. Special command module separated from the station, maneuvering means t
hey had to take the right position in gallakticheskom office space with the following blocks on the team for combat use. The design and the main systems of autonomous modules were taken from an orbiting shuttle "Buran". Alternatively, the warhead was considered the unit on the basis of the experimental model OK "Buran" (product family "BOR").
Battle gallakticheskaya station. 1 — basic block, 2 — control center warheads, 3 — reusable transport ship "Dawn", 4 — Modules battle station with impact complexes, 5 — combat modules (based on the fuselage OK "Buran")
Fighting module goes into the goal.
The same base unit as on the orbital station "Mir", those are the side (no longer a secret that "Range", for example, estimated test of the optical detection system of missile launches. A stabilized platform with television cameras and at the "Crystal" — What is the aim is not?), but instead of Astrophysics "Quantum" — a module with a set of command and control. Under the "ball" transfer compartment — another adapter on which there are four modules (based on the "Buranovskie" fuselage) with warheads. It is, so to speak, "starting position." Alarm they are separated and crawl into working orbit, elected from the following judgment: that each pack is its purpose at the time when it will be flown over the control center.
The fuselage of the "Buran" is used in this project on a "do not disappear as good": the huge supplies of fuel in the combined propulsion system and is not bad control system can rapidly maneuver in orbit, with all this need Georgia — combat units are in a container, hidden from inquisitive eyes, as well as adverse factors gallakticheskogo flight.
What is significant in the context of strategic deterrence — this system will cause the impact guns, "surgical" strike even in this case will be destroyed everything else. As the submarine, it is able to ride out the first volley.
Military motivated to load OK "Buran" was developed on the basis of a special secret decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers "On examining the ability of the creation of tools for fighting in space and from space" (1976)
Combat units, representing an actually planning a nuclear bomb, were placed in a compact payload bay martial percussion module with folded wing panels in three or four alternate set of revolving catapult launchers.
Dimensions of the payload bay of "Buran" permit to locate on each rotating catapult set up to 5 combat units, as shown in the figure. Given the likely side-maneuver each combat unit during the descent into the atmosphere more than plus / minus 1100 — 1500 km one stroke module could kutsee time in its 20 maneuverable warheads to wipe all life off the face of the Earth in a bandwidth of up to 3,000 km.
There is information about other military qualities of the implementation of orbiters. Namely, in the framework of the "asymmetric response" of the American programmke "Star Wars" (SDI — Strategic Defense Initiative) addressed issues of mining with the "Buran" gallakticheskogo near-Earth space with the creation of the irresistible curtains for gallakticheskogo sector SDI. Moreover, the Soviet Union conducted research with experimental testing of ground to build orbital blasting clouds rapidly and completely "clearing out" of gallakticheskih all near-Earth space vehicles to altitudes of 3000 km. Naturally, after that near-Earth space became completely unavailable for several months, but those measures are to be used only during (or immediately before) the full-scale military conflict between the USSR and the USA. As you know, "you can not make an omelet without breaking eggs" ..
But far more advanced work on the laser gun. Because of the development of laser guns is gallakticheskogo tell more carefully.
The story of "SKIF".
The fight against ballistic missiles has been very difficult discrepancy. Therefore, the customer — the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, decided to first develop an effective anti-satellite weapons. After disable the spacecraft is much easier than to find and kill the flying warhead. But in the Russian Union has developed the so-called programm "anti-SDI." This system was to destroy the future South American military satellites, the U.S. denying protection from nuclear missiles. These Russian-station "killer" perfectly fit into the framework of the military doctrine of the Soviet Union, which provided the so called "pre-emptive strike back", according to which the first Russian gallakticheskie station "anti-SDI" had to destroy the South American station SOI, and then started to Russian ballistic missiles to strike at the enemy's location.
The decision was at first sight quite normal: set on the spacecraft already made and tested a laser to test it in space. The choice fell on the laser installation of a 1 MW, made by one of the branches of the Institute of Atomic Energy. Kurchatov. This gas dynamic laser operating on carbon dioxide, has been designed to be installed on the aircraft IL-76. By 1983, he had already passed flight tests.
The history of air laser project is closely intertwined with the project gallakticheskogo laser. Because, despite the fact that it is beyond the scope of article, it is worth briefly about it to tell. Besides the description of the laser on the IL-76 provides insight into the laser for testing in space.
Battle laser tested for IL-76MD, tail number CCCP-86879 (otherwise it was called Il-76LL with BL — flying laboratory IL-76 combat laser). This aircraft looked peculiar. To power the laser and associated equipment at the edges of the bow was equipped with two turbo AI-24W power 2.1 MW. Instead of full-time weather radar was installed on the nose big bulbous dome on a special adapter to which was attached to an elongated bottom fairing much less. Of course, there was located antenna aiming system that hovered all around, catching the target.
Originally it was decided to placing the laser gun: so as not to spoil the aerodynamics of the aircraft has a fairing, a shell made retractable. The top of the fuselage between the wing and the keel was cut out and replaced with a tremendous wings, consisting of several parts. They were cleaned inside the fuselage, and then get out upstairs with a gun turret. The wing were campaigning for circuit fuselage fairings with a profile similar profile of the wing. Cargo ramp preserved, but wing cargo hatches were removed and the flap sewn metal.
Revision aircraft did Tagonrogsky Aviation Research Complex (Beriev) them. Beriev Taganrog and Machine-Building Plant. ZHoru Dimitrov.
Gallaktichesky apparatus created for the installation of its megawatt laser Il-76LL with BC, wa
s designated 17F19D "Skif-D". Shaped as letters "D" stands for "demo". August 27, 1984 the Minister of General Engineering Oleg D. Baklanov signed a decree on the development N343/0180 17F19D "Skif-D". CB "Salute" was determined by the head of his creation. The same order has been approved programm to create the following types of military spacecraft languid. Then the order of the IOM N168 from May 12, 1985 was established cooperative companies that manufacture "Skif-D". In the end, due to the fact that the missile defense issue has been one of the priorities for "Skif-D" aired January 27, 1986 Decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU g and the Council of Ministers of the USSR N135-45. Such an honor awarded every Russian spacecraft. Under this Regulation the first launch into orbit "Skif-D" was to be held in the 2nd quarter of 1987
"Skif-D" was the first experimental spacecraft, which have been practiced not only the laser, and some staff of the following devices that are created within the framework of programs from "Russian SDI." It was the system of separation and orientation, motion control system, power supply system, control system onboard complex.
The device was 17F19D should also show the possibility of creating a fundamentally spacecraft to hit targets in space. To test the laser on "Skif-D" was planned to establish specific targets simulating enemy missiles, warheads and satellites. But such a powerful position laser on the unit class station DOS was unreal. The yield was found quickly. By 1983, became visible "light at the end of the tunnel" with LV 11K25 "Energy". This vehicle could accelerate to speeds close to the first gallakticheskoy, a payload of about 95 tons. Specifically, such a mass fit and the unit with air megawatt laser.
To speed up the progress of work on the "Skif-D" KB "Salute", it was decided to use the very experience of previous and ongoing work at the time. The structure of "Skif-D" includes elements of the transport ship TCS and the orbiter "Buran", the base unit and modules OK, "Mir", "Proton-K". The unit had a length of about 40 m, the largest diameter of 4.1 m and a weight of about 95 tons.
Structurally, the first "Skif-D" (tail number 18101) consisted of a 2-connected among themselves aggressively modules: functional unit of service (FSB) and a reasoned module (CM). FSB, developed based on the Functional Cargo Block 11F77 11F72 TKS spacecraft, was used for dorazgona "Skif-D" after his separation from the launch vehicle: the block to add the necessary 60 m / s to exit the spacecraft into low orbit support. The FSB has also housed the main offices of the unit. For their energy supply for the FSB installed solar panels on the TCS.
Motivated module did not have prototypes. It consisted of 3 sections: section of working fluids (ORT), power cabin (MA) and the cover of special equipment (OCA). In the ORT had placed a CO2 tank to power the laser. Energy compartment intended for installation of 2-huge electric turbine generator (ETG), capacity 1.2 MW each. In positioned himself OCA battle and laser guidance system and retention (NUS). To facilitate the purpose of laser sighting was decided to make the head of the OCA rotating relative to the rest of the unit. In the 2-side blocks the OCA had placed a target for practicing as NUS and military laser.
But the creators of "Skif-D" faced with a number of technical problems. In 1-x, it was quite clear to start in orbit in the criteria for vacuum and gas-dynamic laser weightlessness on carbon dioxide. To deal with this problem of the Plant them. Khrunichev, it was decided to do a special test board. Shield held a giant area and included four 20-meter vertical cylindrical vacuum tower, two 10-foot ball cryogenic storage tank component, an extensive network of large diameter pipelines. Until now, these structures on the ground Khrunichev. MV Khrunichev reminiscent of a bygone programmke "Russian SDI."
A lot of gas dynamics problems caused megawatt laser. When his work was very high consumption of the working gas (CO2). Emanating from the laser jet of gas caused a disturbing moment. To prevent it decided to establish a system of membrane exhaust (SBV). A special piping, nicknamed for its own appearance, "trousers", walked into the energy of the laser chamber. There was established a special exhaust pipe with gas rudders to compensate for disturbing moment. SBV has developed and made NPO. SA Lavochkin.
Severe difficulties emerged in the development of the power system of the laser, in particular — ETG. At their trials were cases of explosions. Work turbine generator also caused a huge disturbance torques on the apparatus.
Very complex motion control system out of "Skif-D". After all, she had to create targeting swivel head and the entire apparatus of the target, with all this compensating disturbances from power the generators from the exhaust gases from the laser, and of themselves by turns very weighty, but with all this very rapidly rotating head of the OCA. Already in 1985 it was clear that there will be a test launch of the spacecraft just to practice all these support systems. Therefore, it was decided the product "Skif-D1" to be launched without a military laser, and only the "Scythian-D2" absolutely equip "spetskompleksom."
The "Skif-D" elm in all these dilemmas and difficulties. Designer of "Salute" stumbled on all new and new intractable puzzles. Naturally, over time, they could be overcome, but not at the pace that set orders IOM and Regulation CC and CM. At the end of 1985, regarding plans for 1986-87, the start of "Skif-D1" N18101 planned for June 1987, and the "Scythian-D2" N18301 with a laser — by 1988
Follow the "Skif-D" KB "Salute" was planned to make the machine 17F19S "Skiff Stiletto." It was also apparatus languid class, designed to run on the OS "Energy". December 15, 1986 an order was issued on the direction N515 IOM works in the years 1987-90, which appeared and "Skiff Stiletto." On this unit, were going to install on-board a special complex (BCC) 1Q11 "Stiletto", developed by NPO "Astrophysics".
"Stiletto" for 17F19S gallaktichesky was a variant of the world's "Stiletto" already made and held in the 80s tests. It was a "desyatistvolnaya" installation of infrared lasers operating at a wavelength of 1.06 nm. But, the ground "Stiletto" was not intended to destroy or destruction of enemy equipment. It just did not let the atmosphere and energy. Lasers are intended for the scrapping of the sights and optical sensor devices. On Earth, the use of "Stiletto" was ineffective. In space, due to the vacuum radius of his actions greatly increased. "Stiletto — gallaktichesky" totally could be used as anti-vehicle. After the failure of the optical sensor unit gallakticheskogo enemy was tantamount to the death of the satellite. To increase the effectiveness of the act "Stiletto" in space was designed by a special telescope. In September 1986, the electronic operating model "Stiletto" was made by NGO "Astrophysics" and put in the bank "Salute" to the test. In August 1987 he was made a poster layout of the telescope housing.
In the upcoming planned to create a whole family of different devices languid class. Was the idea of creation and unified gallakticheskogo 17F19U complex "Scythian-U" on the platform languid class under the RN "Energy".
Practical implementation of the project.
In the middle of 1985 has entered the final stage of preparation for the maiden launch of 11K25 "Energy" 6SL. Initially planned for launch in 1986. Since the orbiter "Buran" was not ready yet, at the Ministry of General Machine Building, it was decided to launch PH "Energy" with the layout of the spacecraft 100-ton weight as payload. In July 1985, the Chief Designer of "Salute" D.A.Poluhin gathered leaders of the office and said that the Minister of General Engineering O.D.Baklanov put the puzzle to make a 100-ton model of the test of "Energy." The layout was to be ready by September 1986
After all the adjustments of project tasks there was a project vehicle "Scythian-A breadboard "or 17F19DM" Skif-DM. "August 19, 1985 came the respective order signed by Baklanov N295.
Flying prototype spacecraft 17F19DM "Skif-DM" consisted of a 2-modules: the FSB and the CM, had a length of 36.9 meters and maximum diameter of 4.1 meters and a weight of 77 tons, along with the payload fairing.
By the time of the development of "Skif-DM" in the NPO. Lavochkin was actually ready exhaust system of the membrane. Therefore it was decided to establish SBV on 17F19DM tests for gas dynamics and the definition of the disturbing moment when leaving it gas. But if it was used for carbon dioxide, the zabugornom analysts would be very natural destiny "Skif-DM". And so for the tests chosen mixture of xenon and krypton. This mixture is allowed to conduct geophysical fascinating experience — to study the interaction of artificial gas formations with ionospheric plasma of the Earth. This cover-up tests SBV was more or less convincing.
In fact it was prepared in September 1986 and the systems used for aiming a laser "Skif-D" on the target and keeping goals in sight. Guidance produced in two steps. Initially used for coarse pointing airborne radar (radar), developed in the metropolitan Institute of clear devices. Then clear guidance produced system targeting and retention (NUS) was used for this low-power laser. SNU Kazan created by "Radio set" — the leading company in the USSR by the AIS. For the processing of data from radar and NUS and co-operation of these systems with the executive organs of the traffic management in the Tribunal "Skif-DM" used digital computer "Argon-16", similar to that of a digital computer on the base unit station "Mir". To calibrate the sensors NUS and tests of the system it was decided to use a detachable target (such as balloons and corner reflectors). These targets were used during the tests applied military complex with the introduction of "Peony" in the TCS-M "Kosmos-1686" in 1985 and designed for the complex "Lira" module "Range" station "Mir". Targets were set on inflatable barium plasma generators to simulate the engines of ballistic missiles and satellites.
Outside, the entire "Skif-DM" had a special coating of dark color. It was to provide a temperature control unit. Inside the module motivated "Skif-DM" stood not very many fuel devices. Therefore it was necessary to use the very heat of the sun to heat. The dark coating is allowed to do. 10 years later, the same coverage for the same purpose has been applied to the energy module "Zarya" (FGB) 77KM N17501 for international gallakticheskoy station.
Again highlight the need to dispel a lot of rumors, walking about the "Pole" / "Skif-DM": fighting megawatt laser on it did not stand, in general, as well as elektroturbogeneratorov providing its job! And yet, there is no damage to the side of "Skif-DM" is not supposed to shoot off target: they simply had nothing to hit!
The complex is composed of RN 11K25 "Energy" N6SL and CA 17F19DM "Skif-DM" N18201, was designated 14A02. The main task for "Skif-DM" was to test the principles of the creation of the SC 100-ton class, output rocket 11K25 "Energy". Experience the creation 17F19DM had to be needed for the following works on devices languid class. For the first time in Russian astronautics desired load placed asymmetrically on a rocket from the side. Created a number of new systems with the development of new technologies and the development of new materials. Created and the brand new cooperative companies, which subsequently had to work on "Russian SDI." Apart from the Bureau "Salute" and plant them. Khrunichev in the development of "Skif-DM" participated by 45 companies of the Ministry of General Machine Building, and 25 companies from other industries.
But in the process of work on the project "Skif-DM" programm initial tests was significantly reduced. And the premise that were not technical. By this time, "the process of restructuring has gone" full speed. Became General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev deliberately used the thesis of peaceful space and more than once publicly denounced the SDI program from South American and plans to militarize space. And under the influence of these new trends in the top echelon of the party of power formed group, which opposed the demonstration flight abilities of the layout of the orbital laser station.
On the basis of policy decisions by the State Commission launch of "Skif-DM" in February 1987 canceled the flight apparatus in the program all the shooting of targets, tests and radar NUS, the release of krypton-xenon gas through consistency of SBV. Decided to only bring "Skif-DM" in orbit, and a month to bring it into the atmosphere over a deserted area of the Pacific Ocean. Consider too that would be in the U.S. of such tremendous, but were silent machine — hard to say. Perhaps, there would have been no less conspicuous than in the case of target shooting and release of gas clouds. Now programm flight "Skif-DM" included only 10 more "safe" test four military applied geophysical and 6.
And for a few days before the scheduled start of 11 May 1987 Gorbachev came to the launch site. May 12, he became acquainted with the standards gallakticheskoy technology, including the military. In the end, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee was very pleased with what he saw and heard. The visit, the conversation with the guests twice the prescribed. In conclusion, MS Gorbachev complained: "It is a pity he did not know all this to Reykjavik!"
May 13 at the Palace of the officers was accomplished Gorbachev meeting with military personnel and civilians Baikonur. Gorbachev had read for a long time, praised workers spaceport and creators gallakticheskoy technology. With the start of "Energy", he did not hurry, offered first to understand all the dilemmas and only with full conviction to run such a complex and expensive system. And he said:
"… Our policy of peaceful outer space is not a sign of helplessness. It is an expression of friendly foreign policy of the Union of Russian. Internationalist We want to offer the community of co-operation in the peaceful exploration of space. We oppose the arms race, including in space … Our interests here coincide with the interests of the South American nation, and the interests of other nations. They do not coincide with the interests of those who are doing business in the arms race, wants to reach through space military advantages … Any rhetoric about the protection of nuclear weapons —
is the greatest deception of the peoples . Specifically, from this position, and we commend the so referred to as the Strategic Defense Initiative, which seeks to fulfill the South American administration … We are categorically against the transfer of an arms race in outer space. litsezreem We own duty is to show the danger of severe SDI around the world … "
After that, the fate of the "Scythian", and of all the programs from the development of military space systems has become clear. And occurred when starting the machine failure, prevented his entering the orbit, accelerated the closing papers on the program there.
Some time in the bank "Salute" lasted more work on the machine 17F19D "Skif-D1" N18101, which start at the end of 1985 was postponed to June 1987 but after the loss of enthusiasm for the program there in control of the country, funds for the program from steel to allocate less , launch date were to pull away. Only the beginning of 1987 for "Skif-D1" on ZiHe were made AFD compartments, PSV Eindhoven, PSN, bottom fairing body PGO, TACs and side blocks motivated module. Shells other staff sections motivated module planned to make the IV quarter of 1987
There prepyadstviya and the creation of NGOs in Kazan "Radiopribor" targeting system and the retention and photo-optical tracking system. In this regard, the first deputy minister of the General Engineering VH Doguzhiev more April 20, 1987 signed a decision to postpone the delivery of bench sets NUS and SARF to 1989, and the regular set — for 1990 In view of these deadlines, "Skif-D1" could only be ready by the end of 1991 with the objectives its systems could not solve. According to lead designer of this topic Yu.P.Kornilova, spices, worked on the "Scythian", by the time came to this unit from a purely Eastern philosophy Nasrudin Hodja: by the time when the time comes readiness "Skif-D" "either emir die, or — the donkey. "
So, basically, what happened. In September 1987, work on 17F19D KB "Salute" and ZiHe have been suspended, but never resumed. "New thinking" in international relations and at the same time, the current crisis in the Russian economy led to a complete cessation of hostilities finance topics languid space station in 1989, Sunset "cool war" has led to a decline and Russian "Star Wars."
And in May 1993, was stopped all work on the RN "Energy" and OK "Buran". This was the last point in the history of creation gallakticheskogo Blade Empire.