In these days of 70 years ago on the outskirts of Moscow was determined not only ending the second world war, the mighty Russian war, and even then, in what direction will the future development of human civilization. Will this kind of socialism or capitalism in the form of Nazism (or fascism).
In fact, all military and financial power in continental Europe were united and thrown against the Russian Union. In addition to official allies satellite Third Reich: Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland, Spain, Italy, in the battles of the Red Army, with volunteers participated and "national" units from other states that are not officially with the Soviet Union waged war : from France, Holland, Belgium, Norway and other European countries, including those from captured German Empire. Official neutrality comply Sweden and Switzerland, but they assisted the "Eternal Reich" in the field of money the industry. Even the Vatican "blessed" Berlin to war with the USSR. It was the real "crusade" of Western civilization in the East. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the financial and industrial oligarchy of England and the United States had brought a decisive contribution to the creation of the Hitler regime and the militarization of Germany. "Eternal Reich" was the high point in the development of the Western world, realizing all its main ideas.
Within four months of continuous heavy fighting of the Wehrmacht and their satellites went to the line from which looked completely real decisive shot in the capital of the Union of Russian. It should be noted that from the very first day or the war on June 22, were angry fights, the Wehrmacht still nowhere in Europe is not met such resistance and plan a "lightning war" was already almost derailed the courage of Russian border guards, the Red Army, sailors, pilots, tank and artillery .
Difficult situation in the north and south of the country. Army Group "North" under the command of Field Marshal Ritter von Leeb, together with the Finnish Army by September 8 Union blocked the northern capital city of Leningrad. September 6 by order of Adolf Hitler's armored tank of the 4th Panzer Group, Colonel-General Erich Hoepner and some infantry units were transferred to the Army Group "Center" for the attack on Moscow. Army Group "South" under the command of Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt to September 26 graduated from the defeat of most of the South-Western Front. Wehrmacht was an open road to the Eastern Ukraine, Azov Sea and the Donbass in the plight of the troops of the Southern Front were the Red Army. Since the fall of the situation in the south has evolved at a very heavy script and redeploy reserves for Moscow was not. First of October in Azov hit the "pot" and died the 18th Army of the Southern Front, by 16 October took the decision to abandon the defense area of Odessa and the Odessa garrison was evacuated, October 17 Wehrmacht occupied Donbass (captured Taganrog), Oct. 25 Germans captured Kharkov; occupied by 2 November Crimean peninsula and is surrounded by Sevastopol.
Operation "Typhoon" — a plan to seize the Russian capital — was to put the main point in the "blitzkrieg". The capture of Moscow was not only a tremendous moral significance for the Russian people and the world — "burst heart" in the ideological and political, the military system of the Union, and the military-strategic. The incidence of this large city with a large population, factory and transport potential to do more damage defensive power. In the war with the Russian Union were to enter the Turkish and Japanese divisions, to complete the defeat and dismemberment of the country. Also was the possibility that England and the United States refused to real alliance with the Soviet Union, this in store from the British was sitting Rudolf Hess.
That's why the Supreme High Command and the Municipal Defence Committee (GKO), it was decided not to give Moscow the Germans. Zhukov (he led from the front Emergency on October 8 and the Western Front from October 10) November 26, 1941 wrote about the need to stop the enemy on the outskirts of the Russian capital, do not let him into her, "grind in the fighting Nazi divisions and corps" … Capital unit defense was crucial in the whole of the Soviet-German front, because you need "at any cost withstand these days", to stand.
A voltage in the days of the Battle of Moscow was such that the infantry units, combat vehicles and even small cannon distributed almost one by one. The fate of the battle for the capital, the Soviet Union, the future of the world's population is practically solved in the clashes several thousand, hundreds, or even 10-s men. It found a reflected, for example, in the exploits of cadets Podolsk infantry and artillery schools or soldiers of the 316th Infantry Division under the command of Major General I. Panfilov (from November 17, 1941 — The 8th Guards). In this difficult situation, when the first defense in October fell Bryansk Front, with the advance units of the Wehrmacht in the defensive zone Mozhaiskaya struggled to separate the main destroyer battalions, of the Moscow militia, cadets of military schools and other units of the garrison, the troops of the NKVD. Although they suffered a terrible loss, but honorably withstood the test of this fighting and have allowed the concentration to ensure the deployment of troops and a reserve. Under the cover of the band Mozhaiskaya rate could result in order to reshape and break out or departed with the fighting forces of the Western Front.
At times it seemed that little bit more — and the defense of the Red Army did not survive, the Germans will rush to Moscow. Advanced in certain areas of the burst quite close to the capital of the Soviet Union and were just 15-25 km from the center of town. But in the end on every beat Nazis Russian troops responded counter-attack on the way the Army Group "Center" doing more and more of the defense. And the Wehrmacht ran out of steam, as he wrote the commander of the German 2nd Panzer Army Heinz Guderian: "The attack on Moscow failed. All the sacrifices and efforts of our brave troops have been in vain. We suffered a severe defeat in the German … a crisis coming, morale and strength of the German army were bruised. "
Failed new coming of the Army Group "Center", which was launched on November 15-16, in the north-west and 18 November in the south-west. The main impacts Wehrmacht put in directions Wedge-Rogachevo and Tulu-Kashira. In late November, the Germans managed to capture the area of Klin, Solnechnogorskiy, Istria, and reach out to the Moscow-Volga Canal near Yakhromy and reddish Glade (it was only 32 km from the capital of the Kremlin). But the upcoming promotion Wehrmacht on northbound suspended discharge of water from Istra, Ivankovskoye reservoirs a
nd reservoirs of the Moscow Canal (reservoir floodgates were blown up). The Nazis could not close the flood gates. In the battle were thrown 1st Shock and 20th Armies, they were given to the Western Front, they covered the gap between the 30th and 16th army, the Wehrmacht had to go on the defensive.
November 27 Reddish Army inflicted counterattack on the 2nd Panzer Army and the Wehrmacht threw her from Kashira. 2nd Panzer Army, under the command of the 1st of the most recognizable generals of the Third Reich, Colonel-General Heinz Guderian tried to bypass Tula from the north-east, and was able to cut steel and highways Serpukhov-Tula, but parts of the Russian counter-attack threw the Nazis in the initial position.
December 1, German forces launched the latest attempt to break through to the capital in Aprelevki. December 2, German troops occupied the Burtsevo — the closest town to Moscow in the south-west. But Thanks to the excellent cooperation between the 33rd Army, General MG Ephraim and the 5th Army, General L.A.Govorova acts Wehrmacht had of success. In the same period, the Supreme Command (CSA) gave the order to include, apart from already transmitted the Western front of a reserve of the 1st Shock, 10 th and 20 th Army, 24 th and 60 th Army.
December 2, the advanced units of the 1st Shock and 20th armies repulsed all the attacks of the Wehrmacht in the area north of the capital and the south of Dmitrov and forced the German army to stop coming. 3-5 December 1st Shock and 20th Armies had several strong attacks in the region and of the Red Glade Yakhromy and began to displace the opponent. Russian division of the left flank of the 16th Army, working with the 5th Army, threw back the forces of the Wehrmacht high izluki Moscow River north-east of Zvenigorod. December 4-5 Strike Group 33rd Army defeated enemy units and returned to the position on the river Nara.
In the course of a defensive step battle for Moscow Russian command was able to disrupt the conduct of the Wehrmacht war of maneuver in which the initiative belonged to the Army Group "Center", and imposed a German command "war of attrition" (when it is all about the existence of reserves when the final battle solves the "last battalion") . By December, some battalions in the Wehrmacht have less than 15-20% of the personnel. Army Group "Center" absolutely exhausted its reserves.
November 30th Army Group "Center" Field Marshal Fedor von Bock came to the conclusion that his forces do not have the ability to continue coming. In early December 1941 the Wehrmacht almost turned to defense, committing only personal offensive act, and here it became clear that there were no plans on this case at the German command almost there, as in the military-political leadership of the Third Reich ruled the view that Reddish Army does not as a force for long-term defense, and for a counteroffensive. The Wehrmacht was not ready to shock the Red Army.
Feeling this point in the process of struggle, CSA gave the order to counterattack.
Russian counter-offensive near Moscow
70 years ago, December 5, 1941, the Red Army began a counteroffensive near Moscow. This blow was the beginning of the first coming of the Russian strategic forces in Lofty Russian war, the first great victory of the Red Army. For the Wehrmacht this defeat was not only the first great defeat, it signaled the final breakdown of the hopes of Berlin and its allies to victory in the "lightning war", the entry of Turkey into the war and the land of the rising sun. German military and political management of the empire had to be translated into the "total war", a war of attrition of resources, which led to the eventual defeat.
According to the plan Zhukov approved by Headquarters, Western Front had spanned puzzle unexpected blows defeat threatened the town of 3rd, 4th Panzer Group Reinhardt and Hepner in the Klin-Solnechnogorsk-Istra and 2nd Panzer Group Guderian in the Tula-Kashira. And then encircle and destroy the 4th German army von Kluge, who was hanging from the west. Direct impact applied right wing of the Southwestern Front (commanded by Marshal SK Timoshenko) and the troops of the Kalinin Front (commanded by Colonel General IS Konev). The troops of the Southwestern Front were to strike at the enemy grouping near the town of Eltsa, defeat the German 2nd Army and to assist the Western Front in the defeat of the Nazis in the Tula area.
Kalinin Front had to defeat the main forces of the 9th German Army and liberate the city Kalinin (Tver). At this time the strikes were near Rostov and Tikhvin, which deprived the German command ability jibe additional forces to the Moscow group of armies "North" and "South".
In the advent of Moscow attended by more than one million Russian fighter and commander. Neither the numerical advantages, no advantages in technology, armaments to the top of a counteroffensive CSA failed. Do soldiers and officers of the Red Army had only advantage — an advantage morale. Russian soldiers have seen that "the German — is not the same," that "German fizzles out," and revealed their "second wind." Although we can not say that the Germans were one hundred percent mentally kinked to top Russian counter-offensive troops themselves retreated. Thus, the German General Blumentritt said: "Every soldier of the German army was clear from the final battle for Moscow affect our lives or death. If you then pay us a Russian defeat, we do not have any hope. " Because the soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht fought fiercely, but judging by the result, the intention to defend the Russian capital was stronger than the Germans — its capture.
Because the decisive advantage of any people of any weapons Russian command did not have to merit advantages in the field of the main thrusts inside of each of the fronts had to spend huge regrouping of forces and means, leaving the secondary areas of the defense a small number of troops.
For example, the commander of the Kalinin Front, General IS Konev reported to the Supreme Headquarters, because of the shortage of troops and tanks in the front is not able to perform their intended target completely. General proposed to restrict the actions of the Kalinin Front personal operation to seize the town of Kalinin. But this is contrary to the general plan of counter-attack, because the front was oriented Deputy Chief of General Staff Gen. AM Wasilewski. Together with Konev they carefully examined the strength of the front have been removed from the division of secondary sites, and enhanced by artillery from the reserves of the front. In the end, the Kalinin Front was able to fulfill the assigned tasks.
The first 5 December 1941 defected to the offensive Kalinin Front (Commander Konev), December 6 started coming West (beetles) and the South-Western Front (Tymoshenko). Already on December 8 German armed forces commander Adolf Hitler signed the directive number 39 to move troops to the defense of the entire Soviet-German front. During the Russian counter-offe
nsive near Moscow were carried Kalinin, Klin-Solnechnogorskaya, Narofominsky-Bohr, Eletskaya, Tula, Kaluga and Nobel-Kozelskaya offensive operations.
Kalinin offensive operation (December 5, 1941 — January 7, 1942). Kalinin Front started coming in the strike group composed of five infantry divisions of the 31st Army and three infantry divisions of the 29th Army. The left flank of Lieutenant General II Maslennikov (29th Army) failed to break through the enemy defenses. Part of the 31 th Army Major General VA Yushkevich stubborn after 3 days of fighting, broke through the defenses of the 9th German Army to the south of Kalinin. And for the finale on December 9 took control of the metal road Kalinin — Moscow, creating a hazard to the rear of the German group in Kalinin. December 14 units of the 31st army from the south-east bypassed Kalinin, cutting and Turginovskoe Volokolamsk Highway. We Germans in Kalinin was only one road that connected them with the rear — Starytska highway. The Wehrmacht forces hastily averted, but all of the display did not, December 16 after a battle the city was taken.
In the 20 days of December, the battle entered the freshest 39th Army troops by the end of the month in front of the band of the 39th Army broke through the defense of the Wehrmacht in the entire tactical depth. During contractions 2-7 January 1942 troops of the Kalinin front on the right wing took to the limit of the Volga. In the center of the latest line of defense hacked the Germans, which was organized by the enemy on the right bank of the Volga, and wrapped the Rzhev to the west and south-west.
Klin-Solnechnogorskaya offensive (6 — 26 December 1941). The operation began on December 6, the part of the right wing of the Western Front, in collaboration with the forces of the Kalinin Front began coming against the 3rd and 4th Panzer groups. The enemy's defenses were breached north of Klin troops of the 30th Army (Major General DD Lelyushenko). More heavy fighting was going on in the band 20th (Major General AA Vlasov) and 16 th Army (Lieutenant General Rokossovsky), only the 9th Rokossovsky opposing German forces began to withdraw. December 14 Russian troops liberated Solnechnogorsk. Was released on December 16, Wedge, the Wehrmacht made several attempts to strike back, but they failed. German forces failed to suspend the Russian forces at the turn of the Istra reservoir. December 20 the Germans were driven out of Volokolamsk, the same day the right flank of the 1st Assault Army, developing coming, went out to the river Lama. But the trial the 1st Shock, 16th and 20th armies on the move to break the defense of the Wehrmacht did not give significant results. Advent goes flat, the front stabilized.
In the central sector of the Western Front was held Narofominsky Bohr-operation. Initially troops tied combat forces 4th German army, then was ordered to the coming on all fronts. 11 December 5th Army managed to break through the defense of the Wehrmacht in Dorokhova. The fighting was heavy, the Red Army had virtually 'bite' into the German defensive orders. 26 December 33rd Army (under the command of Lieutenant General MG Ephraim) took Naro-Fominsk, and January 4, 1942 — Borovsk. 43rd Army (Major General KD Golubev) was able to knock on January 2, Wehrmacht units of Maloiaroslavets. To the south of the 49th Army (Lieutenant General IG Zaharkin) December 19, Tarusu released by the end of December reached the line ö-Kaluga.
The German command. Adolf Hitler gave the order on Dec. 16 to stop the retreat of large joints. "Stop order" states the need to pull together all the possible reserves to hold the line, to eliminate breakouts. Supreme ordered "hold the front to the last soldier," render "fanatic" resistance, winning the time required for the transfer of reserves from Germany and Western Europe. Hitler once held a change of command: December 19, Hitler moved the commander of the Army of Field Marshal von Brauchitsch (he took the post), the commander of Army Group "Center" Field Marshal von Bock is replaced by von Kluge, and then were sent into retirement a few other generals . There is a perception that this particular order of Hitler (the German version of the order "Not one step back") was completely correct these criteria and was rescued by the Army Group "Center" from a complete rout, a retreat is not turned into a stampede, and did not lead to the collapse of the front.
In addition, the Wehrmacht used the strategy of "total war", the German troops destroyed everything they could — destroyed the town, villages, burned villages, backyards, schools, farms, carried out mass executions and destruction of population by other methods (burning, etc.).
Tula offensive operation (December 6, 1941 — December 16, 1941). In the course of her troops of the left wing of the Western Front defeated the German 2nd Panzer Army Heinz Guderian. 7 were defeated Wehrmacht divisions, 2 of them armored and motorized one, the enemy dropped from Tula, which was half-encircled. It should be noted that Guderian had applied the defense strategy of fortified Fri (fortified villages with about 5 thousand. Garrison), but that the Germans are not bailed out.
In the process of building the integrity of the operation of the Tula 2nd Panzer Army Wehrmacht was destroyed, the main forces of the Germans retreated in the south-west towards the Falcon, while 53rd Army Corps left flank retreated to the west. By order of Zhukov was created by mobile group under the command of Major General VS Popov, its purpose was to Kaluga. During Kaluga operations on the night of December 30, after heavy fighting Kaluga was released.
The troops of the left flank of the Western Front had also Nobel-Kozelskaya operation. December 28 1st Guards Cavalry Corps unleashed Kozel'sk. Coming on December 27 Belyov started 10 of the Russian Army, December 31 Belyov was captured. Were released Meshchovsk, Serpeysk, Mosalsk, by January 7 forces of the left wing of the Western Front reached the line Detchino-Yuhnov-Kirov-Lyudinovo.
Eletskaya offensive (6 — 16 December 1941). The coming of the Kalinin and Western Fronts supported the right flank of the Southwestern Front. December 6, bypassing Eltsa blow from the north struck a group of Major General KS Moskalenko (from the 13th Army). December 7 to the south of the town went to the coming of mechanized cavalry group of Lieutenant General FJ Kostenko. After fierce fighting, the two groups were able to withdraw 14 December Eltsa west and take in the "pot" of the 45th and the 134th German Infantry Divisions, the 16th, they were destroyed. The result of the operation was the release Eltsa, Ephraim, the defeat of the 2nd German army.
In January 1942 was completed the first step of the Moscow counteroffensive. In various areas of the Wehrmacht was driven back to 100-250 km. And although there were still months and years of bloody battles and heavy, and will be heavy defeat, all is now clear: Lofty Russian war we did not lose, and ultimately will win the USSR and the Russian people. In this case, apparently, the main significance of the battle for Moscow.
The defeat of Nazi troops near Moscow denounced before the entire world society myth of the "invincibility" of the German armed forces, undermined the morale of the Wehrmacht, dealt a blow to the faith of strongest Germans to win the war. The victory of the Red Army near Moscow read about the beginning of the turning point in the war and the Russian majestically throughout the second world war.