On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive. Tula offensive

On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive.  Tula offensive In the period from December 6, 1941 on December 16, 1941 was carried out operation troops of the left wing of the Western Front, which is known as Tula offensive. Need to see that this counter-offensive was preceded by a period of heavy defensive battles. In the period from October 24 to December 5, Tula was a defensive operation. Russian troops on the main strategic direction of Tula defense were constant attacks by infantry supported by tanks, artillery and mortar shelling, air raids by German aircraft, Tula was half-encircled.

Yet the city could not hold, and the front line on the southern outskirts of the capital of the USSR has been stabilized. Hold Tula provided stability Russian left flank of the Western Front, pulling over all the forces of the 4th German field army. Thwart the plans of the German command to bypass Moscow from the east of the 2nd Panzer Army Heinz Guderian. During the second coming of General Wehrmacht (18 November — 5 December 1941), despite some successes, the Germans also failed to break the Russian capital to the south and perform puzzle to capture Moscow and defeat the forces of the Red Army.

December 5, 1941 2nd Panzer Army Wehrmacht, which was scattered along the front for 350 km, was ordered to command the transition to defense. German troops in this area is one hundred percent exhausted their offensive capabilities, in addition of the 2nd Panzer Army began to withdraw from unsafe for her lip, which was formed by the north-east of Tula, to the line of steel road Tula Central, the Don River.

The plans of the Russian command. Power of the parties

The troops of the left flank of the Western Front had an advantage over the small forces of the enemy on the number of personnel, but the artillery yielded 1.5 times the tanks — 3 times. In an offensive role was the 49th, 50th and 10th Army, 1st Guards Cavalry Corps. They had a total 16 infantry divisions (cq), 6 cavalry divisions and 100 tanks.

The 10th Army (led by Filipp Ivanovich Golikov), the main striking force of the left flank of the Western Front, had not yet graduated from the rear of the formation, the creation of military supplies, was a great shortage of mc. The basis of the 10th Army were 7-NIL spare infantry divisions, most of them at the start of the Battle of Moscow were at the stage of formation of the terrain of the Metropolitan Area of the military. In the bloody October 1941, these divisions were held in reserve as a poorly cooked Bets. Now, after more than 2 months of combat training, the hour of their entry into the battle for Moscow. It was the 330th Rifle Division (commander — Colonel G.D.Sokolov) 322-Rifle Division (Col. P.I.Filimonov), 328th Rifle Division (Col. P.A.Eremin), 324th Rifle Division (General Major N.I.Kiryuhin), 326th Rifle Division (Col. V.S.Andreev). Apart from these cq in 10th army had entered the 323rd Rifle Division (Divisional Commander Colonel I.A.Gartsev) and 325th Rifle Division (Col. N.B.Ibyansky), which were formed in the Orel military environment. These parts are also already existed first in October 1941, but then instead of a cast Mtsensk and Tula paratroopers and a reserve. Russian High Command was forced to close the main lines, transferring non-rich reserves, gain time. Rate was understood the futility of entering into battle poorly trained and armed units. December 2 is transferred to the front ready to fight the people well by the standards of 1941 armed and equipped.

Because I was not there Betting massive mechanized units, which can be used to break through the front and the development of Advent, as mobile connections in the 10th Army Golikova included 2-ve Cavalry Division: 75th (Col. V.A.Koninsky) and 57th (Col. I.I.Murov). In addition, the army has received two coming out of the environment division — 239 th Infantry and 41 Cavalry.

The offensive on the left flank of the Western Front actually own it like Klin-Solnechnogorsky counterattack. Front Command led into battle against the army of the freshest flank of the 2nd Panzer Army Wehrmacht. The advancing on the capital of the strike group to the top of Guderian December 1941 sprawled in front bolshennom possible "poke" to the south-east of Tula. From north to south, this projection extends over 120-130 km, and from east to west — up to 150 km. By 6 December 2nd Panzer Army H. Guderian was stretched on the front stretching over 350 km. The main forces of the German groups were concentrated in the northern part of the ridge to the east of Tula and in Venev. Here were placed 3rd and 4th Panzer divisions of the 24th Motorized Corps (commanded by General of Tank Troops Leo von Shveppenburga) and the 17th Armored Division 47th Motorized Corps (Corps Commander, General Joachim Lemelzen). A flank of the German attack force covered the east motorized 2-ve,-ve 2 infantry and 1-on tank (17th) division. Entering into battle almost 100 thousand. grouping of Russian troops (the 10th Army F.I.Golikova) had like 30 th and 1 st shock armies of the right wing of the Western Front strike hard on the wing stretched Nazis.

Similar to the way north of the capital of the USSR was a strategic communications unit, which was the primary purpose of the coming of the Russian forces — the city of Klin, in the Tula counter-offensives such a center was Stalinogorsk city on the banks of the River Don. The main force of the 10th Army attacked by bands Ryazan — Mikhailov — Stalinogorsk. This line of defending the German 10th Motorized Division, which had been stretched on the front stretch of more than 100 km. Need to see that German troops had no ability to make a solid front, this just was not strong enough, they occupied separate compounds that are the principal settlements, which have been turned into strongholds (fortified villages).

In contrast to the operation, which was carried out in the area of the Wedge, Istria, Solnechnogorsky, injected into a scramble 10th Army Golikova received correctly indicated the direction of the main blow (Mihaylov — Stalinogorsk), which were the main forces are concentrated.

Offensive puzzles received other armies that defended on the direction of the head hitting the Wehrmacht. 50th Army, its commander was Colonel-General Ivan Boldin received puzzle to advance in the south and south-east directions on Schekino and Dubna. It was to assist the 10th Army, surrounded by main force grouping. First, December 50th Army Infantry Division was strengthened. 1st Guards Cavalry Corps under the command of Cherenkov Belova had to keep coming towards Venev — Stalinogorsk. Part of the 49th Army, under the command of Lieutenant-General IG Zakharkina had to encircle and destroy the Germans in the area Alexina continue to advance in the Kaluga area.

On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive.  Tula offensive


The coming of the 10th Army Golikova began on 6 December attack 330th Infantry Division in the direction Mikhailov, who was after a night battle in the morning on December 7 released. This success was the signal for a counter-offensive of the 50th Army Boldin.

During December 8-10, forces of the 10th Russian Army moved foug
ht more than 70 km. Started coming to the Don. 50th Army by the end of the 10th moved south to a depth of 4-16 km. 50th Army was weakened by previous defensive battles, besides tight downed orders strike group XXIV German Motorized Corps put up fierce resistance. Because of the army were not able to take possession of their designated areas and to cut the retreat of units of the 2nd Panzer Army Guderian, who retreated from the area Venev — Mikhailov.

9 December 1st Guards Cavalry Corps P.A.Belova freed Venev and by 10 December, the advance units were on the outskirts of the Stalinogorsk. Despite the relatively highest rate of Advent forces of the 10th Army (10-12 miles a day), he was obviously missing for environment groups Wehrmacht, retreating from the area Venev and Tula. This is explained by several factors, such as the missing attention to crawl and reach the German reference pt. Thus, the 328th Infantry Division during the Dec. 9 tried to fight off the Germans Gremyacheye (24 km south-west from Mikhailov). It was only in the evening Sovestky forces bypassed enemy stronghold in the north and the south, the resistance of the Germans was kinked. This shortcoming front command more than once pointed to the army commander F.I.Golikovu. December 10-11, of the 10th Army became bogged down in battles for over Epifan and Novomoskovsk, the Germans put up fierce resistance.

At the same time, it should be noted and impartial factor such as defect in the 10th Army moving parts. The military did not have the massive cavalry, armored and motorized for for a successful surgery on the environment. 10th army was the 57th and the 75th Cavalry Division, but they were few and they were used as the main flanking cover at the junction with the neighbor on the left. A part of the 1st Guards Corps went into coming to their own defense orders. The ability to transfer the connection Cavalry Corps to form mobile groups of the 10th Army was not. Cavalry Corps had to overcome stubborn resistance extending from Venev strike group Guderian's army. Because of P.A.Belova passed for the operation of 100-120 km, which gives us an average rate of only 8-10 km a day, for the cavalry strongly enough. Naturally, the perfect solution would be to change the Cavalry Corps Belova by infantry divisions, as part of the case to introduce a breakthrough in the 10th Army in the band Mihaylov — Stalinogorsk.

By December 14 the offensive kerf and strength of the left wing of the 49th Army Lieutenant General I.G.Zaharkina. 49th Army before the coming of the freshest received 4 infantry brigades (19 th, 26 th, 30 th and 34 th). Apart from the new compounds, the army Zakharkina passed and the 133rd Infantry Division from the 1st Shock Army. During the 3 day or contractions of the 49th Army were 10-20 km, freeing the city Aleksin and were able to capture a bridgehead on the left bank of the Oka River, north of Tarusa and Alexina.

50th Army Boldin was slower all, because the German command to do everything to retain the district Schekino and thereby prevent Russian troops to the highway Tula — Eagle and save your troops from the likely environment. Only on December 17 of the 50th Army were able to fight off Schekino. But the Germans had already been able to withdraw its connection from the area north-east of Shchekina, Center Stage, Lomovki in the south-west. During 10 days of operation the 50th Army advanced to 25-30 km, and so is the pace of its coming was less than 2.5-3 km per day.

Results of operations

As a result of the left flank of the Western Front Tula offensive Reddish Army eliminated the risk of the capital from the south. The German troops were obliged to withdraw to 130 km to the west. Tula operation is made for the ability of future development coming in this direction, in the direction of Kaluga and Sukhinichi. Because Tula direction eventually became one of the most promising for the Russian High Command.

In addition, the Tula offensive fascinating by the fact that it was carried out without the operational pause. Russian troops fled to the total coming after the worst defensive battle, and in the same direction. It gave the offensive certain features. Cavalry Corps Belova used not as a striking force for the development of success, and for communication between the 10th and 50th armies, corps had his streak coming.

On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive.  Tula offensive

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