No miracles, which would be contrary to the Laws of Nature. Miracles only contrary to our understanding of these laws.
In ancient times the picture of the world created a mythology, but an instrument to influence the world served as Magic. By magic our ancestors treated not as something exceptional, and as a matter appropriate, require certain skills, abilities and knowledge. "Magic — means mogiya. Who moget, that and the magician "(Andreev -" Sketches of Russian ethno ").
Any magic — is the process of searching and invocation of the special forces, the presence or absence of which all feel.
Magic adepts believe that many of the events and phenomena that we consider commonplace, in fact, full of magic. Magic flows beneath the surface of things. She is able to give peace of mind, confidence in the future, the appeal in the eyes of others, the ability to achieve their goals, without spending too much effort and time. Requires only the ability, knowledge and belief.
Gradually, people stood out professionally capable to communicate with the supernatural, and even control them. They had a special secret knowledge — vedaniem. So there was vedichestvo — sorcery — witchcraft. Even in recent times, it is divided, it is conditional on the "white" (good, healing) and "black" (malignancy).
Representatives of ancient magic deeds to please the majority. That's what the message says Belgorod and Oboyan Metropolitan Mishael, dated 1673 year: "Yes, in the same cities and counties male and female sex are sorcerers and their volhovaniem and many people are attracted by magic. Many people are of the Magi, and sorcerers to the house to ourselves, to small children and sick call, and they all volhovanie mend, and from orthodoxy excommunicated Orthodox Christians. "
In Russian there is a set of values to describe those engaged folk, mostly magic, medicine — the priests of pagan gods and the forces of Nature.
The word "priest" related words "sacrifice" and "eat", which indicates the person in charge of offering to the gods, and the link between the gods and men, between the world of people (reality) and the world of the ancestors (Nav).
Historical data indicate that once the supreme god in charge of fertility and getting rid of various ailments, was Velez, he was also the patron god of cattle and wisdom, that is may contain the all peaceful dignity, for which he was loved by agricultural peoples.
In those days there were representations of vegetation, as the hair of land, and land are a living being, part of which relate to the parts of the body, human or animal: skaly — bones, vody — the blood, the roots of trees — veins, etc. Velez called "volohovatym" that is hairy, hence the "volohovat" — to serve God, and the "wise men" — his ministers.
It must be said that the cult of Veles was not homogeneous throughout Russia, somewhere thought the chief god Perun, Svarog somewhere, somewhere prayed to their gods unlearned, but overall outlook coincided with our ancestors, which enabled them to unite in the future one people.
Another theory of the origin of the word volhv — from Sancre. Valga (shine, shine the light of worship). It was once believed that the Magi are supreme temple priests, distinguished it from moving: beggars perekhozhie, buffoons, and the local: witches, sorcerers. The word witch doctor, refers to people who know specific knowledge, including in the field of healing and magic (commercial, military, love). More ancient word Sage means one charge of (hence the Vedas — a collection of secret knowledge), who sees what is invisible to many others. Same root word with him and broadcast (due to speak prophetic truth). Related to the concept of the word bayat, hence the accordion, dupe — a man in a poetic form telling of knowledge accumulated by the people. Magician — making Kudesy (miracles). Scorner conveyed to the people koschuny — sacred stories and predictions, that is "curse." Bereguinyas — priestess of the cult of the protective magic Mokos (the Mother Goddess) protected the people who know and headed various charms. Magicians not only sends charms, depriving people in the correct orientation of reality, but also to remove harmful spell.
Nowadays, the most common word wizard, a very ambiguous. The word is — the oldest and perhaps the most widespread in terms of symbols of all kinds of priests in. Warlocks — heirs of the ancient pagan fertility cult. Warlock — is someone who promotes proper rotation bell — the sun, the whole world. The first part of the word — count points directly to his membership of the calendar cycle of holidays, ie task wizard, except medical cases, there is worship of the ancient gods and holding festivals. Warlocks — this is household priests, who lives right by the people. In pagan times, Sage, wizard, witch had a good, positive sound, as evidenced by archaeological and philological studies of many remnants of ancient beliefs.
Sorcerers (witch doctors viritniki, magicians) have a knowledge of "white" magic (healing, protective, fertile), and knowledge of "black" magic (hostile unleash damage, forcing forced to do anything.) And this affects some spontaneous dialectic: the unity and struggle of opposites, the relativity of the concepts of "good and evil", an attempt to balance the various aspects of this world.
The power of witches was due to spread knowledge to the spirit world, to the dark forces. It was believed that the knowledge and the power produced by such healers, sorcerers directly from unclean or mined in the supernatural world. Often there is such a situation, that one and the same person in the village said as a good witch doctor, to help people, and as an evil sorcerer, sends illness and misfortune. The latter are usually numbered among persons living alone, closed, with some strange behavior, some features in the appearance (eg lameness, blindness, ie, features that determine people "strangers" and representatives of the other world). The belief is that the severe "damage" can be cured only by the wizard, in the past led to serious conflicts when the alleged perpetrator under the threat of violence made to fix the result of their malicious activities. There are some tragic cases where suspected witches were killed.
"In the men's quackery force a fundamental principle: a synonym or the right to practice voodoo study activities. "I can not, but go on, tot-to knows he is stronger" — suggests a traditional healer who came to him the farmer, seeing that he himself did not handle the task. To remove damage — the consequences of witchcraft — "are stronger than the one who did. And gets: force on force "(Kostroma region., Parfenevsky district, p. Nicholas Vast). We emphasize that the force — the attribute is a professional, as a rule, men quackery.
Sorcerer himself, like other magicians, there was always a remarkable personality, demonic, not boyavsheysya "no hell, no God", often endowed with such power and knowledge to the people of the highly respected and feared.
The people of "strong" medicine men are distinguished from all other (and first of all — from the village-sheptuh attendants who treated their children and neighbors). Female healers, usually homemade, his skills had almost every woman giving birth "(T.B.Schepanskaya. Strength: communication and reproductive aspects of male magic. Male collection. Issue 1. M., 2001).
Sorcerers often people come into contact with the other world, for example, stolen leshim survivors obmiraniya state and acquire knowledge of plots of pilgrims, beggars, fools.
In most cases, specific knowledge was passed on and preserved in the family, a hereditary witch doctor attributed special powers, and he enjoyed the greatest respect in others. Successor is usually chosen among relatives of at least 9 years, which is associated with the fact of loss of milk and permanent teeth sprouting, without which, it was thought, the sorcerer loses its power. In some places, it was thought that attach to the other world became different from other people: the world is reflected in his pupils upside down. To hide it, the medicine man avoided looking people in the eye.
Obtaining supernatural power and magical knowledge, the medicine man was about to perform its functions, the most common of which were healing.
Witch Doctor cured all diseases of people and animals, but especially illness resulting from witchcraft: corruption, evil eye, slander, fear.
Typically, therapeutic rituals performed at night or early in the morning before sunrise. Some witch doctors chose to perform rites certain days, usually Wednesdays and Fridays. It was believed that the most successful treatment is conducted during the month of decrease. According to other sources, begin to heal the sick in the same phase of the moon, during which he was "spoiled."
Many healers avoided treated in a residential area, especially where there were icons, explaining that the "conspiracy of the house with the images do not work," and to begin treatment, "locked up" the space with a knife and did not allow anybody to enter or out. If treatment is still conducted in the home, then all took place under the Matica or on the threshold of the dwelling, which in the spatial organization of the home played a role boundaries between "their" and "other" world. The best, and often the only possible place for magical rites considered Bath, who played a crucial role in the system of people's worldview. Also considered effective treatment given to the place of birth of the person.
Most of the diseases that the medicine man treats Sorcerer: Lessons evil eye, fear, etc. are, according to the views of modern medicine, disease of suggestion. The disease occurs due to insults, arguments, disrespect to the sorcerer, sometimes simply meeting in the bad times, an evil eye, or just spread a rumor about that person, someone who "drowned". After this, the object of attack began to "suffer" and often ill.
Supernatural powers sorcerer explained its relation to the "other" world. It is believed that this knowledge must be shared with anyone at the end of life is to "die easily." Truly a person can engage in witchcraft, while he is the life force, as evidenced by his success on the field, and the external features: the presence of teeth, sharpness of mind and vision.
Real medicine man, sorcerer must pass through a school and a rite of passage. Was significant learning secret knowledge, which man went into an apprenticeship and full submission wizard usually seven years. This information is also contained in the Russian fairy tales, such as "Apprentice sorcerer." I consider very important to pass a rite of passage, upon which a mysterious "re-birth" of a person is as a sorcerer, it also opens up some mysterious powers and abilities.
A man conscious becomes a magician, had to go through an initiation. It had a different forms of initiation, so the researchers had written a story about the ceremony of initiation into the Wizards' Wizard leads you to Bajnai at dawn, he will ask, it will pop up skakuha (frog), this should skakuhu proglotnut in myself. " This is — a form of initiation, when the initiate is not absorbed, and he absorbs chthonic beast. The most archaic form of initiation — ritual absorption neophyte: "Warlock and wants to become a sorcerer go to the bath. There, he has to put a cross under his left heel and deny God and the kingdom of heaven. After that frog will jump out from under the shelf, first a little, then will grow and grow and grow full bath .. Then the magician tells him to get into the gaping jaws of a frog. " Absorption gave the initiate ritual magic abilities.
After initiation, the sorcerer and received special assistants (demons, devils, hiccups, animals, magic items) that allegedly was linked to magic power.
Sorcerer himself his demons euphemistically called "comrades", pointing to the close co-operation with not very clean (as is usually the man himself) force.
"It was believed that the" Evil One ", was under the magician, constantly demanding job, otherwise the devil tormented the owner. Sorcerer even gave them difficult or completely impossible task, for example, scattering a handful of sand or ash and asked devils twist rope. The village is half as record shows, wizard chopped into small pieces broom (broom of birch branches without leaves) and scatter it, and hell will: "… while collecting again gather again to come, (come on) work. And if the work does not, duck itself sorcerer how to proceed, as shakes, tormented "(NA Krinichnaya Russian folk mythological prose: The Origins and polisemantizm images. T.2: Bylichki, byvalschiny, legends, beliefs about people possessing magical powers. Petrozavodsk, 2000).
Interesting and a social role sorcerer as a protector against various malicious encroachments on village and commune near which lived a sorcerer, especially during clashes with neighboring villages over land and meadows. Sometimes, that initially dealt "a sorcerer whose stronger", and then comes the turn of the physical disassembly and only then, at least, should have recourse to the police and the courts.
Rich people feared witches and cruel, because they themselves violated the Worldly Truth and could pay for it according to ancient pagan law of retaliation. Even in the future, when the Institute quackery largely degenerated into a dark magic, the power people have to bribe the witch to do "whatever you want."
From the XVII century, in times of severe persecution of all of old Russian (including jesters), the schism in the Russian Church, and turn the country into a "enlightened Europe", witchcraft and sorcery were considered wicked black magic. The scientific outlook tried to part with the "dark past" in their own way — at first completely denying the possibility of people's "magical" medicine, then tried to explain much with such concepts as "suggestion" and "etnofarmakologiya." Fully explain all the manifestations of healing is hardly ever possible, as well as an explanation of all the details of human life.
Still, until the XIX century various magical practices were a natural part of everyday life for many people in Russia. Magical practices used when they wanted to win someone's love or destroy anyone's family well. Going on a long journey, magic rituals to protect themselves from harm that may happen along the way. Resorted to sorcery when looking to woo the powerful of this world, or to avenge the hated enemy. Magic used to warn of trouble, for the detection and treatment of disease, for the protection of various kinds of trouble.
Witches were persecuted state power during Tsarist Russia. Almost to the end of XIX century. versed in the local court of various lawsuits in which the plaintiff complained of fortune telling defendant. N. Kostrov — author of "Witchcraft and the corruption of the peasants of the Tomsk province" (1879), cites a number of cases, we are investigated by the judiciary. Thus, in 1820, being investigated for alleged damage 13.
Currently, the belief in the real existence of sorcerers and witches as special representatives of the supernatural principle in human society is gradually disappearing. At the same time, the increased interest in personal and medical practice medicine men involved doctoring. Well knowing the characters, genealogy of their neighbors, working on the psyche of suggestion and hypnosis, they help patients in a rather difficult cases. In the presence of the patient and others of faith in the efficacy of traditional treatment of magical rites cause significant psychotherapeutic effect.
For success in magic should firmly believe that our thoughts are very powerful and can eventually materialize. You must completely abandon the desire to explain it using logical thinking and scientific knowledge. We must believe in your ability to influence the world through thought and image, that is, in fact, return to prelogical state of consciousness, which is hardly combined with modern life.