Combat use of special forces in current conflicts has become common practice. This is due to the fact that modern military actions very often require the application surgically precise and at the same time, rapid and inconspicuous blows, that is the task of a special mission units. At first glance, Special Forces — the concept is relatively new, the characteristic disposition of modern warfare. But it is not so far away: the history of Russian special forces rooted in the distant past, to be more exact — in the era of the birth of the Cossacks in the southern Russian steppes.
The word "Plastun"Derives from the verb" plastuvati "- crawl, esp. hugging the ground. So Makar, the word reflects not only the method of flea movement, and the very principle of operations: imperceptible to the enemy, blending with the surroundings. According to researcher D. Koshkareva Cossacks, the Cossacks have underlain the Dnieper reservoir in the reeds, looking out the enemy and making a little scouting and raiding operations. Among the 40 Zaporozhye kurens meant so called bellies, the Cossacks who performed the service.
During the Russian-Turkish War (1787 1791). Battle training scouts have gained the highest level so that by the end of the war scouts was given the status of a special division in the ranks of the Black Sea Cossack troops. Division scouts took an active role in the Caucasian War of XIX century. The main objective is to prevent scouts sudden attacks of the Caucasian highlanders Cossack villages. To this end, they had to keep constant watch over the cordon line of camouflaged shelter, lie in the "OUT LOUD" and "Pledge", in other words, many hours to arrange an ambush in the middle of swamps and bushes. But the observation of the ambush was not the primary objective of scouts. They also conducted raids on enemy terrain, patrolling the coast of Kuban, exploring the river on the availability of sheltered fords and time detecting signs of preparing to attack the enemy. Apart from this, scouts were applied, in modern language, "pinpoint" attacks on troops Highlanders, destroying their favorites, hijacking horses, the loss of the ability of the enemy to the movement.
In 1842, a staffing cavalry and infantry units of Black troops were included bellies company from 60 to 90 people. Scouts issued a more modern weapon. Specifically, the first troopers were long-range fitting with pritykaemymi bayonets. Given the specificity of the service scouts were paid more than the highest salary.
In the event of an opponent during exploration scouts actually never gave up. There were a rule that Plastun better to die than will lose freedom. Well in advance by the position and outlining the escape route in case of pursuit, troopers were shot or, or merged with the area, skillfully using its features. The enemy is preferred to avoid direct confrontation with a group of scouts and do not chase it, because in this case it just might be ambushed and suffer the loss of well-aimed stupid fire scouts.
Fundamental side proficiency Plastun was mental preparation. Young scouts were taught that in the case of face-to-face with the enemy "even the bravest of the Highlanders necessarily slightly cold feet, if there will not be witnesses." Because in a similar situation, Highlander almost at will dare to fight with the armed Cossack.
Scouts could not be just so, but only on their own, because there was a whole system of selection. Seasoned troopers themselves chose additions to his team and the future change in the middle of a tried and pochetaemyh warriors. In troopers tried to take the Cossacks from plastun families, so all the fighting and hunting tricks passed down from generation to generation, from father to son. Preference was given to the Cossacks, middle-aged, because it was believed that the young can not be a tribute to measure patient and plodding, and oldish already too heavy to lift and frisky enough. To pass the selection was not the picky one of courage and daring nature, needed to the same ability to shoot without missing, and possess excellent physical health and stamina.
Particular emphasis was placed on the patience and composure that explains the specificity of the Plastun. Indeed, in the ambush they had to sit or lie for hours in the reeds, stabbing the bush, and sometimes in ice water or buried in snow, under any circumstances, without revealing their presence random motion.
Manner of acts Plast their contemporaries was characterized by the expression "cleft palate and fox tail", which is a trick flea quiet approach and unexpected severe attack. The main pluses Plastun referred ability to hide its own movement, the seat of the first to identify the enemy and lure him into an ambush. Special reverence used Cossacks, who were able to read the "Sacmi" (track enemy) on it determines the number of enemies and a trajectory of their movement.
Their own tracks, if there was the ability to hide them all, scouts painstakingly entangled, using different techniques: moving backwards, jumped on one foot, hiding in every possible way the direction of the proper motion and the number of people in the unit.
The role of scouts in combat operations in different years
Scouts took part not only in the military operations in the Caucasus, their outstanding properties benefit the homeland and in other troubled borders. During the Crimean War bellies units which took part in the battle of Balaclava in the famous defense of Sevastopol. Scouts decided forays into enemy trenches, and with characteristic precision watch silently removed, destroyed the enemy's guns, and at one point even captured and told to his three enemy mortars.
Bellies units were involved in all the Russian-Turkish wars in the Russian-Persian and Russian-Polish wars, and in the First World fought 24 plastun battalion. For the organization known Brusilovskii breakthrough in 1916 was raised 22 battalions scouts.
In Lofty Russian war bellies were called several Cossack battalions, regiments, and one division. For his bravery and fighting properties Nazis called scouts "Stalinist thugs." The highest score combat capability fighters scouts gave not only the command of the Russian army, and Western military experts at in a variety of whom were officers who had emigrated scouts served as a consultant in the preparation of the U.S. Marine Corps, also some special units of the French army, for example, foreign Legion.
Imposed question, maybe now is to preserve the traditions of our military management should think about assigning particularly distinguished units of special forces noble name "bellies".
Lofty Russian Cossacks in the war
In 1936, the emergence of the threat of anger on the part of German restrictions were lifted at the service of the Cossacks in the units of the Red Army. This decision has received a lot of support in the Cossack community, namely, the Don Cossacks Russian government sent the subsequent letter published in the newspaper "Red Star" on April 24, 1936:
Let our cry just clicked Marshals Voroshilov and Budyonny eagles we fly off to protect the Russian … Stallions Cossack in a good body, blades are sharp, the Don Cossacks kolkhoz ready to fight breast for the Soviet Motherland …
In accordance with the order of the People's Commissar of Defense Kliment Voroshilov N 67 dated 23 April 1936 some cavalry divisions got the status of Cossack. May 15, 1936 The 10th Territorial Cavalry North Caucasian division was renamed the 10th-Stavropol territor
ial Terek Cossack Division, the 12th Territorial Cavalry Division, headquartered in the Kuban region was renamed the 12th territorial Kuban Cossack Division, 4th Cavalry Leningrad Red Banner division behalf of Comrade Voroshilov was renamed the 4th Don Cossack Red Banner division named Voroshilov, 6th Cavalry Chongarskaya Krasnoznamennaya named Comrade Budennogo renamed the 6th Kuban-Terek Cossack Red Banner division them. Budionov the Don also was formed 13th Don Cossack territorial division. Kuban Cossacks had served in the 72th Cavalry Division, 9th Infantry Division Plastunskaya, 17th Cossack Cavalry Corps (later renamed as the 4th Guards Kuban cavalry Corps), Orenburg Cossacks served in the 11th (89th) of the 8th Guards Rivne Order of Lenin, the Order of Suvorov Cossack Cavalry Division and militia Cossack Division in Chelyabinsk. The composition of teams from time to time cut in the Cossacks, who formerly served in a white army (as, for example, KI undercut ) or have close relatives with the repressed and unreliable persons. A special act has been restored previously illegal carrying of a Cossack form . Cossack units commanded by N. Ya Kirichenko, A. Selivanov, IA Pliev, S. Gorshkov, MF Maleev, IV Tutarinov, YS Sharaburko, PY Strepuhov , VS Golovskoj, FV Kamkov, MI Surzhikov and other military leaders as Cossack and non-Cossack descent.
August 2, 1942 near the village of Kushchevskaya 17th cavalry Corps General Nikolai I. Kirichenko in the 12th and 13th of Kuban, 15th and 116th Don Cossack Division suspended the advent of large forces of the Wehrmacht, advancing from Rostov to Krasnodar. Cossacks were destroyed and 1800 soldiers and officers were taken prisoner by 300 people, seized 18 guns and 25 mortars.
On the Don Cossack village of weaving Berezovsky under the command of 52-year-old Cossack lieutenant KI Nedorubova in the battle of Kuschevskaya August 2, 1942 in the melee killed more than 200 fighter Wehrmacht, of which 70 were destroyed KI Nedorubovym to receive the title of Hero of the Russian Union.
Almost always part of the newly formed Cossack, voluntary Cossack hundreds were poorly armed and squads usually come with a cool tool Cossacks and collective farm horses. Artillery, tanks, anti-tank and anti-aircraft systems, communication units and engineers in the units are usually absent, and therefore the troops suffered heavy losses. For example, as mentioned in the leaflets of the Kuban Cossacks "they jumped from their saddles to the armor of tanks, covered peepholes burka and overcoats, car set on fire with Molotov cocktails"
Since 1943, there is an association of Cossack cavalry divisions and tank units, and therefore created the mechanized cavalry group. Horses were mainly used for the organization of a frisky movement in battle Cossacks were used as infantry. Of the Kuban and Terek Cossacks in the same division was formed bellies. Among the Cossacks, 262 horseman received the title of Hero of the Russian Union Cavalry Corps, 7 and 17 have received the Guard Cavalry Division title.