In connection with the fall of 1943, the Red Army adopted a new languid JS and removal from the production of the KV-1S, the necessity of the creation of the heavy self-propelled guns already on the new languid tank. Resolution of the Municipal Committee of Defense 4043ss number of 4 September 1943 enacted a number of the pilot plant in Chelyabinsk 100 together with the technical management of the Head of the Red Army's armored control until 1 November 1943 to design, make and test artsamohod IC-152 on the basis of the JS.
In developing the plant has received factory designation "to 241". Lead designer was appointed G.N.Moskvin. Experienced reference made in October. In the weeks passed tests for ACS NIBTPoligone Kubinka and ANIOP in Gorohovets. November 6, 1943 GKO decree latest car had adopted under the designation ISU-152, and in December she began her series creation.
Assembling the ISU-152 Innovation is not fundamentally different. Conning tower, made of rolled armor plates, was placed in front of the body, bringing together in one volume the office management and combat. Power pack compartment is in the rear of the hull. The nose of the housing units in the first releases were manufactured cast on the machines of the latest releases had welded construction. The number and placement of the crew members were the same as in SU-152. If the crew consisted of 4 people, doing duty loader castle. For planting in the roof of the cabin crew were two circular flap in the front of the square and one in the rear. All hatches locked double wing covers, in the upper wings were installed monitoring devices MK-4. In front of the compartment housed the felling inspection hatch driver, closes the armor cap with glass blocks and viewing slot.
The very design for yourself battle cutting fundamentally change has not undergone. Because of the smallest width of the JS, compared with KB, had to reduce the slope of the side plates with 25 ° to 15 ° to the vertical, and the slope of rear plate to eliminate completely. The thickness of armor at all it has increased from 75 to 90 mm at the front plate cutting and from 60 to 75 mm at the side. Mask gun had a thickness of 60 mm, and then was adjusted to 100 mm.
Coachroof consisted of 2-parts. The front part of the roof is welded to the front, bilge and side sheets. Here, besides the 2-round hatches, make a hole for the fan of the fighting compartment (center), which is locked up outside an armored hood, and also provided for the hatch for access to the filler neck of the left front fuel tank (left) and the opening of an antenna (right ). Back sheet roof was made removable and fastened with screws. It must be emphasized that the installation of an exhaust fan has become a significant advantage ISU-152, compared with the SU-152, in which exhaust mechanical ventilation was not in general and members of the crew during the fight sometimes fainted from the propellant gases accumulate.
One of the first mass-ISU-152 at the site. 1944 year.
In general, according to the memoirs of gunners, and on the latest car ventilation left much to be desired
best — when you open the shutter after shooting an avalanche of thick powder smoke, similar to sour cream, streamed out of the gun barrel and slowly poured on the floor of the crew compartment.
The roof over the engine-transmission compartment consisted of a removable plate on the engine, air duct screens over the windows to the engine and armor lattices over blinds. In a removable sheet had a hatch for access to the sites and aggregates motor closes the flap. At the back of the sheet placed two hatches for access to the fuel filler cap and the oil tanks. Average aft hull in a combat situation is screwed bolts while repairing it could be push back on its hinges. To gain access to the units box it had two round hatch, closes hinged armor covers. The bottom of the hull was welded from 3-armor plates and had hatches and openings closed with armored covers and plugs.
152-mm howitzer-gun ML-20S arr. 1937/43 г. mounted in die-cast frame, plays the role of the upper machine guns, and defended by the same cast armored mask taken from the SU-152. Oscillating part of the self-propelled gun-howitzer had minor differences compared with the field, were set out the paper to facilitate loading and additional thrust to the trigger, handles flywheels lifting and rotary devices were at the gunner on the left along the machine, pins were brought forward for a natural balance . Vertical angles pointing fluctuated in the range of -3 ° to +20 °, horizontal — a sector of 10 °. Strip height of the fire was 1800 mm. Direct-fire was used telescopic sight PT-10 semi-independent line of sight, for firing indirect fire served as a panorama of Hertz with an extension, the lens that comes out of cutting through the open upper left flap. When shooting at night criteria scale panorama sight and also aiming arrows and cannon lights are illuminated electronic devices "Beam 5". Range direct fire is 3,800 m, a large — 6200 m Rate — 2 — 3 rds. / Min. The gun had electronic and mechanical (manual) slopes. Trigger was electric trigger on the handle of the handwheel hoist. On the first issue guns was used mechanical (manual) descent. Lifting and turning mechanisms sector type were attached to anchorages to the left cheek of the frame.
Ammunition was 21 rounds of separate loading cased with armor-piercing tracer rounds ostrogolovymi BR-540 with a bottom fuse MD-7 with a tracer, high-explosive cannon and howitzer iron garnets PF-540 and PF-530 fuzes DDM-2 (or DDM D 1), fragmentation grenades howitzer semi-steel O-530A, which were located in the fighting compartment. armor-piercing tracer shells were in recess armored cabin on the left side of logging in the framework of the special, high-explosive grenades — the same sleeve with warheads in the niche of armor cutting in special frames and in homutikovoy installation. Part of the sleeves with warheads located on the bottom under the gun. Shots were equipped with subsequent charges: № 1 variable ZH11-545, reduced variable F-545U or 545U-DGP, full variable LS-545 or F-545, without the 1st balanced beam and a special LS-545B F-545B or under armor-piercing tracer projectile. The initial velocity armor-piercing projectile with a mass of 600 kg of 48.78 m / s, high-explosive with a mass 43.56 kg — 600 m / s. The armor-piercing projectile at a distance of 1000 m pierced the armor of width 123 mm.
On the part of the machines in October 1944 on a rotary pursuit of the commander's hatch was mounted anti-aircraft gun turret with a 12.7-mm machine gun DShK arr. 1938 Ammunition for the gun was 250 rounds of ammunition. In addition, in the fighting compartment fit into two sub-machine gun PCA (later — PPP) in 1491 with ammunition cartridge and 20 hand grenades F-1.
Power plant and transmission were taken from the JS-1 (IP-2). At ISU-152 was installed 12-cylinder four-stroke V-2IS (B-2-10) capacity of 520 hp at 2000 rev / min. The cylinders were placed V-shaped angle of 60 °. Compression 14 — 15. Motor Weight 1000 kg.
-propelled gun ISU-152 in the courtyard of the Chelyabinsk Kirov Plant.
The total capacity of 3 fuel tanks of 520 liters. Another 300 liters transported in 3 external tanks are not connected to the power supply system. Fuel supply forced, by dvenadtsatiplunzhernogo high-pressure fuel pump HC1.
Lubrication system — circulating under pressure. In the tank is integrated circulation tank, which provided high-spirited warm oil and the ability to use the method of dilution of the oil with gasoline.
Cooling system — liquid, closed, forced circulation. Radiators — two plate-and-tube, shaped like a horseshoe mounted above the centrifugal fan.
To clean the air entering the cylinders of the engine, the tank equipped with two air cleaner brand BT-5 type "multicyclone." At the head of air purifiers have been integrated injector and spark candles to heat the intake air in the winter. In addition, for heating the cooling water in the cooling system of the motor used wick heaters operating on diesel fuel. These heaters provide heating and crew compartment on long car parking. Starting the motor is inertia starter, who had both manual and electronic drives, or using compressed air cylinders.
ACS box included multi-disc main clutch dry friction (steel on ferrodo) chetyrehstupnuyu eight-box with dual, two-stage planetary rotation mechanism with multi-locking clutch and two-stage planetary final drives with next.
Chassis ACS for a board comprised of 6 double cast rollers diameter of 550 mm and 3 support rollers. Leading position at the rear wheel had two removable tooth crown with 14 teeth each. Guide wheels — alloy, with a crank mechanism track tension, interchangeable with the road wheels. Suspension — personal torsion. Caterpillars iron, melkozvenchatye of 86 odnogrebnevyh any shoe. Truckee stamped, 650 mm wide and 162 mm increments. The engagement lantern.
For outdoor radio transceiver installed on machines 10R or 10RK for the inside — the intercom TPU-4-Bispham. To communicate with troops on the stern there was a button beeper.
From 1944 to 1947 was 2790 self-propelled ISU-152. It must be emphasized that, as in the case of the IS-2, the release of self-propelled guns based on it had to connect the Leningrad Kirov Plant. Prior to May 9, 1945 and gathered the first 5 ISU-152, and by the end of the year — 100 more. In 1946 and 1947, the creation of an ISU-152 produced only LCZ.
Battle of application
In the spring of 1944 languorous self-propelled artillery regiments SU-152 rearm settings ISU-152 and ISU-122. They were transferred to the new states and all appropriated the title of the Guard. By the end of the war was formed of 56 regiments, each machine had 21 ISU-152 or ISU-122 (part of the regiments — mixed composition). March 1, 1945 143rd independent tank brigade Nevel in the Belorussian-Lithuanian military environment was reformed in the 66th Guards Nevelskaya languid self-propelled artillery brigade RVGK trehpolkovogo composition (1804 people, 65 ISU-122, 3 SU-76).
Languid self-propelled artillery regiments imparted to tank and infantry units and formations, were first used to support infantry and tanks in coming. Following in their battle formations, SAU destroy enemy firing points and provided infantry and tanks successful promotion. In this phase, the coming of the ACS became one of the principal means of reflection armored counterattacks. In some cases, they had all sorts come to the fore combat formations own troops and take the hit, providing the freedom of maneuver supported by tanks.
For example, January 15, 1945 in East Prussia, in Borové German forces up to the 1st Regiment infantry supported by tanks and self-propelled guns counterattacked battle lines of our advancing infantry, which operated in conjunction with 390th Guards grievous self-propelled artillery regiment.
Infantry under the pressure of superior enemy forces retreated behind battle lines gunners who met the Germans hit the concentrated fire and cover the supported unit. Counter-attack was repulsed, and infantry once again had the opportunity to continue their offensive.
ISU-152 used as a motionless firing point. Preserving the West Suez Canal Genifskie hills, south of g.Ismaylii. 1973.
ACS languid at times brought to the role in the artillery barrage. With all this fire was conducted both direct fire and from the closed position. Namely, January 12, 1945 during the Silesian-Sandomir operation 368th Guards ISU-152 of the 1st Ukrainian Front for 107 minutes fire led to the reference Fri and four artillery and mortar batteries of the enemy. Firing 980 rounds, the regiment suppressed two mortar batteries, destroyed eight guns and up to the 1st Battalion soldier and officers. It is interesting to note that the extra ammo in advance were laid at firing positions, but first spent shells that were in combat vehicles, otherwise would have been significantly reduced rate of fire. For the next replenishment languid ACS shells required up to 40 minutes because they stopped consuming in advance of the attack.
Very well languid ACS used against enemy tanks. For example, in the Berlin operation on April 19 the 360th Guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment supported the coming of the 388-th Infantry Division. The division was overcome one of the groves east of Lichtenberg, where he anchored. On another day before the enemy in the 1st Regiment of infantry supported by 15 tanks began to counterattack. Upon reflection attacks during the day or fire languid ACS destroyed 10 German tanks and 300 soldiers and officers.
In the fighting on the Samland Peninsula in the East Prussian operation 378th Guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment in repelling counterattacks successfully used the construction order of battle regiment fan. This provided the shelf fire in Gaza 180 °, easier than fighting the enemy tanks, attacking from different directions. One of the batteries ISU-152, building its own battle order of a fan at the front length of 250 m, which reflected the April 7, 1945 counterattack 30 enemy tanks knocked out six of them. The battery has not incurred losses. Only two machines have minor damage to the undercarriage.
The final step is stately Russian war, the corresponding feature of the introduction of self-propelled artillery began fighting in large villages Fri, including well fortified. As you know, coming to the big town is a very sophisticated form of combat and on his own liking almost everything is different from offensive combat in normal conditions. Martial acts in the town almost always subdivided into a number of individual local battles for individual objects and components of resistance. This forced the advancing troops for combat in the town to create a special assault teams and groups that are more autonomous. Assault squads and assault groups were the basis of combat formations and units, leading the battle for the city.
Self-propelled artillery regiments and brigades were attached to infantry divisions and corps, in the past they were one hundred percent or parts were attached to infantry regiments, in what used to strengthen the assault detachments and groups. The composition of the assault teams cut one self-propelled artillery batteries and separate settings (usually two). ACS, which were part of the assault teams had specific tasks and infantry support tank, the reflection counter tanks and self-propelled guns of the enemy and securing the occupied sites. Accompanying
infantry, SAU direct fire from a place with a little less often stops
destroyed pillboxes and anti-tank guns of the enemy, his tanks and self-propelled guns, destroyed the rubble, barricades and houses adapted for defense, and that provided the advance of the troops. For the destruction of the buildings from time to time used volley fire, which gave very good results. In combat formations assault teams self-propelled artillery units usually move together with the tanks under cover of infantry, tanks if no, then they moved together with the infantry. Nomination of self-propelled artillery for action ahead of the infantry was unjustified, because for all that they suffered huge losses from enemy fire.
In the 8th Guards Army of the 1st Belorussian Front in the battle for the city of Poznan in the assault groups of the 74th Guards Rifle Division were included on two or three ISU-152 394-th Guards languid self-propelled artillery regiment-ray. February 20, 1945 in the battle of the 8th, 9th and 10th districts of the town, particularly adjoining the southern part of the fortress stronghold, the assault team in a platoon of infantry, 3 ISU-152 and 2-T-34 tanks peeling from the enemy block number 10. Another group of infantry platoon, 2-self-propelled artillery ISU-152 and 3-TO-34 flamethrower attacked the 8 th and 9 th quarters. In these battles, ACS acted swiftly and decisively. They were coming to the houses and to stop destroying placed in the windows, basements and other areas of buildings German pillboxes, also done the breaches in the walls of buildings to pass their own infantry. When the actions of self-propelled guns were moving along the streets, clinging to the walls of houses and destroying the enemy's firepower, located in the buildings on the other side. His fire set mutually cover each other and ensure the promotion of infantry and tanks. Forward self-propelled artillery moved alternately rifts, as we move infantry and tanks. As a result, neighborhoods were swiftly occupied by our infantry and the Germans retreated bolshennymi losses in the stronghold.
ISU-152 was in service with the Russian Army until 1970, right before entering the army self-propelled guns of the last generation. With all of this ISU-152 twice modernized. First time in 1956, when the ACS was designated ISU-152K. On the roof of the cabin installed with the unit commander's cupola TPKU and family observation, Consumer Goods, ammunition gun-howitzer ML-20S increment up to 30 shots, which required changing the location of the internal equipment of the crew compartment and additional boeukladok; sight instead of CT-10 was installed on an improved telescopic sight PS -10. All machines have mounted anti-aircraft machine gun DShKM gun with 300 rounds of ammunition. On the ACS put the B-54K engine capacity of 520 hp with induction cooling system. Fuel capacity increment up to 1280 liters. Has been improved lubrication system design radiators become different. In connection with the ejection motor cooling system external fixation changed and fuel tanks. 10 machines were equipped with radio-RT-47 and TPU. Mass self-propelled guns rose to 47.2 tonnes, but the dynamic properties remain the same. Progress in store increased to 360 km.
Second version of the modernization was designated ISU-152M. The machine is installed units modified JS-2M DShKM antiaircraft machine gun with 250 rounds of ammunition and night vision devices.
Besides Russian Army, ISU-152 operated by the Polish Army. As part of the 13th and 25th regiments of self-propelled artillery, they took part in the battles graduating in 1945. Soon after the war ISU-152 has received and the Czechoslovak People's Army. First, the 1960 one regiment Egypt's army also was armed with ISU-152. In 1973, they were used as firing points motionless on the bank of the Suez Canal and fought fire on positions of Israeli troops.