The first indigenous people of Moscow were vyatichi, which the chronicler Nestor says this: "… There were two brothers in lyahah one Radim, another Vyatka, Radim came and sat on the river Sozh from him Dubbed radzimichy, Vyatka and his native village on the Oka River, from He was nicknamed vyatichi. "
Then Nestor describes their manners and customs:
"Radimichi, vyatichi northerners have the same custom of living in the woods like animals, they all ate unclean sramoslove had them before fathers and daughters in law, marriage was not with them, but there were revels between the villages. Converged on the merrymaking at plyasanya and all demonic merrymaking and then abduct the wives, with whom who conspired and they had two or three wives. When someone died, the first worked on it funeral feast, organized a great treasure (the fire), and laid the dead man put on, burned, and then, having collected the bones, put them in a small pot, which is placed on a pole in the road, making vyatichi and now. "
The next sentence explains the hostile-critical tone of the chronicler-monk: "These same practices were held krivichi other Gentiles who do not know the law of God, but they are doing their own law." It was written no later than 1110, when the Kiev Russia has firmly established the Orthodox clergy and with righteous anger denounced their pagan neighbors, mired in ignorance.
Emotions never contribute objective vision. Archaeological investigations say that Nestor, to put it mildly, was not right. Only in the present-day Moscow studied more than 70 groups of mounds related to XI — XIII centuries. This — the cemetery numerous Vyatichi, located mainly on the right bank of Moscow, including in our Southwest District — areas Zyuzin Cheryomushki Konkovo, narrow, Teply Stan.
The construction of new houses, most of these archaeological sites were razed to the ground, but in the forest area can still see these mounds. They are 1.5-2 meters tall mounds. They archaeologists discovered along with the remains of men, women and children should be feasts: the coals from the fire, animal bones, broken dishes: iron knives, metal belt buckles, clay pots, horse bridles, tools — sickles, kresala, scraper, etc. etc. Women were buried in holiday attire: bronze or silver semilopastnye temple rings, necklaces made of crystal and carnelian beads, a variety of bracelets and rings. In the burials were found the remains of a local production of fabrics — linen and wool, and silk, imported from the East.
In contrast to the former population — Mordovians and Komi — hunting and gone in search of the beast for the Volga, vyatichi were at a higher stage of development. They were farmers, craftsmen, merchants. Most of Vyatichi selilas no settlement, and in clearings, edges of woods, where there was land suitable for farming. Here, near his fields, Slavs settled. First the temporary home — a tent of interwoven twigs, and after the first harvest — chalet with a cage, where he was kept poultry. These buildings hardly differed from those that so far we have seen in the villages of the Upper Volga, except that the windows were very young, prolonged bullish bubble, but no stove pipe sunk in black, so that the walls and ceilings were always covered in soot. Then came the barn for cattle, barn, barn so the floor. Close to the first farm houses — "Pochinki" arose neighborhood estate. Their masters were usually grown up sons of the owner of "repair" and other close relatives. Since the village's generated (from the word "sit"), when the free Pashennykh land was not enough, began to cut down forest areas. In these places, there were villages (from the word "tree").
Vyatichi those that involved crafts and trade, settled in the cities, which arose as a rule, in place of the old fort, but instead of the long barracks were built manor building. However, and the citizens do not stop farming — cultivating orchards and gardens, kept cattle. Fields and gardens that arose over the rampart, was the forerunner of Horticultural, horticultural groups, available today in the suburbs of any modern Russian city.
Love to suburban economic management and those retained vyatichi who lived in the capital of a large colony of the Khazar Khanate — Itil, located on both banks of the Volga in the mouth.
Wrote the Arab traveler Ibn Fadlan, who visited the Volga, in the first quarter of the tenth century: "In the vicinity of Itil no settlements, but in spite of this, the ground is covered by 20 parasangs (Persian measure of length, one parasangs — about 4 miles. — D. E.) — cultivated fields. Itiliyskie summer residents go into the standing corn bread, which they transport to the city by land or water. "
Ibn Fadlan has left us and the external description of the Slavs: "I have never seen such tall people: they are high, like palm trees, and always rouge."
A large number of Slavs in the capital of the Khazar Khanate was the basis for other Arab writer says: "There are two tribes of the Khazars: one car Khazars Khazars or black — brown and black just like the Indians, others — white, have good features."
And further: "The Itil have seven judges. Two of them are Moslems and decide the case on its law, two Khazars and judged by Jewish law, two Christians and judged according to the Gospel, and, finally, the seventh for the Slavs, Rousseau, and other pagans — are judged by common sense. "
Vyatichi Slavs living in the lower reaches of the Volga and the Oka River basin, deal not only with farming. The main occupation was originally their river navigation. With odnodrevok managed vyatichi, merchants from Kiev reached the headwaters of the Dnieper, and from there crossed the river portage Moscow and on the pop-up to the mouth of her Yauza. Here, where today stands the hotel "Russia" was the pier. Novgorod guests were doing the same route to Moscow, reaching up to the headwaters of the Dnieper River in the north to the lake and the river Lovat Ipmen.
From Moscow Marina trade route passed through Yauza, then portage, in the current Mytischi boat dragged on Klyazma and then sailed on her to the confluence of the Oka the Volga. Slavic court heard not only to the Bulgar kingdom, but also to the Itil even further — down to the southern shores of the Caspian Sea.
The Moscow River was trading way down south to the Oka, the Ryazan land, on the Don, and even lower — to the rich cities of the southern Black Sea coast — Sudak and Surozh.
Through Moscow ran another trade route from Chernigov to Rostov. There was also a land route from the southeast to Novgorod. She walked across the Moscow River in the ford near the present stone bridge beneath the Borovitskaya hill.
At the crossroads of trade routes in the future of the Kremlin, there was a market — the sort that was located on the banks of the Volga River, about fifteen miles from the Bulgar.
So, as you can see, the statement Nestor atrocity Vyatichi untrue. All the more is very strong doubt both his testimony — that vyatichi — one of the tribes that had split from the Poles who came to the pool and the Moscow River from the West.
Our wonderful tantrums and scholar Alex chess more than a century ago to prove identity Vyatichi Wends, Slavic tribes, well known to the ancient Greeks.
Homer reported that their primary home — the state of Urartu at Lake Van. Part of Vans — wends twelve centuries before Christ went to the northern shore of the Black Sea to the Balkans and Italy.
The remaining Vanir had to migrate north after the defeat of the state in the Medes 590g. BC They became part of the multinational Khazar Khanate, which are called "VANTIT", and later in Russia transformed into a "vyatichi." Confirmation of this version are working archaeologists during excavations on the territory of Urartu, scientists have found a lot of Caucasoid Slavic skulls.
Vyatichi Kievan prince Svyatoslav helped in the defeat of the Khazar Khanate, unreasonably oppress subordinate peoples.
Young Russian prince distinguished himself on this campaign as a great military leader. He sent his army not to Itil, but simply in the opposite direction, choosing the well-trodden trade route up the Dnieper, and more — to the upper reaches of the river in Moscow, where he met with the elders of birth Vyatichi, will provide advance Svyatoslav felled rooks. Many of the young-Vyatichi take a part of his troops, wanting to liberate their land from the dependence of the Khazar Khaganate.
After spending the winter months in the hospitable Vyatichi, Svyatoslav, once the ice came and went on the Volga. Bulgars met him quite friendly, but were afraid to give military aid to them was too memorable to the recent arrival of the Khazar army to punish the Bulgars for entering into an alliance with the Muslim Baghdad.
In June, when the army is no longer waiting for Kagan attack, near the Khazar capital suddenly appeared rook Svyatoslav. Itil adobe buildings were turned to dust. After destroying all the settlements on the Volga, the Slavic army headed west to White Vezhe. It took a decisive battle, where a mercenary army suffered a crushing defeat Kagan. Multinational Khazar Khanate instantly disintegrated into small fragments.
Vyatichi began paying tribute to Svyatoslav, but after his death the payment stopped. His son Vladimir had to make a trip to their land, so that they recognize their vassalage.
On the rebellion Vyatichi complained many years later Vladimir Monomakh. And only finally subdued them to his son George, is not accidental nicknamed Dolgoruky.
However, vyatichi long made up the bulk of the indigenous population of Moscow and its environs. It has become a center of attraction for many other Slavic tribes, and not only. In his veins flowed the blood of the Muscovites representatives Finno-Finns, Scythians, Kipchaks, Lithuanians, Poles, etc. After the invasion of Batu in Russian villages there were many bastard (by V. Dahl — "bastard" — prigulny, nebrachnorozhdenny). 300 noble families of Aksakovs to Yusupov — the descendants of immigrants from the Golden Horde.
For a long time the people of the North-Eastern called themselves by the principality in which they lived — tverichi, Suzdal, Ryazan, the Muscovites. It was only after the victory of Kulikovo in written records again, as in the time of Kievan Rus', appeared the word "ancient Russians."
A rich palette of genes of many nationalities made alien to the Russian people the idea of national superiority. Therefore the Russian did not bother when the patriarchal throne sat Mordvin Nikon, in the government of Peter the Great, was a Jew Shafirov minister and commander — Cheremis Sheremet, husband of Empress Elizabeth became Ukrainian Rozum (Razumovsky), Generalissimo under Paul — Swede Suvorov, winner of Napoleon — a descendant Tatars Kutuzov, and so on and so forth
D. Evdokimov, the newspaper "For Kaluga Gate» № 35, 12-18.09.02.