On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive. Eletskaya offensive

On the 70th anniversary of the counter-offensive.  Eletskaya offensive Old as Russia itself, the city and the city-warrior-worker Dace (Hail for the first time mentioned in chronicles in 1146) wrote many glorious pages in its history. He was the principal reference Fri, who was blocking the path to the enemy. In particular, it is known in the history of the town of Battle of summer 1395. Then the army went to Russia stern leader and conqueror of many peoples and lands of Tamerlane. Once the residents refused to surrender, the army broke the resistance of the Steel Hromtsov elchan and broke into the fortress. All the defenders and inhabitants were slaughtered in captivity took only Prince Theodore and his boyars. But after that fight the army of Tamerlane retreated and did not go deep into Russia.

During the Russian war majestically Elec-feeding again stood in the way of an enemy who tried to take the capital of the USSR. At the end of November 1941 the situation in this sector of the Soviet-German front was very complex. The Germans captured on November 22, Efremov, November 26 — Livny, December 3 — and 4 December Pavelec — Elec. Russian troops eventually languid defensive battles have suffered significant losses, people were in need of replenishment and technology center. But, despite this, the Red Army commanders and stubbornly clung to every defensive limit. In particular the relentless battles were fought for human settlements. Some of them a couple of times passed from hand to hand.

To stabilize the command of the Southwestern Front (commanded by Marshal of the Russian Union Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko) instituted a fight breaking forces, including the newly formed infantry, armored and artillery units. These measures assist stabilize the front line and get ready to counter-attack.

The Nazis began in Yelets terror, shot the wounded Red Army soldiers who remained in the town. Many of their inhabitants rescued. Risking their lives, they hid the wounded Russian soldier, so that the original teacher of the school number 4 VF Lyashkova hid from the Germans 33 the wounded. This generous and unsafe actually helped her students. Almost immediately began guerrilla movement, the guerrillas killed the Germans destroyed the band communications, attacking convoys. December 6 partisans broke into Olypanets and freed our prisoners fighter. The guerrillas took an active role in the outbreak of December 6 Eletsk offensive. They corrected the fire artillery raids Russian aviation demonstrated workarounds with which it was possible to bypass the enemy strongholds, and helped in the liberation of human Fri Before release Eltsa guerrillas killed in the town and its districts over hundreds of Nazis.

The plans of the Russian command. Power of the parties

The High Command and front set for the command of the 13th Army (commander, Major General M. Auxentios Gorodnyansky) and 3rd Army (commanded by Major-General Yakov Kreizer) South-Western Front two main objectives. In 1-x, smash Yeletskikh group of Wehrmacht (Part 2 of the German army) and that assist the advancing troops of the Western Front, in-2, a breakthrough mobile army group in the direction of Chomutov and the upper reaches of the danger to the rear of the 2nd Panzer Army Heinz Guderian.

According to the plan of command, the brunt of Russian troops were put out of the district Terbuny, Borka, Natalevka in the general direction of Nikitskoye, in other words the flank and rear of the enemy force in the area Eltsa. Immediately to the north bypass Eltsa deposited secondary attack from the area Maslov Rogatova aside Trosny, Nikita. Both strike, which focused on Nikitskoye, would lead to the overall ambience and the elimination of the enemy group.

This operation was formed two strike groups. It was assumed that the main attack force will cause the mobile strike force of the Southwestern Front Lieutenant-General Fyodor Yakovlevich Kostenko (grouping made from the reserves of the front). The group included 1st Guards Rifle division Major General I. Russiyanova, 5th Cavalry Corps Major General VD Kryuchenkina, 34th motorized brigade AA Shamnina and 129th Tank Brigade, commanded PM Zykov. It was about 20 thousand people, more than 200 guns and mortars, heavy machine 82 and 360 machine guns. This grouping could discreetly form and throw a strike, its appearance was a complete surprise to the Germans.

Secondary attack from the north around Eltsa, to distract the Germans were to apply part of the 13th Army Major General AM Gorodnyansky, there is formed a mobile group of troops under the command of General Kirill Semenovich Moskalenko. It should be noted that the composition of the 13th Army was very exsanguinated previous fights, it consisted of a few 6 infantry divisions and one Cavalry Division, and one tank brigade, where there is not the 1st tank. Just an "army" was about 19 thousand people. With the turn of the town of Ephraim Germans preparing to storm the 3rd Army under General JG Kreizer.

Russian troops first counteroffensive had a small advantage in manpower (Russian forces had about 65 thousand people). But in weaponry — in armored vehicles, guns and mortars, machine guns — the Germans had an advantage. In practice, the theory of the art of war, Reddish Army could not have of success in coming.


After completing the concentration of forces and preparation for the offensive, December 6 at 10:00 13th Army under General AM Gorodnyansky went into coming. Against the advancing units of the 13th Army acted more powerful group of the 2nd German Army (commanded by Maximilian von Weichs) consisting of 3 infantry divisions — 262 th, 134 th and 45 th. Hitler's command allowed for significant operational importance Eltsa, which was the base for the development of the upcoming coming to Zadonsk, Voronezh, Lipetsk. That's why for the defense of the town Eltsa were identified such significant force. During the December 6 of the 13th Army, General Gorodnyansky were merciless fighting on all fronts. Army battle group was able to come to the north-eastern outskirts of the town. Fierce fighting for the town. December 8th northern flank of Army troops freed Hmelenets and left on the highway Elec — Efremov. 148th Infantry Division led street battles in the center of Eltsa taking it block by block. According to the testimony of witnesses of these fights, the city was muffled by thick clouds of smoke and shaken by constant explosions. Contractions in the town and lasted NIGHT MODE. By the morning of December 9, 1941 148 th Division freed Elec. A huge help in the liberation of the town had the 143rd and 307th Infantry Division, which enveloped the dace from the south and the north. Days of December 9, city Dace was completely freed from the Nazis.

Our troops are not stopping the head, continued coming toward the Cossacks. The Germans could not stand the pressure of the Russian army, closing rear guards and air strikes, which hastily transferred to this sector of the front, began to withdraw to the line of the river Vorgol. Going in Kazakov and Myagenko build two units of defense, that by focusing on them to stop the movement of the Red Army. But to solve this puzzle command of the German army was not possible, limit the Wehrmacht's defense was breached.

December 7 at 7:00 went to the coming of the General Strike Group FY Kostenko. The main attack group put in the direction of the Nikitsky, toward connections 13th Army. Part of the group — the 34th Motorized Infantry Brigade — was thrown on Liv
ny for more profound coverage of the German forces. During a fierce battle to the end of December 10, the main forces were routed by 95 th and 45 th of German infantry divisions, and the Russian troops withdrew to the rear enemy troops in the area Eltsa, cutting off the Germans escape route to the west.

To surround the retreat of the main compounds of the 34th Army Corps, to our troops was necessary to accelerate the pace of movement. Because motorized infantry brigade of Colonel AA Shamshina and 1st Cavalry Division were ordered to take the limit "Khomutovo — Upper" and grab the knot of roads in the upper reaches. Part of the Cavalry Corps Kryuchenkina morning of December 11 continued to counter-attack. They walked for a day of 30-40 km and 12 December reached the line of the railroad Elec — Eagle. On the same day cavalry division after a fierce battle took Shatilovo, there was hijacked more than 200 units of vehicles. Horsemen also obsessed with Rossoshnym and to the final day or went to the area of Orewa. In this day took Nikitin.

In Shatilovo Russian horsemen was destroyed the headquarters of the 34th Army Corps. The corps commander, according to captured Germans threw his troops and fled by plane. As a result, a successful throw compounds Cavalry Corps Kryuchenkina rears 45th and 134th German Infantry Divisions smashed and the retreat of the German units to the west, which were in the "pot", were cut off. Part 1 — Guards Rifle Division Russiyanova December 13 Izmalkovo captured.

In the "pot" hit the compound 2-Wehrmacht infantry divisions (45th and 134th). Pressed from the east connections General Moskalenko, the Germans concentrated all its forces from populated Fri Shatilovo, Rossoshnoe and went on to break the ring, attacking cavalry corps Kryuchenkina. The cavalry is already very frazzled after a few days of continuous fighting, could not withstand the shock at the technical level a curb Corps Wehrmacht. Riders left Shatilovo and Rossoshnoe, moved to the south-west and occupied the latest line of defense at the turn of Upper Lyubovsha, Zybin Shcherbachev. The next day, December 14, the German units continued their desperate attacks, trying to break through for themselves the road to the west. The Germans sent a major effort on the flanks of the Cavalry Corps, trying to go around them to the north and the south. Some German units were able to go on communication and broke off the supply of cavalry units. The cavalry was in a very languid state. Parts were exhausted and drained of blood fighting, ammunition, food and fodder ended.

From the command of the cavalry corps were alarming messages one another: "The enemy is trying to escape to the west, flows around the flanks of the Cavalry Corps", in an hour, "32-th and 14-th Cavalry Division Cavalry Corps, cut off from the headquarters and the headquarters of the 32nd Division, cut off from their own regiments. Cavalry Corps headquarters to 32 th Division, GA Kovalev supports only on the radio … with the 14th Division A. Belogorskogo no connection at all … control … broken. " To support the cavalry was immediately targeted the 34th Motorised Brigade, the Corps also tried to support from the air. The Germans, realizing the complexity of their situation, rushed to new attacks.

15, the Germans made a last attempt to break, collecting all the power in the striking force. The Germans were knocked out of the district in the direction of Rossoshensky Kryvets, commander of the attack led the 134th Infantry Division, General Kohenhauzen Germans. But the horsemen broke and this attack, the opponent was distracted, the German General died. After that organized resistance was kinked, some Germans surrendered, while others fled to the woods. 16th residues groups were destroyed or captured. Ultimately, 134th and 45th Infantry Division of the Wehrmacht were virtually destroyed.

December 18 was restored Bryansk Front. It included the 3rd, 13th Army and the freshest 61th Army. His commander was appointed Colonel-General Ya.T.Cherevichenko. Rearranging and adding to their strength, Cherevichenko led them into coming. In the second half of December, Army of the Bryansk Front advanced 30-110 km. But by the end of December, they were stopped by the well-organized resistance and counterattacks German troops and defected to the defense.

The value of transactions

The uniqueness Eletsk offensive was the fact that in the area of the town Eltsa troops of the right wing of the Southwestern Front, without preparatory operational pause immediately fled from the defensive to the offensive. It was all of a sudden for the German command.

As a result, the operation Eletsk Russian troops advanced on the 80-100 km, the Germans cleared area of approximately 8,000 square meters. m, liberated from the Nazis eastern part of the country Orel — Krasnozorenskom, Korsakov, Novoderevenkovskogo areas, in other words more than 400 locations Fri Including principal Eletskii railway junction — Efremov city. As early as 7:00 am December 9, 1941 at the railway station Elec came first repair the train, and on December 10 through the city was the first troop train. So Makarov, was fully restored railway communication between the center of the Russian Union and its southern regions.

Was eliminated Eletskii projection stabilized the front line, to normalize the situation on the right flank of the South-Western Front. Front's forces surrounded and killed two infantry divisions of the Wehrmacht, dealt a major blow 2nd German army. The Germans lost under Yelets 16 thousand people killed and wounded, as trophies were captured 226 guns, more than 900 units of vehicles, 319 machine guns, and many other military equipment.

In addition, Eletskaya offensive distracted over some forces 2nd Panzer Army, to give these considerable assistance of the left wing of the Western Front. Have been made suitable conditions for the defeat of the German forces south of Tula.

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