Pyramid of Kukulkan

If we take into account the value of a calendar of steps of the pyramid, as well as its orientation to the cardinal, will be obvious: this device symbolized the main axis around which revolves the universe.

 

True antiquities in Mexico are the Mayan pyramids. Them in the country a lot, but are available to visit only a few, as many pyramids buried under the soil or covered with thick tropical vegetation, so that at first glance are just green hills. The most famous and the most ancient structures are the pyramids of Teotihuacan, where the well-preserved two of the largest pyramid — Sun (225 m at the base and 65 meters in height) and the moon (about 150 m at the base and 42 meters high), as well as church the most "popular" of the gods of the Maya — Quetzalcoatl.

Structures are located in the same way as the three stars in Orion's belt, that is exactly the same as the three great pyramids of Giza). Pyramid of Cholula — the biggest in the world, in terms of it surpassed the Great Pyramid (now a big part of the pyramid is destroyed). Another impressive group of pyramids — Mitla and Monte Alban — is near the city of Oaxaca, and the ancient pyramidal structures in the capital of the Toltec — Thule, surrounded by strange multi-ton stone heads of mysterious creatures. And places such as Chichen Itza, Palenque, Tajin, Tikal, Xcaret, Shel-Ha, Mayapan, Mitla and Uxmal, are simply priceless monuments of ancient civilizations.

The main attraction is the Chichen Itza Pyramid of Kukulkan. It is also called "El Castillo" (which in Spanish means "castle"). By the way, you are unwittingly repeatedly could see the pyramid on television. In a famous advertising "Pepsi" can of the beverage slipping from her.

The pyramid was built in the eleventh century and is dedicated to the supreme god. "Kukulcan" in the Mayan language means "feathered serpent" (more common than the correct translation — "feathered serpent").

The height of the pyramid of 25 meters on the upper floor is a temple. At the base of the pyramid is a square with sides of 55.5 m
On the sides of the pyramid — 9 terraces, one for each region of the kingdom of the dead. So imagine Mayan underworld, the place where they were sent after death.

To the top of the pyramid are four broad steep stairs, divided by 18 spans, each corresponding month of the year, as the Mayan calendar was 18 months.

Each ladder consists of 91 stage. If the number of steps of the staircase is multiplied by the number of stairs (4) And consider the platform on top of the pyramid, which is a temple, as one more step, we obtain 91 x 4 + 1 = 365— The number of days in a year.

These figures — not a coincidence. The scientists concluded that the Maya have built into the pyramid principle calendar. And the pyramid itself, may have had some astronomical significance.

                      

Pyramid is focused strictly on the four cardinal points.

Stairs going to the north side of the pyramid, at the bottom of the edges ending snake heads, which are a symbol of the god Kukulkan. Their location is also not accidental.

Climbing the stairs to the upper area of the pyramid is not safe. Only one, the western staircase, restored, and it can go up, holding on to the iron chain stretched along.

When viewed from below the stairs do not feel perspective, it seems that the step width at the bottom and top of the pyramid is the same. This optical illusion seems to be designed to enhance the magic of the building. In fact ladder extends upward so as to exactly compensate for the effect of perspective.

There is a pyramid of Kukulkan, and another great feature. It was only discovered in the twentieth century, during the restoration of the building. Twice a year, there is a phenomenon, which to the uninitiated may seem a miracle …

Twice a year, during the spring and fall equinoxes, on the pyramid there is a particular visual effect. Thousands of people gather in anticipation of the extraordinary spectacle.

The time counts down the last seconds. And with precision of a Swiss timepiece on the steps of the north stairs of the triangles of light and shadow there is an image of a giant of the Sacred Snake, slowly sliding to the bottom of the pyramid …

And there is this:

17 hours and 15 minutes.
On the balustrade of the pyramid begins the play of light. An image appears, formed a shadow that casts the northwest corner of the pyramid. As soon as the sun sinks lower and lower, the picture becomes clearer.

17 hours 30 minutes.
Seven triangles of light fully outline the seven bends snaking huge snake. Her tail is on the top platform of the pyramid, and the body runs down the stairs, where near the ends of the earth itself impressive sculpture snake head with open jaws furiously. This illusion lasts exactly 3 hours 22 minutes.

One can only imagine what it symbolized for the Maya. Perhaps those who have watched this phenomenon, it seemed that the sacred Feathered Serpent Kukulkan as it comes back to life. Modern pilgrims also argue that, in a strange spectacle they occur spiritual enlightenment.

It's almost magical appearance of an ancient deity to signal the onset of Equinox shows that the ancient Maya had a developed astronomy and geodesy. If the pyramid has been turned at least one degree aside, the amazing play of light and shadow would never revealed!

Civilization only with qualified surveyors and astronomers could achieve such precision accuracy to get out of the play of light and shadow a unique image at exactly the specified location in precisely specified time! 

 

  

Link pyramid with the solar cycle

There are 4 astronomical time of the year, signifying the official start of the four seasons. These moments ("cardinal points"), which were particularly important to the ancients, are winter and summer solstices and the spring and autumn equinox.

Equinox happens twice a year, when the sun passes directly over the equator of the Earth, and the length of daylight and night are equal. The vernal equinox occurs on March 21. Six months later, on September 22, the autumnal equinox occurs.

The summer solstice occurs on June 21. On this day, the greatest length of daylight hours. Six months later, on December 22 — the winter solstice, when it is the shortest daylight and the longest night of the year. In a leap year, all dates are shifted by one day.

Between each of these events — exactly 91 days, and 92 days between June 21 (summer solstice) and September 22 (autumnal equinox). In general, it is 365 days (solar year) to 91 in the afternoon between each event, the corresponding 91 steps on the stairs of the pyramid of Kukulkan.

Pyramid of Kukulkan  

Each of the four solar events (two solstices and two equinoxes) can be predicted location of light and shadow on the pyramid at different times of the year (diagr.1).

It is not known whether the Maya familiar with the concept of 360o for measurement purposes, but the sides of the pyramid deployed light exactly 18o.

Pyramid of Kukulkan  

Each of the four solar events (two solstices and two equinoxes) can be predicted location of light and shadow on the pyramid at different times of the year (diagr.1).

It is not known whether the Maya familiar with the concept of 360o for measurement purposes, but the sides of the pyramid deployed light exactly 18o.

Pyramid of Kukulkan  

During the winter and summer solstices pyramid divided light and shadow exactly in half. Figure 2 shows the position of the sun at sunset on the winter solstice.

On this day, the southern and western sides of the pyramid gets the greatest amount of sunshine a year. During the summer solstice, on the contrary, the northern and eastern sides of the pyramid are in the sunlight.

Figure 3 shows the position of the sun at sunset on the day of the autumnal equinox (September 22nd).

Pyramid of Kukulkan  

The sun's rays are falling so that the north-western corner of the pyramid casts a shadow on the northern staircase — a phenomenon known as the "seven triangles of light and shadow."

  

Astronomical events and visual effects of the pyramid 

There are several astronomical dates of occurrence of which Maya could learn using triangles of light and shadow. All of these dates had some importance in the Maya calendar (some of which are listed in the table, the "main" date highlighted):  

Date
Event
September 6
17:00-17:30. There are nine triangles of light (corresponding to the number of terraces of the pyramid)
September 22
The autumnal equinox, the day is the night (was 92 days from June 21 — the previous summer solstice).
17:00-17:30. Visible seven triangles light
October 9
16:00-16:30. There are 6 triangles of light
December 21
Winter solstice, the longest night of the year (91 days has passed since the autumnal equinox September 22). The northern and eastern sides of the pyramid — completely in the shade, while the west and south it is fully illuminated by the sun
March 5
16:00-16:30. There are 6 triangles of light
March 21
The vernal equinox, the day is the night (was 91 days from the winter solstice, December 21).
16:30-17:00. Visible seven triangles light
April 6
17:00-17:30. There are nine triangles of light
(That is visible all possible triangles)
June 21
 
Summer solstice, the longest day of the year (91 days passed from the spring equinox on March 21.) 7:00-7:30. The southern and western sides of the pyramid are entirely in the shade

Category: Mystery stories

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