Named the 13 cases that put science into a dead end


The placebo effect. The saline solution is not worse than morphine numb, if you enter it after long-term use of the drug to a patient without telling him about the substitution. But it is necessary to add salt solution naloxone, which blocks the action of morphine, as anesthetics effect disappears. Why this is so, science does not know. There are many other examples of changes in the physiological and psychological state of man after receiving a harmless drug, appointed under the guise of an effective remedy.

2. Horizon problem. It is believed that our Universe is 14 billion years old, and between the extreme points, which can be seen — 28 billion years. It was found that the temperature of the background radiation is everywhere the same. Its creation would require the expansion of the universe to its current size for 10-33 seconds! But could this be? Uniform "heating" remains an anomaly for science.

3. Ultrasilnoy cosmic radiation. Called cosmic rays traveling at nearly the speed of light protons (or heavy atomic nuclei.) One of their sources — a supernova. The maximum possible energy cosmic rays is equal to 5? 1019 electron volts (the limit of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin) if they were not born in our galaxy. Ten years ago, the first time seen with higher energy particles, which did not occur in our galaxy. Whether the measurement is incorrect, then the special theory of relativity, but ultrasilnoy cosmic radiation is, and explain to him — no.

4. Belfast homeopathy results. Pharmacologist Madeleine Ennis decided to prove the absolute failure of homeopathy, but instead received a stunning result: how much would have been diluted solution with a certain drug, he continues to have medicinal properties. Even if it is contrary to common sense, because the water had not been a single drug molecule. Is that an invisible trace of him.

5. Dark Matter. What is gravity, describe in detail physics textbooks. But they are silent, that if scientific theories are correct, the universe must collapse. Because of the rotating mass of the galaxies is not enough for the gravitational attraction creates centripetal forces. Where is the mistake? Perhaps there is a "dark matter", which shall be 90% of the mass of the universe, but to find it and failed.

6. Martian methane. If the soil on Mars produces methane, then there must be life. But there is CH4, and life — no. It found devices that are sent back to Earth: any organic molecule was found. Scientists have one more way to detect life: to find a "chiral" molecule (they are mirror images of each other) and to establish their relationship. If the right-handed (left-handed) molecules larger than their left-handed (right-handed), life on the red planet still exists. Or was.

7. Tetraneutron. Four years ago, during the experiment found the tetra: four neutrons that are connected to the system. This is contrary to the Pauli exclusion principle: even two protons or neutrons in a single system can not be characterized by a similar quantum properties, and four — the more so. In addition, nuclear power can not even keep two single neutron. Neutron stars confirm the existence of the tetra, and the whole universe — no. Because it would have collapsed, unable to expand, if such particles existed for a long time.

8. The Pioneer Anomaly. Two running back in the 70's spacecraft Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 were supposed to fly out of the solar system, and be safely forgotten. But the acceleration of an unknown nature, less than a nanometer per second squared, rejected the Pioneer 10 400 000 kilometers from the course. The same thing happened with the Pioneer 11. Known causes (software errors, the solar wind, fuel leakage) are already excluded. Scientists continue to speculate what caused the observed acceleration.

9. Dark energy. In 1998, it became known that the universe is expanding at increasing speed. And according to the tenets of modern physics, the speed must be reduced. One possible explanation — the dark energy (a hypothetical form of energy that has negative pressure and evenly fill the entire space of the Universe), which really did not know.

10. Kuiper cliff. For Pluto is the asteroid belt, which is suddenly replaced by a blank space. One of the guesswork — the existence of the tenth planet, clean the area. But it was unable to detect, because the study that region of the solar system with the Earth problematic. By 2015, the New Horizons probe sent to this mysterious place, may help explain this phenomenon.

11. The signal from space. In 1977, the American astronomer Eman recorded an unusual signal from the constellation of Sagittarius to 37 seconds. The momentum radiation had a narrow frequency band around 1420 MHz. All transmissions of this frequency are prohibited by international agreement. Natural sources of radiation have a much wider range of frequencies. Mysterious source remains unknown.

12. Little or no permanent. Light from QSO on its way up to billions of years passes through interstellar cloud metals (iron, nickel, chromium). In 1997, when the study found that it absorbed some of the photons of light of the quasar. But not the ones expected. Untested only reasonable explanation is that the fine structure constant, or alpha, had a different value at the time when the light passes through the cloud. But after alpha determines how light interacts with matter, and should not be changed. Its value depends on the charge of the electron, the speed of light and Planck's constant. What kind of constant change?

13. Cold fusion. Experiments have shown that immersion in the palladium electrodes of heavy water (in which the oxygen is connected to the hydrogen isotope deuterium) can generate an enormous amount of energy. Perhaps deuterium nuclei under the influence of stress on the electrodes are moved to the molecular lattice of palladium and allow substances to raft with a significant release of energy. But science affirms, that the fusion at room temperature is not possible!

PS Scientists are mostly accustomed to those ideas that do not allow us to understand the contradictions of facts and "scientific" theories, becoming blind and helpless outside the "visible" in the world.

Here he writes about, NV Levashov: "It is this" blindness "and has led to the fact that modern science has become a religion, and scientists — its priests. And the proof of this are the statements of prominent scientists that, in order to call yourself a scientist, a person should maintain a healthy skepticism and do not trust your eyes, the ears, the facts and evidence, and to stand firmly on the positions of their science … ".


Helen Bittner

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