History of the first assault rifles Sturmgewehr Stg.44

Argue that it is a tool specifically is a real German "Schmeisser" and not designed by Henry Volmer submachine gun MP 38/40, which we often show in the film about the Russian majestically. This is the most rifle was the layout of the famous Kalashnikov assault rifle and nemenee famous FN FAL, a Belgian assault rifle. Specifically, it already had a regular place for an optical sight, grenade launchers and other suspension devices. With this weapon in modern military terminology appeared designation "intermediate cartridge" and "assault rifle." All these expressions are nezapyatannoy true!

The history of the creation of this instrument dates back to World War II, with the inception of the 30-ies of the last century 7.92×33-mm "intermediate cartridge» (7.92mm Kurz). Given cartridge was about average for power between the cartridge to the gun (9h19mm «parabellum») and the cartridge rifle (7.92 h57mm).

This cartridge was developed at the initiative of the German arms firm Polt (Polte), but not commissioned by the German military. In 1942, the German arms control HWaA firms and Walter Haenel was given an order to develop weapons under this cartridge.

As a result, standards have been made automatic weapons, who received the title of MaschinenKarabiner (from the German — automatic shotgun). The standard, which made the company Haenel, designated MKb.42 (H), and standard office Walther, respectively, Mkb.42 (W).

According to the results of tests it was decided to develop a design which was developed by Haenel. Development was done by the famous German gunsmith Hugo Schmeiser. The design brought significant transformations, for example, the design was taken from the USM model firm Walter.

Subsequent work on the development of automatic rifle were already under the designation MP 43 (MaschinenPistole, with the German — sub-machine gun). Change of name of development came from the fact that Hitler was against the mass production of automatic weapons, citing the fact that at that time, millions of rounds of ammunition for rifles in storage will remain unused. Did not change the heinous deeds of Hitler to a new specimen of automatic weapons and demonstration of abilities automatic rifle. The upcoming development of this instrument was carried out under the personal supervision of reyskhministra arms of Germany Albert Speer, Hitler vsekrete from.

Yet the latest tool Germany was very necessary. Wehrmacht infantry firepower to the middle of the war is much shorter than the firepower of infantry Russian army, which is armed in the main sub-machine gun Shpagin. This fact is sought or made a huge number of massive and clumsy machine guns, or to start mass production of automatic rifles, which have an effective range of fire was up to 500 m compared to 150 m at the PCA. This led to a change in the case of Hitler and the Third Reich across the top of the automatic weapons. Already 44 first-year series begins creating a new standard of small guns, received the name of MP 44. According to the first tool of the elite units of the Wehrmacht were armed. Immediately upgraded ammunition for MP 44: «Pistolen-Part.43m. E »- Insert reference 1943 was already very similar to today's submachine gun cartridge, in the pool which was a metal core.

In October, 44-year standard received the designation chosen by Hitler himself, StG.44 (Sturmgewehr.44, with the German — the standard assault rifle, 1944). The term "assault rifle" so stick to this type of small tools, which at the current time, all the standards of small instruments that have similar characteristics, referred to as assault rifles.

StG.44 (Sturmgewehr.44, with the German — the standard assault rifle of 1944)

Automatic Sturmgewehr.44 carbine was the personal small tool that built on the principle of automatic removal of the upper part of the propellant gases that drive the gas piston. The barrel is locked performed warp gate down to the ledge in the receiver. The receiver is made from stamped steel sheet. The trigger with pistol handle joined to the receiver and at partial disassembly folded forward and down. Butt was made with wood, attached to the receiver and shot at dismantling. Housed inside the butt revertible spring.

The trigger mechanism is allowed to keep automatic rifles and a single fire. StG.44 had sector sight-independent translator fire mode and fuse handle gate was placed on the left and the weapon was moving to the bolt. To attach a rifle grenade on the barrel muzzle is made thread. In addition, Stg.44 could be fitted with a special device krivostvolnym, which was intended to be fired from the trenches, tanks or other shelters.

Sturmgewehr.44 had the following performance characteristics
Caliber guns — 7.92 mm.
The length of the rifle — 940 mm.
Barrel length — 419 mm.
Weight Sturmgewehr.44 unloaded 4,1 kg, 5.22 kg them with a full magazine of 30 rounds.
Firing rate of about 500 I / min.
Magazine capacity was 15, 20 and 30 rounds.
The initial velocity of about 650 m / s.

Pros Sturmgewehr.44. The rifle shoots well queues at a distance of 300 m and single shots at a distance of 600 meters is more than twice higher than that of the PCA. For sniper rifle was built MR-43/1, which allowed to conduct aimed fire up to 800 meters. On milled mount can be installed either four-telescope infrared night-sight ZG.1229 «Vampire." When firing the impact was almost 2 times lower, if at carbine Mauser-98K. This increased accuracy and shooting comfort.

Its flaws. In-1's, it's a big weight. The rifle was almost pounds heavier rifle Mauser-98K. Wood butt often broke during close combat. Flames that burst out of the barrel of the weapon, very very unmask arrow. Store very long and the highest sights in prone forced to hand raise her head high, it greatly increased his profile. In order to reduce the height of guns manufactured magazines for 15 or 20 rounds.

All during World War II was over 400 thousand automatic rifles Stg.44, MP43, MP 44.

The machine was expensive trophy not only at the Russian troops, and our allies. There is documentary evidence of the implementation of the gun fighters Russian army during the storming of Berlin.

At the end of the war machines Sturmgewehr.44 used by the police and the army of Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic. In Yugoslavia, armed with rifles stood the Navy and 70-ies of the last century.

In addition, the assault rifle, which is made by Hugo Schmeisser, has had a huge effect on the post-war development of small guns. Thus, the design of the Belgian FN FAL and Kalashnikovs were, if not copied, then made a pattern that is very similar to Stg.44. It is also very similar to the modern Sturmgewehr.44 shtatovskih automatic carbine M4.

South American TV channel "Military", which was rated 10 best rifles of the last century, put an assault rifle Sturmgewehr.44 to honor the 9th place.

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