On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive. Kaluga offensive

On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive.  Kaluga offensive

After the defeat of the southern shock group Wehrmacht general situation on the left flank of the Western Front was formed subsequent. Destroyed during the Tula offensive 2nd Panzer Army under General Heinz Guderian was retreating in the south-west, and the left-flank 53rd Army Corps retreated to the west. Between them a gap of about 30 km. The Germans sought to delay the Russian troops on the borders and in the crotch of prepared for defense support Mon. Among them were: the limit of the Oka River, the district Vysokinichi and Detchino, fortified limit Kondrovo — Linen Factory, Kaluga, Kozel'sk, Belyov, west of the strip Nazis prepared to defend the approaches to Medyn, Miatlev, Yuhnov, and still further areas Mosalsk, Meshchovsk Sukhinichi and other towns.

Under the protection of these supporting Fri and fortified borders the German command planned to regroup forces to bring up reserves and stop the coming of the Russian troops. The troops of the left flank of the Western Front put the puzzle to break the German defenses and inflicting defeat to continue their offensive. The implementation of this was complicated puzzles criteria terrible winter, which hampered the offensive actions of our troops.

The plan of the Russian command

After fighting near Tula part of the 50th Army General Boldin was targeted in the western and north-western direction, the army has received assistance in the puzzle with the compounds of the 49th Army, General Zakharkina free Kaluga. Zakharkina Army on December 14, defected to the coming of the north of Tula. Part of the 49th Army broke grouping right-flank of 4-th German Army Field, which operated on the east bank of the Oka River, and on December 17, fought off Aleksin. Once part of the Russian developed for the coming Tarussky direction. Overcoming the Oka, the troops of the 49th Army on December 18 entered the battle on the outskirts of Tarusa. At night they made a detour and broke the German garrison.

To free the Kaluga of the 50th Army was formed Boldin mobile army group. It includes: 154th Infantry, 112th Armored and 31th Cavalry Division, two batteries Guards Mortar Battalion, flame-explosive fragmentation company, Tula working regiment, separate tank battalion and some other compounds. The commander of the strike group was appointed General Vasily Stepanovich Popov. His group was an unexpected blow to break through the German defenses and get to Kaluga to the south, and then release the city.

According to the order of the command, the mobile group Popov had to end on December 17 in the initial focus area Zaytsevo, Kharino, Pyatnickoe. Later that same night to go to the area ZELENIN where one prominent go to Kaluga and in one moment to strike on the German garrison in the south.

Right advent of Popov was to provide infantry division. She got a puzzle to kill Nazis in Titus, Stolbov, Top and get out of the 20th to limit Ahlebnino, Ziabki to strike at the Kaluga to the south-east. Covered the left flank of the group Popova Infantry Division was the 19th puzzle go to the area and provide Hanin mobile group coming from the south and south-west directions. Other divisions of the 50th Army General Boldin advancing left, ending in motion a realignment on the western direction.

1st Guards Cavalry Corps Belova was ordered out of the district Cossack attack on the city Yuhnov and cut off the retreat of German forces from Kaluga to the west. The 10th Army under the command of Golikov was to advance in the direction of Kozel'sk, Belyov, Sukhinichi. Aviation was instructed to cover the front and support the troops advancing from the air.

Russian command of the moment to strike was elected fine. Advent began after the successful offensive of Tula and coincided with the defeat of the German group in the Tula region, the output power of the left wing to the west of the town. The Germans did not have time yet to regroup, to gain a foothold on new frontiers. Although the criteria formidable winter and continued resistance of the German troops it was a very courageous decision.


After concentration of the mobile army group Popov in the initial area, it is the night of 17 to 18 December, the beginning of the march route Voskresenskoe, Dubna, Hanin. Movement was secretly under the cover of night in the forest in order to avoid contact with the Germans.

Liquidating while driving small unit of German 296 th Infantry Division, the mobile group of the 19th came to the area 3-5 km north of Hanina. And from there, after a non-long vacation continues on forest roads, knocking down and destroying small units Nazis. By the final of the 20th group of the main forces Popov was about 90 km and secretly entered the southern approaches to the Kaluga and began preparations for the assault of the town.

On the right wing of the troops of the 50th Army at the time of the 258th Infantry Division, which provided maneuver mobile group, met fierce resistance from the German 31st Infantry Division in the area of Titus, Stolbov, Makarova, Pozdnyakovo and with great difficulty moving forward. In this area, the Germans were already prepared the defense of human radial Fri, they were transformed into powerful centers of resistance with a well-organized system of machine-gun, mortar and artillery fire. Frontal attacks of the reference of success did not bring Fri. Command Infantry Division as a result of this was to resort to a method of bypassing and blocking supporting Fri Nazis.

On the morning of the 21st Infantry Division led the right-wing battle near Menshikov and immediately surrounded by a group of Germans, who defended the district Stolbov. By the end of December 21, the division fought off these items, and coming in the direction of developing Makarova in Graznova met stubborn resistance to the Nazis.

On the left wing of the 50th Army Boldin our forces fought for Hanina village, which was defended by the German infantry. In the first half of the day or the 19th of the 290th Infantry Division was overcome settlement and continued to move in a north-westerly direction, intending to go to the south-eastern approaches to Kaluga, St. Nicholas area. But the division was attacked by the Germans from the area Lihvina and had to go on the defensive.

1st Guards Cavalry Corps Belova at this time during a fierce battle took possession of nettles and Arkhangelsk. On December 20 riders got to seize Odoeve puzzle and go on in the coming Yuhnov. Two units Cavalry Corps, moving along both banks of the river Upa, captured the 22th Odoev. By December 24 Belova body came to the Oka River south Lihvina. In this way he enveloped the south German troops who fought on the highway Kaluga — Tula.

Fight for Kaluga (21 — 30 December)

Group Popov, completing the regrouping, the morning of the 21st captured the bridge across the Oka River, broke in Kaluga and tied street battles with the German garrison. The first in the city broke the infantry regiment and division armored division. German high command did not want to give the city because the aid 137th Infantry Division, motorcycle battalion and other units who were in the town, was transferred here and thrown into the battle of the 20th Armored Division. Almost a group that broke into the city was surrounded.

Fight walked all day, trailed NIGHT MODE and continued with the recent strength of the 22nd. In the present day Russian warriors killed 500 Nazis. During December 23-24, fierce fighting lasted for Kaluga, the Nazis provide
d stubborn resistance. During the two day or the connection of the mobile group Popova killed up to 2 million German soldiers and officers.

The mobile group General Popov continued its angry street fighting in the southern, central and south-eastern part of the town. The Nazis built a barricade turned into strongholds of stone houses, retains the northern and western parts of the town. The Germans did not once counterattacked, supported by artillery and tanks. To the east of the town right-wing Infantry Division began the 27th encircle the city from the north-east, and one regiment was fighting for Turynino.

The morning of the 30th battle for Kaluga entered its finish, decisive phase. On the night of the 30th of December of the mobile group Popov once again went to a strong attack, and by dawn, after a stubborn battle against German forces cleared the north-western and northern parts of the town, as the approaches to the bridge across the Oka River.

By 10 December 30 Nazis vyshybli of Kaluga and they, having suffered significant losses, retreated to the west and north-west. On a positive final battle for the Kaluga has had a tremendous impact coming left-flank infantry divisions of the 50th Army, which was seized Lihvina and Przemysl. Then developed in the coming general direction of Utesheva, going to the rear of Kaluga. Also out on December 23 troopers of the 1st Guards Cavalry Corps in the area Il'ino Belova, Kalinteevo, MEZENTSEVA.

The fighting in other areas

Right-wing 258-th Infantry Division, beating Makarovo from the north and breaking the resistance of the compounds of the 31st German Infantry Division fought their move to the area Zhelybino, Annenkov (west and north-west of Kaluga). Division went there on December 26. On the northern bank of the Oka was advancing from the east to Kaluga 340 th Infantry division, passed to the front of the order of 49 minutes.

On the left flank of the Russian waged a stubborn battle for Likhvin and Przemysl, the Germans have been turned into bases. Commander Infantry Division, advancing on Likhvin, did not carry out a frontal attack and surrounded the city with 2 shelves, third moved in a northwesterly direction. After the fight Likhvin 26th was taken. In the end, the fight was taken on December 24-25 Przemysl. 290th Infantry Division moved to Kaluga to the south-east and by the morning of December 24th led the battle for the suburbs of the city — Pushkin. Other infantry divisions left channel (I-217 and 413th) were aimed at Utesheva (36 km to the west of Kaluga). So Makar, part of the left flank of the 50th Army shot down Germans from the line of the river Oka, forced him to retreat to the west and north-west.

In the period from 1 to 6 January 1942 the forces of the 49th and 50th Russian Army, 1 Guards Cavalry Corps fought with the troops of the 4th German army, which were concentrated in the area Tikhonov Deserts — Pletnevka — Yuhnov — Kondrovo. The German command concentrated in the area units and departed, with an emphasis on pre-made defensive limit planned to tie up a stubborn resistance to Russian troops and stop them coming. 50th Army Boldin until January 6, 1942 led parts of the right wing unsuccessful battle for the town Tikhonov desert. The compounds of the left flank of the 50th Army advanced in the direction of the Yuhnov at 15-25 km, but the 6th were stopped by the Germans, who were transferred to the area of the town Yuhnov armored division. 49th Army Zakharkina first of January led merciless battles east of the railroad section Maloyaroslavetz — Kaluga and reached the limit Aleshkova — Detchino. But then could not get through (Detchino was only released January 9, 1942).

The results of the Kaluga offensive

— The operation lasted about 19 days: 1941goda December 17 — January 6 1942goda. The enemy was defeated and driven back to 120-130 km.

— He was released Kaluga and other town and villages. With the release of Russian troops on the Oka River in the area of Kaluga, Przemysl, Likhvin and release of these cities the Germans lost an important line of defense, which they planned to detain. In the end, the German troops were again doomed to imminent retreat.

— The average rate of movement of Russian troops in the criteria of resistance angry, menacing winter, bad roads, on average was 6 kilometers a day. And for the mobile group Popov during its march to Kaluga (18-20 December), the rate of movement reached up to 23 km a day.

On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive.  Kaluga offensive

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