"Rope" ornament on the Volkhov
According to the data of Novgorod archaeological expedition
An image "rope" ornaments on the subjects of arts and crafts are the echo of the art of weaving, which was utilized by humanity at the dawn of civilization. Popularity due to the antiquity of woven ornament of weaving — one of the first crafts person.
Most archaic way of working textiles have become the most ancient ornaments. Ornament in the form of a wavy or zigzag braid of two strands, correlating with the structure of threads used in the art of all peoples. His image in the plane and solid variants encountered in medieval Novgorod. Semantics Braids contacted with water — the initial state of all things, fertilizing male seed, forcing the ground "to give birth" 1. Twisted sticks, carved out of wood, or as they are referred to as "strings", a common finding of archaeologists in Novgorod (Fig. 1). Ornament in the form of twisted strands of the two additions to the items transferred unchanged (Fig. 2) or stylized (Fig. 3) form.
Image of twisted yarn on a carved plank of Novgorod has a closed weave structure (Figure 2). Units — ornaments in the decorative arts are often closed weave, without beginning or end (Fig. 4, 5, 6). It increases their magical effect. The phrase "hide the ends" was important to make a successful magic acts, weave knot. Over time, the meaning has changed, the expression has become negative. "The ends of the funeral" means cheat, deceive, to hide.
Seven major units have become the basic unit, which is the basis of complex patterns. New versions of the knotted weaves created by the laws of constructing ornamental compositions. Part of the site was used in shipbuilding and retained the name of knots.
Knot "bun" was a symbol of life (Fig. 7), and it was the most common sign of magic, on the basis of which many ornaments (Figure 8-13). Node "eight" (sea) is tied from one wire (Fig. 14). Marine "flat" site in Novgorod is mostly found on the sled Kopylov (Fig. 15). In Suzdal used wicker version in a zipper dress. Node "Hercules" guarding against disease, usually depicted on the chest of soldiers. The maritime business is called "direct." In Novgorod found in the bulk form realistically carved in wood (Fig. 16). Spiral knot weave is made of two strands, the ends of which have a direction in a circle (Fig. 17). In the layers of XIV century in Novgorod found on a leather belt.
Identify several ways to composite construction "rope" ornaments:
1) weaving from one node;
2) The connection of multiple units in a unit;
3) with the addition of nodes or vertikalnogorizontalnyh diagonal elements;
4) units and circular elements;
5) patterns of the nodes that are based on linear, circular, spiral composite construction methods.
The increasing complexity of relationships between the characters gradually. On subjects Novgorod oldest layer decor appears completely fine ornamental integrated system for the occurrence which took more than a century of cultural development. According to the classification of AK Ambrose Novgorod ornament X-XII centuries is a sign of the transition stage pattern with preservation of sacred values. Decor is harmoniously combined in the form of objects, at the same time not lose the logic of interweaving. In XIII-XIV centuries, the degradation of "rope" ornament is evidently associated with attenuation of tradition.
Nodes rolls shown in the bucket handle (Fig. and on the wooden column XI century in Novgorod (Fig. 9), are part of the teratological or animal ornament. Weave nodes connected inextricably with fantastic animals. For application purse (Fig. 10) used a single node, which is the center of ornament, which clearly has a magical significance. Single sign on wooden oarlock appears as a closed logical composition (Fig. 11). Composition of four nodes and two rolls crosswise of the ovals is part rhythmic series of similar motives to cover birch-bark tueski XIII century, is an example of the loss of value of a node as a character and turn it into ornamental decoration (Fig. 13). With the adoption of Christianity in a carry magical node values to objects of worship. The miniature Novgorod Psalter XIV century node is connected to a roll-domed Orthodox church (Fig. 12).
Combinatorial analysis of archaeological findings helps to extract information about the stages of transition in the weave pattern. To do this, follow the typological connection between rope ornaments on various articles of decorative arts. Transition in the evolution of weaving pattern can be represented by the following steps: print, copy, textile technology in another material, image transfer weave on a plane schematization and simplification of interweaving.
Archaeological finds демонстрируютодновременное existence of several stages in the development of braided ornament. The process of evolution was slow enough layering techniques decor is characterized by the preservation of old and new trends. Wee juicy ring with nodular beads second quarter of XI century in Novgorod and Suzdal (Fig. 18), woven from fine bronze wire, represent the earliest version of such products. They are a copy of a thread with three knots, made of metal.
A similar method of making felt from Novgorod button (Figure 19) indicates that the prototype woven knots of wire were textiles. Ornamental wooden finial XIII century (Fig. 20) represents the image weave the same node. To enhance the value of the magic used yarn composed of several strands. Weave formed by two uzlamikalachami with nine points, perhaps served as a symbol of fidelity and fertility, common to all four corners of the world.
In IX-XI centuries in Russia have spread jewelry casting techniques in clay form, which is made from a wax model. Casting for models of braided cords allow provoschennyh weave intricate patterns. In order to create the impression you must have finished the original thing. The imprint is always secondary, in any case requires a woven product.
In the next step of using its own textile techniques to create jewelry replace the image appearance weaves, ie textile production techniques form the basis of cane ornament.
Magic function contributed to complicating ways of weaving and weaving. The ancient methods of weaving was the most difficult, demanding irrational from the point of view of the modern man of the time of their production. Course of time simplifies the way they produce, not just textiles, but lost ornament symbolic essence, becoming a decoration.
That sacred function of textiles, not utilitarian, facilitated the transition process ornament produced in tkaneobrazovaniya, the "rope" pattern, which in medieval Novgorod in large numbers found on household items. Node in the system becomes the center of the ornamental magic spell, increasing its semantic content. For example, for the ornament of the ridge X century Novgorod (Fig. 21) used the motif woven or brush fringe belt. Three lines form at the intersection of the "eternal" node.
Ornaments copper bracelets from Novgorod XXI (Fig. 5) and XII Vienna (Fig. 4) differ similar features with the images on the vessels with the "calendar features and cuts", studied Rybakov. Ornaments bracelets — oblique crosses, symbolizing the sun, diamond braid with points, stands plowed and sown field, dashed or braided line, indicating the water. Bracelet could be used in agriculture as a means of magic spells fructifying forces of nature during the holiday of Ivan Kupala the summer solstice, when the two elements of the worship of the pagan cult — fire and water. In ornaments bracelets signs of earth, water, sun, united in a single composition, pierced magical value.
Similar images "eternal" nodes encountered on other items of Novgorod life. Decor spoon for communion passes with realistic precision interlocking overlapping filaments (Fig. 22). Ornament on birch simplified, more geometrize though weave keeps the system (Figure 23).
At first glance, it seems that the "rope" ornaments zpohu Ages were not used in folk costume. However, we were able to identify a group of ornaments, is the interpretation of knot weaving. Turning into ornamental motifs, characters become less important, their sense was lost, simplified form. But the surviving images can be restored motives from which they were made. The researchers note the gradual disappearance of the jewelry in Slavic graves, based on which it was concluded that the transition Uzoroche in weaving and embroidery folk costume. If this is true, then in textile ornaments should be traceable genetic relationship with nodular weaving.
Even the appearance of the pattern on the fabric is seen as a small miracle. In ancient times, a man who knows how to create patterns, a magician, a sorcerer, endowed with the power of the sacred with knowledge that goes beyond ownership craft.
The decor of the Russian folk costume reflected magicheskozakl pagan symbols of fertility and undergarments. Stability of certain traits of archaic stories allows us to trace the gradual variability ornaments. Marriage and sexual activity in a number of nations personifies the sowing of cereals and vegetation, which is reflected in a number of aspects in the preparation for the wedding. Woman resembled the wild, grain, ears, anything that might crop. This is the fixed signs on odezhde5.
Ornament on clothes the liaison man with his tribe on earth and ancestors. Signs help determine a person's position in society and its membership in a family group. In ornaments are reflected archaic views on the world, the idea of the cosmic cycle, expressed in the seasons of the year.
Ornamental motifs of textile creation refers to the stage of simplification and deformation of the shape of characters. Researchers nepervonachalnaya semantics of complex ancient stories had already been forgotten. Understand the initial semantics can only involving comparative archaeological data. Transformation of the "rope" ornaments at transfer fabric is a logical change in the form:
1) geometrization motives;
2) replacement of weaves strand breaks (conventional gear);
3) loss of entanglements with the shape retention of nodes;
4) the appearance of the strain components.
"Eternal" site (Fig. 24) — a magic symbol, used by many people in the textile product retained its outer silhouette, but lost the weave pattern. Novgorod archaeological find XII century — unit consisting of two leather straps, woven zigzag (Fig. 25) has become a popular textile pattern (Fig. 26). Ornament adorning jewelry Novgorod XII century (Fig. 27), was transformed into a textile motif in the form of a "diamond hook" (Figure 28). Twisted three additions thread (Fig. 29) is reflected in a comb-textile designs (Fig. 30). When depicting the interweaving of threads used affixing way line breaking.
A connection between the braid of two crossed ovals (Figure 31), whose image appears on the wooden items in Novgorod, and textile designs, diamond and swastikas (Fig. 32). Motif woven and composed of two intersecting ovals and diamond (Figure 33), was used repeatedly on objects made of different materials (Fig. 34). The connection of the diamond and the cross was associated with the symbol of feminine and masculine.
Embroidery element (Figure 35) contains the remains of interlocking rings with diamond, which for the most part lost. On some embroideries that motive remained significantly better (Fig. 36). With the introduction of gaps in the ground weaves when transferring to the cloth could be a new pattern in the form of the compound of the diamond and the swastika. Eight-node (Figure 37) after the geometrization and partial loss of some lines may translate into an ornament of two skobchatyh elements (Figure 38).
Ornament Women's hats from the Tula province and embroidery motif men's shirts from Voronezh preserve external form nodules motives, although the system is completely lost weaves. Ornamental marks on the embroidery headgear (Fig. 39) is constructed from a combination of two units and a diamond with a cross weave diagram which shows there. These nodes as decorations drop caps were widely used in medieval Novgorod (Fig. 40). "Eternal" site, part of the Voronezh shirt ornament (Fig. 41), in the Novgorod decorative arts, represented on the bracelet X-XII centuries (Figure 4-6).
In summary, it is important to note that in the culture of medieval weaving yarns had a sacred significance, which has been handed subjects, covered by the "rope" pattern. Evolution of weaving pattern in place for a long period, undergoing changes in stages. Genetic relatedness of weaving and ornamentation is traced on items produced from various materials, including textiles. The study, "rope" ornament suggests that "knots of happiness" — a decorative item of clothing many people are present in various guises in the ornamentation of Russian folk costume.