MYSTERY dolls. MERINOVSKY YAR
It is now Merinova — dacha village, quiet, blissful, warm and jovial. But why rush the ring came to rest.
And once she had the robber but schismatic glory. Here vatazhniki Stenka Razin wintered. Boat with the goods but wealth faileth. Rumors of Razinsky treasures still live, but just about anyone else they were given no treasure.
When Stepan Razin badly beaten on the Volga, part vatazhnikov scattered along small rivers, lay down, hiding. Here in Merinova settled, buried under runaways.
And then there was a schism. Patriarch Nikon his will rewritten and old books dvoeperstie banned, ordered pinch baptized. A resurgent Russia is! Pinch salt soup, God ought to honor the proud dvuperstiem put. To shove the point is reached. That moved adherents of the old faith in the forest. Test and at Merinova.
Places were gluhomannye. Here even afraid to poke a punitive army. Though the power on his side, and who is going to meet him — the forests nearby. And not once nagryanesh to take everyone by surprise — be warned. By fearful forest trails domchatsya instant messengers and trouble to say.
Circle Merinova swamp forest wall. There is one way — by Kerzhenke River.
Village artfully placed. High steep straight to the river comes with its brightness all visible. The river makes a bend here and the village itself headlong flow. Away everything in sight.
One curious writer Vladimir Korolenko Galaktionovich decided Kerzhents was on a boat to sail. The time is already quiet, threw for Believers chase, but did not open his village. Advance his boat saw and hid everything.
Not passed in their travels and Nizhny Novgorod Merinova svetopisets Maxim Dmitriev. He made his way here with my heavy hiking camera, but just as removed from the village of Yar. Does he try something else in Merinova capture is unknown. No trace remained. Or maybe he did not open village.
It is said to have bequeathed merinovskom graveyard to bury themselves the most ardent conservatives. Their bodies were secretly transported here from the most remote locations.
"… There is no longer the old persecution, new homes already on the mind of the bright meadows, long cleared from the forest, but the home dead still huddled in the wild often jealously hide their tracks …" — so wrote Korolenko.
And that's how I saw forestry Volga other writer — Pavel Melnikov-Pechersky.
"Since that time, as conceiving the Russian land, there are alien inhabitants had happened. So Russ systari on cleanliness is — what was with great-grandfather, is kept to this day good side, though, and looked angrily at chuzhanina. "
Village Merinova lived by strict rules. Are not quitters were performed. The people were hard-working. Forests began to feed him. No he wandered the land in search of work — the pride did not allow. The last case in the boatmen go. So out of the village or foot. Began along the river put turnery, workshops along with. And that they only did spoons, bowls, cups, combs, stems, spindles, pails, buckets, tubs, shovels, paddles, scoops "Everything that can be extracted from the forest, his hand will not pass."
Even then rukomeslom Merinova became famous. And interestingly, the merchants of his village did not know. No one in the rich is not his way, and not because it is weak to sobrazhenya was, and did not want her to strip, the labor of others to live.
So in artisan Merinova than a century and passed.
You guessed it, why we give you this village told?
Yes, there was born earthly miracle that the whole world to conquer. But do not rush. Tale — he's not immediately affected.
Perhaps, in the unraveling of the story itself Sherlock Holmes, in the literal sense of the word would break his head, at a standstill, and still there would be holed up. The story is very old and, at the same time the young. And the main characters name is different. And there they are. Someone said that in India, someone claims that in China, well, someone points exactly to Japan, referring to the ancient legend of Jarman.
It is believed that he was the son of the 28th Patriarch of Zen, brought Buddhism from India to China and Japan Djarma was convinced that anyone can become a Buddha by meditation. To prove this, he spent nine years tirelessly devoted himself to prayer and meditation. However, he sat motionless in his cave. To stay awake, Djarma removed his eyelids hands and feet fall off themselves as useless.
For such acts Japanese love Jarman, and over time it has become a sort of our Santa Claus, bringing good luck.
Indian missionary name was unpronounceable for the Japanese, so they called it their own way — Daruma. So it was convenient. Monk figure has been 1,500 years is part of the vital attributes of the Japanese. It is made of papier mache and taught it from an early age.
But Japanese idols multiplied. Some were responsible for the success in others — for a good harvest, others defended the righteous.
There were patrons of art, and a full-blooded characters happiness.
Idols had many faces: angry, funny, thoughtful … Yogi said that five bodies in humans and, therefore, every body should be your patron. Teachings of Osho believed that seven bodies: physical, etheric, astral, mental, spiritual, cosmic and nirvana. So idols already sold as a set.
Suddenly, someone came up to put seven, five, three figures in one. And it happened relatively recently, in the late XIX century.
One of the first "layer" has become idols Fukurokudzhu. He was the most popular in the large family, as he was responsible for the happiness, prosperity, long life and wisdom. Him something and had to make a long trip to Russia and become the ancestor of the famous Russian toy.
True, the Japanese idol was forced to change its name to something more simple — Fukurumu. So we have it and know.
It turns out that the cloning method well known in the late XIX century. Judge for yourself. Japanese dad Fukurumu became the ancestor … Mom is not there. A cloning occurred in 1890 on the farm in the suburban Mamontov Abramtsevo. The owner of the estate had brought from Japan funny idol. Toy was a secret: In the old Fukurumu hid his entire family. In one of the media, when the estate runs into artistic elite, the hostess showed all the funny figure.
Detachable toy interested artist Sergei Malyutin, and he decided to do something similar. Japanese god of course, he did not repeat, made a sketch round-faced peasant girls in a flowered kerchief. And make it look podelovitee, pririsoval her hand a black rooster. Next was a young lady with a sickle in his hand. Another problem with a loaf of bread. How did sister without her brother — and he appeared in a painted shirt. A family, friendly and hard working.
Make their nebyvalinku he ordered the better turner Sergiev Posad teaching demonstration workshop of Zvezdochkin.
First doll toy stores now Museum of Sergiev Posad. Painted in gouache, looks like it is not very festive.
Here we all matryoshka, matryoshka yes … But at this doll and name-was not. When Turner did it, and the artist painted, and then the name came by itself — Matrona. They also say to Abramtsevo evenings tea served servant of that name.
Loop through a thousand names, and no one is better than this wooden dummy will not work.
New toy immediately became popular. In the same year, as the doll was born, the Russian consul reported that in Germany, the Nuremberg company "Albert Gerh" and turner Johann Wilde began to forge Russian dolls. The same news came from France. But, as time has shown, these toys were not vaccinated.
World triumph dolls held an exhibition in Paris in 1900.
In 1911, orders for the toy already received from 14 states.
So now you have the right to stop our tale and ask a pertinent question:
— What are you all about the doll Zagorje Byetta? Tea, we have our own, Semenovskaya there. It is dearer to us, and tell us about it.
And what about her talk? When Zagorskaya toy rolled on abroad but received praise, Semyonovsky dolls even existed.
Do not believe it, but it only appeared … in 1922.
By that time, there were more than a hundred Merinova DIY Toy. All kinds of fun for children they do not! Sometimes, yes to fair markets toy carts transported. For all new were taken without fear gripped and were always win.
How did matryoshka in Merinova? It's very simple — the fair brought. Like a gimmick masters.
Now any marketing expert would, without hesitation, said he did not take up the doll should be. Zagorskaya doll for three decades was walking through the world, and the popularity of toys was not. Besides Zagorje masters made dolls of 21 species — just a taste and interest.
But in a quiet Merinova nobody was strong in marketing and the triumph of the wooden dolls Zagorje also heard nothing. Here you have the science. It turns out that the less you know, the more boldly and work in peace.
First of separable doll sharpened master Mayorov and vaginitis.
Averyan Vagin began with imitation Zahorski masters. Just out of his hands out dolls-smeshinki: peasants bald with beards or mustaches so stout peasants in hats.
And here at Arseny Mayorov was matryoshka another. His eldest daughter, Luba, prompted the doll figure with a quill pen and painted with aniline dyes. Turned out nice doll, dressed in the center apron bright red flower — daisy color kokoshnik. Like drawing younger daughter Zinaida, and she has made her into a doll. And sisters are to each other to show off — who better to write out.
I saw something creative artist and a visiting nurses praised — nice doll! And gave good advice — write rural beauties. Since Semenovskaya matryoshka found its own way and Zagorje doll no longer compete. Zagorskaya matryoshka — urban, more strict in clothing. Semenovskaya — bright, as if from a roundelay snatched, blush on the cheeks — out of breath.
And so it went into the light. And I was happily accepted.
What is surprising because, now about Zagorje little doll anyone knows, and Semenovskaya know everything.
Of course, in the case, then it should call merinevskoy but there craft fade beginning masters have moved to the city, in the farm, and then to the factory. So ingrained: Semenovskaya matryoshka.
Until recently, all who went overseas tourist or on business, drove the main souvenir — painted dolls.
— Oh, matrieshka!
She was like a password, and do not need to know the language of the country in which was. Accepting a gift, to be easy on the newcomer, knowing that getting into such a trip was not so easy.
— Oh, matrieshka!
It was the most outgoing and doll business world. Overdressed, lanky Barbie compete with it, and there was no point. Who comes into my head to give it as a souvenir, for example, on some World Congress? Who needs this dasher? It did not fit the situation. A stately matryoshka was well received in any society. She smiled kindly, kings and queens, princes and princesses, presidents, generals and admirals, movie stars, and as for the kids and say nothing.
Matryoshka was a symbol of the country. Its the best selling foreign currency stores "Birch".
How many have to put love in the work that the adopted child has relatives home!
In sports, we have to recognize records in aviation and space. "Higher and higher, and higher, we sought to fly our birds." About the Guinness Book of Records, though we have heard, but never seen it. Foreign observers strongly sneer record that there were recorded, and thus imparted to the book disgusted. No, we do not need such a book and records are not necessary …
In fact, it was an amazing book, in which a variety of records were collected from pustyashnyh to severe, but the merit of the book was one — she reveals the infinite human potential.
If included in the 1970 Guinness Book of Records to tolerate and would very much like to get in there, you will certainly be hit. In that year, Semenov master toy-ki showed at All-Union Exhibition of arts and crafts of amateur artists and craftsmen man-made miracle — 72 local doll.
You can imagine this?
No, it was not a giant. That's the whole point. Its height was only meters and a diameter of two feet — quite petite girl.
Ever the time comes when a man says to himself: "And if I can?" And trying to do the beyond, requiring only that he had learned. So it was with this dolls. It is prepared for the exhibition "Expo-70", which was held in Japan. You know, something to surprise the Japanese is difficult, but here is a miracle. Besides Semenovskaya matryoshka drove home his father — Fukurumu.
If you are not hard, you can find the height of each figure. When the calculations are complete, it will surprise you one more thing: what is the thickness of the wall were born.
I saw this doll in a completely disassembled. The walls of each doll shine through. Thickness of about a half a millimeter.
It was not easy to find a suitable lime. Usually these trees up to a diameter not survive, the core of the barrel starts to rot. Looking for wood for a long time and still found in the forests of the Kirov. Came out of the barrel a few of the large dolls. But everything else was made from conventional preparations.
Showed great skill and artists. Each of the 72 dolls was full of character and dress …
She would keep forever, showing descendants to their best wizard, and then could not resist, sold in the same Japan, which earned her 3,000 rubles. Money in those days, though large, but matryoshka was something priceless.
Since I started talking about money, tell you a trade secret. According to experts, one real Semenovskaya matryoshka of 12 components at a price equivalent to one tonne of oil. That's only in Semenov's not guess.
UNIVERSE IN THE HANDS
Here though, and you know how old doll and can not believe. It seems as if she came to us from the distant centuries. She's become a recognized symbol of Russia, but is there such young characters!
Slipping out of time coordinates of the doll immediately began to lose clarity and space. In addition to this unpretentious beauty doll has something inexplicable draw to itself more than bright aniline dyes.
Today doll to commemorate the geography class when talking about multi-layer structure of the world.
Writers to explain complex novel, resort to the same than "… The visible part of the universe, perhaps enters another supergalaktiku, roughly speaking world is built on the principle of dolls: the one area that seems to us abroad, is a shell, for which there is a different area (the other layer!) ". These are lines from the report of the meeting on the fundamental problems of high energy physics.
And for doctors matryoshka gift. They can explain the popular, how is man.
Archaeologists compared with dolls pyramid.
Children in kindergarten already know how to construct a family — like nesting dolls.
Change of seasons — is not split prototype dolls?
It is hard to imagine how did without that image school teachers and schools in the last century. Maybe knowable world was simpler and the concept of it was not so complicated and confusing. Matryoshka appeared just in time to make this world could be anything to compare.
And another mystery: why such toys in Japan have become so popular? Maybe there are "dead" and not in them that energy, which is contained in our dolls? And if we relate it to the land where she had gone to the world is not a toy, but a symbol. And merinovsky brightness and byways, and whirlpools Kerzhents and passion, which is full of the land — all of it.
Maybe the idea of dolls we generally planted from space? Here you are, they say, you model your life in which you can not understand.
Difficult thing to solve the mysteries, which, perhaps not. But who would agree that they are not?