They appear in our cradle and live with us all childhood. They help to digest our future life roles, they teach us to communicate and understand the world of adults. But is limited to the value of children's games dolls? Our ancestors of the Slavs dolls accompany life. A modern application of dolls, called kukloterapiya — is a single method of treatment of mental illness.
In anticipation of the VIII International Doll Salon, we decided to find out what are the traditional Slavic dolls, interest in which is actively being revived in recent years, and modern dolls, the interest that did not die, perhaps never.
— Dolls — is part of pagan culture, the little that managed to preserve the Slavic peoples of worship since the "native gods." Traditionally dolls made only by women. In general, in Russia, there is quite a clear division of responsibilities for men and women. And children, kitchen, sewing, spinning, as well as the dolls were exclusively female occupation. Dolls made "on occasion", that is, when people's lives there are certain events: the birth of children, pregnancy, marriage, leaving her husband to war and so on. Create a doll became almost a member of the family, so all the dolls were kept for future generations …
Bronislaw Dubchak freely oriented in a mysterious for most of our contemporary world of Slavic traditions. Talks about them as if he lived a long life in an authentic village with ancient history. In fact Muscovite Bronislava only 28 years, but the Slavic culture in all its forms, she began to be interested in school. Studied the history of pre-Christian Russia, neo-paganism and its manifestation in contemporary cultural studies and received a diploma has long been engaged in applied crafts Slavs, reconstruction of ancient festivals and rituals.
— In Russia, the tradition of making dolls comes with a very long time, even pre-Christian times. The first and most ancient dolls were motanki (from the word "wind") and dolls spin (from the word "cool"). Manufacturing technology for these dolls is almost the same: scraps of fabric torn to shreds and rewind together. Doll-twist made for a newborn from his mother's shirt and rags hung over the cradle to drive away from the dashing and hvorobu baby. There were a lot of dolls, and each had its own peculiarities and its purpose. For example, a doll-kuvadki specially emphasized breasts, making it a very large — it symbolized a stout woman. This doll watch over his mistress and her house from evil spirits from evil thoughts of people who came to the house. This doll is most often planted near the entrance to the house, and it was considered even more of a family than women. There was also a doll with a doll-kuvadka pelenashkoy: a doll with a baby in her arms. This doll is protective of women during pregnancy and after birth. Doll Potbelly — also a variation kuvadki only in the hands of this doll is not a baby, and two bags. It serves to retain and attract wealth into the house …
Today, many such dolls sound funny, but primitive. Why, for example, just white dolls face? No eye, no mouth? But the lost sense of time does not mean its absence, and the white doll face are irrelevant to laziness or lack of artistic talent in the pagan environment. White face doll talisman meant purity of mind owners, and beware of evil thoughts and actions with respect to its owners. For similar reasons, when you create a doll talisman never use sharp objects such as needles, scissors or knives — not to harm those whom these dolls are designed to protect. Strings broke off with your hands or a snack teeth.
— Since at that time the new fabric was expensive, dolls made from old shirts and dresses: torn rags and tied them together, twisting, — explains Bronislaw. — Now everything is different. If you are doing yourself a doll for beauty or for the soul, you can use any materials, needles and scissors. But if you want to make a doll that will "work" in full force, then you need to stick to the old technology — for example, to use for the base of a birch log dolls or tightly rolled-up cloth, not plastic bottle. Now, many began to make dolls. We often meet other artists at fairs. Basically a master class on the dolls for the people — this is another way to get to know some traditions of their native land, and, of course, until it is a novelty in the travel market. You can learn how to make puppets in different ways: you can simply search the internet, there are many good and available instructions, you can, again, take a master class at some festival. For me the doll — a kind of spiritual rest. Especially in winter, when cold and go out do not want to, in the evenings I like to include some old comedy and sit-sew dolls …
Dolls — quite another "puppet opera". No ancient rights were not needed, it is pure creativity.
— Dolls feature is that it is completely sewn by hand. I can make a few dolls in parallel because of the work — mechanical, and some — creative. For example, make the body dolls — this is a purely mechanical work, and only do hair, clothes, shoes — a creative process. Make a doll — this is probably how to write a book: it is possible to write, write, and then throw it away. And you can write, delay, after a while back. You may need two weeks may — two months. Once, I had to quickly make a doll's birthday, and I managed three days. But this is an exception — Olga Trigubenko.
Olga — Counseling Psychology, kukloterapevt, artist-puppeteer and teacher of aesthetics. Fascination with dolls began almost by chance in the same journal found Olga courses in sewing dolls. Now she leads a group kukloterapii.
At the heart of any creation is the idea. Olga dolls also have their "ideas" are different.
— Each of my doll "begins" with a tissue and a certain mood. For example, a doll in a black dress I made in the "Gothic" mood and conceived it as a terrible doll. But in the end, even though the doll dressed in black, terrible, it failed. Josephine called it — is in it something of the French: waist corset … Or doll Pippi. There is a clear description of Pippi in the book: it is ugly, her nose potatoes — it's not my idea, it's Astrid Lindgren — it red, she sewed her dress is blue, but it did not have enough fabric — and had to add the red rags, her stockings and shoes of different colors "for growth." When doing such a doll, is not to retreat from the created image. In general, there are two good phrases, not invented by me: the first — "doll itself does," and second, "everyone is doing himself," that is, a doll like her master.
Indeed, each doll Olga — a real rag personality. From such a doll hard to come off, I want to turn it in your hands and long to see every detail: lace, shoes, carefully wound up curls, hat … I mean, that the creation of dolls can not be put on stream: even the fabric from which sewed doll clothes, never repeated. Olga willing to share technical details:
— Classically clothing should be tightly sewn, but I do not want to limit myself, and my dolls some elements can be removed, for example, hat, handbag. The most difficult part — the person dolls. As humans, it is individual, and it can not be repeated. I use different fabrics: sometimes buying, sometimes someone gives. You can use the old fabric, but despite what. For example, it is necessary that the drawing was fine, because the size of a doll — it's not ours to you, and a major figure on it will look ugly. The fabric should be subtle and pleasing to the eye. The "correct" dolls, which are designed for collecting, using, or old, or a special "antique" matter. But most people love bright, colorful — so I often use new fabrics. In general, to sew dolls, you must be a sort of Gogol's "little box", you should be able to collect. I have a special folding closet where all laid out by office: here the skin, then cloth, then accessories — beads, buttons of small, beads — and sorted by color.
Kukloterapiya — is the use of puppets for the treatment of mental illness. She practiced for a long time: in 1926, Malcolm Wright Puppet Theater cured childhood neuroses. Anna Freud, daughter of Sigmund Freud, used puppets in their practice of child psychoanalysis.
Kukloterapiya applied in different directions of psychotherapy psychodrama, Play therapy, skazkoterapii and art therapy. Doll can "treat" in two ways. In the first case of a person suffering from a disorder, making the doll and gives it to his inner pain. This doll is the embodiment of the pain, and the person is likely to want to destroy it. The second way to cure more common: in this case the process of doll making is a kind of meditation, calming person and bring positive experiences. And then make a doll became an assistant, a friend, a symbol of joy.
Olga, a practicing psychologist, talks about his experience kukloterapii:
— Kukloterapiya — is part of the art therapy. When children pretend play with dolls, doll after they recite their problems — that would not tell from his face. I use kukloterapiyu and women. When women sew, they calm down, socialize, enjoy an interesting case. For example, in my group was a woman who after retirement does not particularly engaged. When she started making dolls, she developed relationships with her son: she used all her energy spent on his "education", and now became involved affair. Dolls became part of their family, she shared with her son, her emotions, they discussed the dolls. Someone said that after such a "kukloterapii" build relationships with his mother.
— Different dolls different history — continues to Olga. — For example, I met a woman in St. Petersburg from the Far East. I thought myself to the Far East hardly ever get, but my dolls can. So I gave her two dolls. And this woman — a teacher of English, and one of my dolls she was used in their classes. This doll is "live" in the class, and the kids, looking at it, learning to make the description in English. That's the life she has developed. So I never feel sorry donate or sell the doll cheaper. Better to make a friend than to hoard them at home.