Italian heavy tank «FIAT-2000 (1919)

Adversity and defeat in the First World War forced the Italian military to find ways to increase the efficiency of the army in the purchase and development of the heavy military equipment. The success of British tanks in 1917, only spurred interest in this type of equipment. Because in the same year, the Italians, the French tried to buy several 10-s "Schneider" and about hundreds of lighter Renault FT-17. But the creation of the first has already been discontinued, and the last needed by the French. Because in Italy went one medium tank "Schneider" and three light tanks "Renault FT-17." On the basis of tanks Renault Italians began to create his tank «FIAT 3000" and more grievous «FIAT 2000" Italian designers have started without the help of others. Tankostroitelnyh development capacity allowed Italy to enter the five countries that had the ability to create standard battle tanks and equipment.

For the creation of their own tanks to the Italians have already been developed, not bad techno base. The Italians had the experience of creation of armored cars such as Bianchi and Ansaldo. Therefore it is not surprisingly that the first tanks began to create concern «FIAT» — famous Italian engineering company founded in 1899. Designers companies are starting to work on creating your own tank in 1916 without an official government for this job. This work was conducted under the impression of the British tanks, which at that time had not had great success as a fighting technique and had success as a new technical solutions, embodied in the metal. The Italians came to the creation of tanks properly and initially developed a tracked chassis (in the form of the tractor) which were mounted on wood mock-platform. If the military does not take on a new tank weapons, «FIAT» planned to release it on the basis of the heavy tractor civilian purpose.

While the tank building in the world was born, design and technological solutions tanks were pretty raw and were in the process finding the best solutions. Italian «Fiat Tipo 2000" had a construction of "movable fort," which could move over rough terrain and help the infantry fire support. Such a "movable Fort" became a site of fighting reliability with any method of warfare. The tank had a huge capacity for radial fire, security and sufficient speed to overcome the uneven ground at a rate applicable to the coming of the infantry.

The tank came out pretty fascinating solution, so that German designers also began to develop a heavy tank «A7V», similar to Italian design. But the Italian «FIAT-2000" did not take part in the hostilities in contrast to the German counterpart. But the technology implementation of the "rolling fort" the Italians came out much more successful German tank «A7V».

The first model of the tank was ready by February 1918 and received a portion of a tower in the form of a hexagonal tower with a gun, and places for the installation of machine guns. Fun fact was the presence of variegated colors distorting the type of color tank "Schneider". Production tank «FIAT-2000", demonstrated by «FIAT» on the Roman stadium in the spring of 1919, was perceptible improvement from its own layout.

The arrangement and design
The assembly of the tank is made by a three-tiered scheme. MTO is the first tier of the length between the bottom of the tank and the bottom of the second tier. Second and third tier — living area of the tank. The commander and the driver of the tank in one person was placed in the front cabin serving, monitoring and review of the motion came from the window in the front of the cabin, made in front of the compartment. Window locked up a dull metal cover. To monitor and review in the fighting on the tank installed mirror periscope device. This was the first successful technical deployment periscopes for armored equipment, British tanks brag that at the time could not.

In the central part of the crew compartment in a rotating turret gunner was hemispherical run around the perimeter of the crew compartment located gunners. Of all the crew only chauffeur was provided regular "jobs." Landing / boarding crew took place by a door located on the left side of the tank. It led to Skobov ladder. For firing of personal weapons or monitor the situation in the fighting compartment between the battlements of weapons were made rectangular windows, lockable vertical flaps.

Housing tank — rolled iron sheets, connected among themselves riveting. Lateral and frontal sheets having a thickness of 20 mm, the top 15 mm. Head-on, feed and side plates were made with the slope, running the tank was protected bolshennymi screens. At the time, it was a very good protection for the crew, equipment and tank units. The tower was made by analogy the case and consisted of 4 parts: the lower zone, the dome, the front and rear half.

In the MTO aircraft engine mounted carburetor «FIAT-12A" with features power 240 hp Used to cool the radiator fan, air comes through the blinds, made in the feed tank. Box consisted of cerebral clutch, boxes.

Suspension — eight double support rollers, assembled in pairs in the carts, suspended on springs. Front / rear set tensioning rollers, caterpillar who protected against overload in overcoming severe obstacles. The elastic suspension and a small dynamic move carts doing enough tangible movement of the tank crew. In addition, the suspension was guiding and leading large wheels spitsovannogo execution. Driving wheels were set in motion chains Gall, who played in the front of the chassis and were quite vulnerable to damage. Caterpillar track krupnozvenchatogo execution. At the time, a very distinguished track rails for rolling flanged rollers and pillows with a pronounced grouser. Performance of running the tank allowed to have good permeability properties. On the housing front / rear fulfilled earrings for towing tank or tank.

Armament languid Italian tank
The main gun — 65 mm cannon reference 1913. On the frame of the tower was carried out swinging her part. Cannon got great angles guidance because the tower was quite high above the ground and shooting guns in the main conducted suspended type. Range of fire of the guns — 6.8 km. The tower itself was carried out on a ball chasing. All acts with a gun (rotation, guidance, loading) were conducted manually. Loophole tools overlapped flap connected to its swinging part.

6.5 mm machine guns «FIAT» standard in 1914 were moderately located at the corners and the middle of the body. Guns have water cooling, automatic machine guns operated by the non-long stroke recoil of the barrel, ammunition fed from a 50 store ammunition. Rate of machine guns and 400 rounds per minute. Swivel bracket installation of machine guns was fixed to the wall of the housing. It consisted of a cylindrical rocker panel, rotary plate (configured as a half of a truncated cone type). Horizontal angles pointing machine guns were almost 100 degrees, which made it virtually groove machine-gun fire from a tank. All were equipped with machine guns gilzosbornikami.

The fate of the tank «FIAT-2000"
In 1919, one of the tanks was delivered to Libya and received a 2-color camouflage color (according to other sources all 4th tank). By 1920, it was released 4th unit «FIAT-2000", which officially were in service in the Italian Army until 1934. Subsequent tests modi
fy the tank, increasing the combat power of the tank unit 37 mm cannon instead of front 6.5 mm machine guns, did not bring the expected result.

Though the tank and is never used in combat, military experts since then celebrated in the best possible way the design of the tank, which gave him the opportunity to overcome vertical obstacles and confidently move on rough terrain. But even with a plus revolving gun turret, good security and continuity, an elastic suspension, Italian tank «FIAT-2000" does not receive future development and remains a fascinating history of tank development prototype of Italian design ideas.

The main properties of «FIAT-2000":
— full weight — 42 tons;
— tank crew — 10 people;
— Length — 7.4 meters;
— height — 3.8 m;
— width — 3.1 m;
— clearance — 54 cm;

— forehead, board, feed, tower-20mm;
— roof — 15mm;

— Chief caliber — 65mm gun, a 17 caliber;
— weight used projectile — 4.3 kg;
— the initial velocity of the projectile — 345 m / s;
— range of fire to 6.8 km;
— machine guns — 7 units of 6.5mm «FIAT»;

— engine — Aviation «FIAT A12";
— num — 6 units;
— motor power — 240 hp;
— fuel — 600 l.;

— track width — 45 cm;
— speeds of up to 7.5 km / h;
— Range up to 75 km;
— Length of Track on Ground truck — 2.15 m;

Overcoming obstacles:
— rise up to 40 degrees;
— trench up to 3.5 meters;
— vertical obstacles up to 0.9 meters;
— depth of 1 meter hurdles;
— possibility of stalling the tree width of 50 cm

Sources disk imaging:

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