XV century. Mexico. Endless war, the bloody human sacrifices. Whether to poetry, to philosophy, whether here? It turned out that "when the cannons roar," muses are silent not always. And proof of this — life story of Nezahualcoyotl, ruler of the ancient city of Texcoco.
An escape from killers
Began his reign is not rosy. The leader of the Indians in Texcoco tepanekov seized power when Prince Nezahualcoyotl barely 16. The young heir to the throne, which saw the death of his father, had to flee. Prince was seized and thrown into the dungeon, but friends helped him escape. Nezahualcoyotl found refuge in the city of Tenochtitlan, which will soon become the center of a vast empire of the Aztecs, but so far as Texcoco, subject tepanekam.
In Tenochtitlan Prince lived for eight years, devoting the time studying. Ironically, the usurper left fugitive alone.
But here's the governor tepanekov died and power passed to his son, proud Maxtla. Nezahualcoyotl was the new lord of the bow, but Maxtla turned his back. The message was understood. Prince returned to his home in Texcoco. But soon there came messengers Maxtla who were killed Nezahualcoyotl. He met them in the garden, playing with a ball, and invited to the palace to rest. While planted killer arranged, Prince went to the next room, where there was an incense burner.
The servants had been planted there so much incense that thick fragrant smoke hid from Nezahualcoyotl tepanekskih soldiers and gave him the opportunity to leave a secret way.
Tepaneksky tyrant a reward for his head. Nezahualcoyotl was hiding in the forests and caves. Several times pursuers could attack his trail, but the people did not give the heir to the throne. His sheltering in huts, hidden under the fagots, and even … a bass drum!
But the Prince is not only running away from enemies — he was cooking back. Nezahualcoyotl conspired with the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan affected by Maxtla, they, in their turn, have reached an agreement with the residents Tlacopan, a city located near the capital tepanekov Azcapotzalco. The Aztecs were attacked from the rear, teskoktsy joined them. Azcapotzalco fell. Maxtla ran into the pool, but was pulled out and sacrificed to the gods. His city on fire, and the land distributed tepanekov distinguished soldiers from the city of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan.
The rulers of these cities made a covenant. According to the agreement, they were fighting together.
Nezahualcoyotl sought to return to his former state influence. It is not anticipated that, forming a triple alliance for mutual defense and successful opposition to the enemy, lays the foundation for the power of the state, which in the future will surpass Texcoco.
All power — Council of music!
When the tyrant Maxtla was over, Nezahualcoyotl took power, became tlatoani (ruler) of the state of his tribe and took akolhua reforms. He was a short set of laws passed by the Allies — the Aztecs and tlakopantsami, created several "departments": the Military Council, the Finance Council, the Council of Justice and the Council of … music, the purpose of which was to encourage the development of the sciences and the arts. XIX century American historian William Prescott wrote: "All of the works on astronomy, history, chronology, or whatever it was science, presented at his trial and published only with the approval. This censorial power was not trifle, at least relative to the department of history, in which an intentional distortion of the truth constitutes a criminal offense. However, teskokskie writers have enough sharpness to not fall under such a dangerous accusation, and, of course, know how to get out of trouble under the guise of interpreting vague and mysterious characters. Assembly is composed of the most learned people exercising oversight over all major works of art or sophisticated crafts. It is defined by the value of professors in different fields of knowledge, judged on how they teach science to his students — for bad teaching where teachers punished very severely — and establishes the exams pupils different schools. Music Council was the chief guardian of education throughout the state. "
Pre-Columbian Mexico, XV century. What sounds familiar!
"Going to the people"
Nezahualcoyotl jealously watched the execution of its laws. They say he used to dress in commoner and walk the streets, cut in subjects and learn the true state of affairs. Such meetings with the people of legends.
Said that once Nezahualcoyotl pointed at the boy, collecting in the fuel rods, and asked him:
— Why do not you go to the forest? There is this good enough.
— You can not, — said the boy. — This is the forest of the sovereign. He commands execute me if they knew.
— What kind of person is your sovereign? — Asked disguised ruler.
— Very cruel. He refuses to people that God gives them.
Nezahualcoyotl advised the boy did go over fallen trees in the forest, saying that hardly anyone would be aware of this action. But the boy indignantly refused.
Returning to the palace, told Nezahualcoyotl bring him the child and his parents. The boy was frightened to learn in tlatoani on who recently spoke. Monarch assured him and praised for the respect for the law. Then awarded the parents for his son a good education, and then issued a decree, which allowed people to collect firewood in the royal forests, but not touch the trees. Thus, "going to the people" allowed to soften the position of subjects.
"Flowers and Songs"
During the reign of Nezahualcoyotl of Texcoco flourished. His historians, orators and poets were famous throughout Mexico. Of archives and library teskokskih sovereigns were legendary.
Nezahualcoyotl proved himself as a great architect and hydraulic engineer. He designed the palace were built in Texcoco, a country residence in Teskotsinko with carved into the rock baths.
Tlatoani himself designed the dam length 16.5 km, Tenochtitlan protects it from flooding, as well as many smaller dams, connecting them to the system. For projects ruler broke numerous gardens.
For himself, he also created the gardens — Zoological and Botanical — in which were collected rare plants and animals.
But most importantly, what famous ruler of Texcoco — philosophical views, and the ability to compose lyrics and all — his attitude to poetry.
At the time of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples flourished the cult of human sacrifice. On presentation of the Aztec sun to perform the way across the sky needed blood.
Not to go out to the luminary, the Aztecs fought endless wars, sacrificed thousands of people. The so-called military-mystical concept was the leading ideology in Tenochtitlan. Nezahualcoyotl contrasted it humane concept of "flower and song", and a host of gods tried to replace one — invisible and incomprehensible Giver of Life.
Ignoring intricate Aztec mythological pantheon, sages, and among them Nezahualcoyotl, turned to the ancient heritage of the Toltecs. Focusing on the dualistic Toltec deity Ometeotl (twin-track), they created the concept of the supreme deity Tloke Nauake (Master immediate vicinity).
Tloke Nauake permeates the whole world, noting his divine essence of every thing and every living creature.
However, it is present in living and non-living matter is passive. The task of the people — to reveal a divine principle, to find the truth and to resist death. And this is achieved only through artistic creation, through the arts, preserve, and after the transition of man to another world. Aztec word "xochitl kuekatl Institute" ("flower and song") as the only truth on earth, came to symbolize the art, art, poetry — the highest expressions of the human spirit to triumph over death. On such postulates and kept followers tlatoani humane philosophy.
Triumphed over death
Yes, Nezahualcoyotl was unable to fully commit to the cult of human sacrifice, and monotheism to the state religion. Still tlatoani challenged bloody gods, the sacred territory, close to the houses of the Aztec idols, he built the temple of an inscrutable God, because of reasons. In old age, Nezahualcoyotl suddenly began to doubt that the "flower and song" will help him achieve immortality, the memory of his affairs will continue. But time has shown that he was worried for nothing.
Legends about the rule of Nezahualcoyotl were recorded by his distant descendant Ixtlilxochitl already during the Spanish rule. Nezahualcoyotl poetry survived centuries and even now sounds remarkably fresh.
"Flower and Song" helped the Aztec ruler-philosopher conquer death, breaking the flow of time.
Category: Mystery stories