On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive. Klin-operation Solnechnogorskaya

On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive.  Klin-operation Solnechnogorskaya After the disaster of October coming to the capital of the USSR German command decided to prepare a new blow troops of Army Group "Center" to encircle and capture of Moscow by targeting its north and south.

To hit the north of Moscow on the front Kalinin — Volokolamsk — Ruza focused third and 4th Panzer groups under the command of Reinhardt and E. Hepner (7 tank, 3 and 4 motorized infantry divisions). By the Soviet Union defense held 30th Army under the command of Major-General Lelyushenko and the 16th Army under the command of Lieutenant General Rokossovsky. These were the right wing of the Army of the Western Front, the front commander, Army General Georgy Zhukov.

German troops had significant advantages: in men by 1.6 times, guns and mortars in 2 times, 3.4 times the tanks. Exclusively in the Air Force, the odds were on the side of the Red Army. Russian command was able in time to unravel the plans of the Germans. Measures were taken to strengthen the defense, though, and is able to change the balance of funds could not. Russian command planned stubborn defense to thwart the Germans, to gain time to pull up the strategic reserves. And then strike back.

November 15, 3rd Panzer Group of the Wehrmacht began to advance on the 30th Army, the 16th Panzer 4 group dealt a blow to the 16th Army. 30th Russian army under the pressure of the enemy moved to the Volga, Volga Reservoir and south — east of the line Zavidova, Yamuga. This allowed the Wehrmacht to develop success in the direction of the wedge.

Fierce fighting was going on volokolomsko-Istra direction in which the defense held of the 16th Army Rokossovskogo. So specifically in those battles won immortality 316th Infantry Division (later the 8th Guards), under the command of Major General Ivan Panfilov, which led to heavy defensive battle against the 2nd and the 11th German Panzer divisions in the Volokolamsk direction.

November 23 German troops were able to bypass wedge from the south-west and north-east. So as not to fall into the "pot" of 16 th Army gave the city. The Germans also captured Solnechnogorsk Yakhroma, reddish Glade, their advance guard reached the eastern Preserving the Canal. Moscow. To Moscow there are only about 30 km. Able to stabilize the situation, when the Supreme Command (SHK) has transferred from the reserve right of the Western Front 1st Shock Army and the 20th Army. By the end of November — first on December 16 th and 30 th Army made several counter-attacks and stabilize the position of the front. The Germans suffered significant losses and fled to the defense. Have the opportunity to counter-attack.

Plan Bets power of the parties

By the beginning of the offensive forces of the right flank of the Western Front under the command of Army General Georgy Zhukov (30th, 1st Shock, 20th, 16th, 5th Army) occupied the west limit of Defense Sverdlovo — Dmitrov — Reddish Clearing — the river Nara.

SHK plan foresaw drawing on German forces strong impact on converging fronts from the north-east and east connections the 30th, the 1st Shock, 20th and 16th armies. Advancing Russian army under the plan Betting had orders to cut the main forces of the German 3rd and 4th Panzer groups (in their composition was 7 tank, three motorized infantry divisions and 9) in the wedge, Istra, Solnechnogorsk. Eliminate the risk of circumvention of the capital of the USSR to the north. And to do this the right conditions for the development of offensive operations to the west. The 5th Army had to move parts of their own right-flank along the left bank of the Moscow River secure the left flank of the strike group.

To support the armies coming from the air were identified up to 75% of the Air Force of the Western Front, as a reserve squadron of SHAPE. With the armies of the Western Front were the interaction forces of the left flank of the Kalinin Front under the command of Colonel General I.S.Koneva that puzzle had to step to the rear Klin-Solnechnogorsk enemy factions, after blocking the Kalinin group Wehrmacht.

The Wehrmacht in this area exceeded reddish Army tanks in 1.5 times in the artillery of 1.2, only the human resource connection right flank of the Western Front had an advantage of 1.6.


December 6 Russian army went into coming and in some direction took a good pace. The compounds of the 30th Army (Lelyushenko), and it was reinforced 6-Siberian and Ural divisions broke through the German front north of the Wedge, initially defended his two divisions of the enemy — and the motorized infantry. In the direction of head impact operated 365 th, 371 th, 379 th Infantry Division and the 82nd Cavalry Division.

By the end of the day or 7 December 1st Shock Army (under the command of Lieutenant-General VI Kuznetsov) induced crossing over the Moscow-Volga Canal near Dmitrov, and advanced to 25 km in depth, extending towards the front of up to 35 km. The army has concentrated its main efforts on the right and in the center, near Yakhromy.

The German command pulls together urgently additional forces to the direction of head impact and thrown in the 14th motorized and 6 Panzer Division. The commander Lelyushenko introduced scramble second echelon army — 379 Infantry Division of Colonel Tchistov and the 8th Armored Brigade, Colonel Rotmistrova. These pieces took the lead and cut the Leningrad highway. December 8, 348 th Infantry Division of the 30th Army freed Rogachevo.

More difficult was the situation in the band coming 20th (under the command of Major-General AA Vlasov) and 16 th Army (KKRokossovsky). Break through the front on the run failed. Only on December 9, the Germans began to retreat to the north-west and west. It should be noted that the Wehrmacht constantly deciding counterattacking actions, providing a stubborn resistance, trying to suspend the Russian army.

December 11 in the coming went 5th army (Under the command of Gen.-Lieutenant Govorov). At first the same day the army was able to tilt the Germans from their positions on the north bank of the Moskva River. In a breakthrough was introduced 2d Guards Cavalry Corps Maj. Gen. L. Dovator.

Overcoming fierce resistance from the Wehrmacht, reflecting its counterattack, Russian army during the 1st half of December were 40-60 km. December 11 was released Istra, 12th — Solnechnogorsk, 15th — Wedge 16th — Vysokovsk. Famous cavalry and armored units under the command of generals LM Dovatora Katukov, FT Talkers and Colonel PG Chanchibadze who extensively used workarounds, destroyed the rear guard, behind enemy lines.

The fierce resistance of the Germans had at the turn of the Istra reservoir. There was created a strong defensive limit. In order to break the resistance of the enemy, made two mobile groups — the generals and F.T.Remizova M.E.Katukova. They were able to get around this limit aqua from the north and from the south. The troops of the 16th Army were able to overcome this and have developed a line of defense for the coming of Volokolamsk. German troops hastily retreated to the west.

December 20 was recaptured Volokolamsk. December 21 Reddish Army headed for the turn and river Lama Ruza, where Russian troops met a well-organized resistance to the advance of German troops prepared positions. Until December 25, Russian army fought to make their situation better.

On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive.  Klin-operation Solnechnogorskaya

Feature Klin-Solnechnogorsk offensive

The peculiarity of this operation has become quite active introduction of mobile groups of army tanks, infantry and cavalry. The benefit of the army right flank of the Western Front, in contrast for example to the Kalinin Front had enough substantial amount of tank units — 9 armored brigades and 6 separate tank battalions.

So as part of the 30th Army Group acted army colonels PG Chanchibadze and PA Rotmistrova in the 16th Army — a group of generals FT Talkers and ME Katukova in the 5th Army — a group of generals, LM Dovatora and Konstantinov. Movable army groups, as in the defensive period, in its composition were mixed. For example, an army colonel Chanchibadze group, which had a profound puzzle coverage Klin groups Wehrmacht, was formed from the 107th Infantry Division and the 145 th of a separate tank battalion. The mobile group of General Talkers, which received around puzzle Istrinskaya group of Germans from the north to the following pursuit of the enemy on the Volokolamsk direction had in its composition three armored brigades (24th, 31th and 145th) and one infantry brigade (17 — I). Localities have tried to take in stride, with a strong resistance from the enemy vanguard forms the assault team, and also the main force of the moving army continued to move around this fortified Fri

On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive.  Klin-operation Solnechnogorskaya

Results of operations

— The threat of the Soviet capital of the north-west has been eliminated.

— Were defeated and suffered heavy loss of 3rd and 4th Panzer groups Wehrmacht. German units were thrown at 90-110 km. Russian troops liberated a number of cities and villages Fri. It was destroyed and captured a significant amount of guns, tanks, and other weapons, ammunition depots and various assets.

On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive.  Klin-operation Solnechnogorskaya

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