However, even then, many East Germans dubbed the incident more properly naming — "Anschluss" of the GDR by the FRG. But such conditions are recreating a German country pushed the control of Germany, has agreed to a major player then the world arena — USSR in the face of Misha Gorbachev and his entourage. Moreover, the then Russian favorite begun the process of German unification behind the controls of the GDR — with separate negotiations with the West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and U.S. President. It was only later favorites GDRs were made aware of the intentions of Gorbachev's "reunite" Germany.
The betrayal of the GDR as an ally to the head — USSR? Certainly. But the main losers from such associations were not even the East Germans: German civilization somehow still reunited. The main loser in the end was … Russian civilization, which followed soon after the collapse of the Soviet Union turned into a broken civilization. Repeated, so to speak, the fate of the Germans, the end of the 1940s. And, sadly admit, in today's leadership of Russia and the former Soviet countries are no real prerequisites for the reunification of the Russian is not yet visible. But still go back to the history of German reunification.
The first decisive step in this direction was made in October 1988, when came to Moscow to visit Mr. Kohl. Earlier, however, the Chancellor has put his Gorbachev "bait" about a possible unification of Germany. And I received a very encouraging response: Russian favorite Kohl wrote a letter, in which for the first time there were words about the need for "a new chapter" in relations between our two countries.
Encouraged by Kohl hurried to Moscow, where he was expecting the most hospitable reception. October 28, 1988 at the Catherine Hall of the Kremlin between Gorbachev and Kohl took place, it can be said, turning the conversation. However, then a few poskromnichal Gorbachev, describing the meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU the talks with Kohl followed by this: "As long as it's not a fracture, but a strong push to move forward on this principle, the direction is given." Gorbachev, of course, slyly turning point had already occurred (at least in his head). Ahead remained even and lots of work, but in a meaningful way, so to speak, applied nature.
In June of the next year already Gorbachev comes to Kohl and sign a joint statement with it. Helmut Kohl himself characterizes this document as a kind of hell, in putting the past, and once as a source of illuminating the path to the future. Gorbachev, For its part, the document refers to a "breakthrough."
After that, the leaders of the USSR and Germany had not yet found time to work out some mechanism of German reunification in the number of these meetings — and eminent talks "without ties" in so native Misha Sergeyevich Stavropol. And at each of these meetings Russian favorite, in fact, losing one position after another, agreeing to end up on the unification of Germany on the criteria put forward by Kohl. Well then the Germans did not classify Gorbachev's "founding fathers" of today's Germany!
A parallel Gorbachev is in talks with the favorites of the Western powers. After all, right up to their own association German sovereignty, to put it mildly, left much to be desired: he lost the war, and in 1945 accepted the conditions of full and unquestioning surrender, the German government was, in fact, under international control of the victorious countries.
In the international arena Gorbachev and his entourage, by the way, also had a lot to try to assure the same Margaret Thatcher to agree to the reunification of Germany. And French President Francois Mitterrand's first, too, had to be persuaded. But in the end the consensus of the victorious countries has been made, and in 1990 they agreed to provide a unified Germany full sovereignty by signing the contract on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany.
What still got the USSR (again, the main actor was then the world arena) as a result of German unification? And he had to, in-1's, urgently withdraw from East Germany, all their troops. And while Germany gave the Soviet Union means for the withdrawal of troops, their apparently was not enough to suddenly relocate bolshennuyu a military group.
In-2, USSR provided a united Germany carte blanche with regard to what the military-political alliance, it will want to enter. There are no guarantees of neutrality Germany Gorbachev claimed, though in the beginning was able to make this condition preparatory to all else.
In the end, Russian troops were quickly withdrawn from Germany, many parts — practically in the open Russian steppe. But Germany remained in NATO, and NATO troops later began quiet "Drang nach Osten", including in its orbit, and the combined area of Germany and Eastern European countries, and even the Baltic states. Politically, the Soviet Union / Our homeland is also almost lost these areas: they got into the Western orbit. All this — the concrete results of the negotiations on the reunification of Germany, who had Gorbachev.
What did he get in return from their own Western "partners"? Give the floor to the authoritative special regime Valentin Falin, work after USSR in Germany, and is headed by Gorbachev International Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU.
"So why did he (Gorbachev) is not headed for at least worthy of" kickbacks "? — Valentin Falin asked a couple of years back the correspondent of "Izvestia". — What kind of sums could there be? ".
"124 billion marks in the manner of" compensation "(for union Germany. — Note. KM.RU) — this amount is called by Chancellor Erhard — explained Falin. — First 80 — 100 billion marks for the fact that we let go of the GDR from the Warsaw contract and it would have a neutral status by type of Austria. I said to Gorbachev: "We have all the ability to achieve a nuclear-free status for the German countryside and prevent the expansion of NATO to the east, according to polls, 74% of people support us." He said: "I'm afraid that train has already left." In fact, he said to them: "Give us the stamps to feed 4.5 billion people." That's all. Not even wrote off debts both Russian Union of Germany, although one of our belongings in the GDR was worth a trillion! "
Ah well put together voedinyzhdy Germany Misha Gorbachev.