At the heart of any secret organization is a corporate way. Taking the concept of hegemony of the Italian political scientist Antonio Gramsci, one can assume that a group of government, not to lose its hegemony in the political system will always try to maintain its cultural core by building a corporate culture and influence, thus, on civil society itself through its well established institutions. Now there was even a special term for the modern comparativism — «skinship» — a symbiosis of English words skin («skin") and kinship («kinship", "similarity").
Any political elite, a group consisting of the hegemonic power and opposition groups (clans Kennedy, Clinton, Bush in the United States, the clans of the Rakhimov, Rutskoi Fradkov, Matvienko, "Family" in Russia, the Aliyev clan in Azerbaijan, Nazarbayev in Kazakhstan, etc. .), is forced to keep «skinship» its cultural core talent pool with him and imposed the corporate order. Brief look at the history of corporate culture.
The origins of the corporate culture can be found already in antiquity. Thus, Hippocrates was one of the first to teach the secret knowledge not only their children, but also people from outside. Indeed, the aliens could destroy family clan school, and seems to avoid such a development, and was created by the Hippocratic Oath. The oath begins with an invocation to the gods: "I swear by Apollo physician Asclepius, and Gigiey Panakeey and all the gods and goddesses." But immediately after that the future doctor in detail swears allegiance to the teacher, his family and caste interests.
Pupil in the oath solemnly promises: "I think I had taught medical skill along with my parents, to share with him their deliveries and, if necessary, to assist him in his needs, his offspring considered brothers and this art, if they want to study it, to teach them free of charge and without any agreement, instructions, oral lessons and everything else in the study reported their sons, the sons of his teacher and students are bound by obligations under the law and the oath health, but no one else. "
This preserves the integrity of the professional «skinship» Greek physicians. In the oath also includes the medical secret and some restrictions on treatment. According to observers, "Arguments and Facts" A. Melnikova, treatment takes different caste of physicians, who have had their corporate oath before us Unreached.
Allow yourself some deeper in search of the true causes of the growing influence of corporate culture in the modern capitalist society. Take, for example, the political system of the United States. The states of the long-established system whereby corporate interdependence cells of civil society and the political elite of the state. Kind of personnel reserve for the American elite, providing its hegemony in the government, are, in our opinion, student societies and secret brotherhood.
Student community in America appeared in the middle of the XVIII century. Thus, in the company of students from the College of William and Mary in Virginia has become a habit to gather at the second floor of a local tavern — they called themselves the "Club Berets." Soon, the college began to take shape, and other student community — but with the knowledge of the teachers, but because they were more like the literary circles.
However, all started with the fact that the student John Heath, an expert on Greek, denied membership in one of these clubs. Then he went and started his own — a secret brotherhood, and as the name of the selected Greek abbreviation of "Phi Beta Kappa." By statute, the basic principles of a secret organization had high moral ideals, diligence in the development of science and fraternal friendship. Soon the "Phi Beta Kappa" opened offices at Harvard and Yale, and subsequently began to appear, and other "Greek" fraternity, with a strict hierarchy of the converts "younger brothers" and their mentors — "big brothers."
College administration from the beginning belonged to the fraternity with great suspicion, and, admittedly, not without reason. For example, two of these secret societies active in student riots at the University of Miami in 1847. During the Civil War, students went to defend the Confederacy whole fraternities. The American political elite quickly realized the power of these organizations, drawing from their own environment change, trying to use for their own purposes, and does not interfere with the development and strengthening of secret fraternities. Therefore there is nothing extraordinary in the fact that when, after winning the North began to study at universities and women — soon appeared first secret sorority — "Pi Beta Phi."
By the end of XIX century. Corporate Culture "Greek" fraternities firmly established in the U.S. higher education system, because their members were influential and richest people in the country. They regularly patronized funded fraternity purchased for them on campus property, invest in education converts the "younger brothers."
However, in the XX century. development of patron-client relationships secret societies has meant that each fraternity and then dissected the typical cases of bullying and abuse of power. The probationary period for new called "hell week" — not everyone can withstand the tests made elders.
America — a country of immigrants, and it is not surprising that among the secret student societies caught on pretty quickly, "omerta" — the custom of the Sicilian Mafia, which prevents under any circumstances to break the silence. Secrecy and solidarity, progressive scale of the secret fraternities in American society increasingly came to resemble the Neapolitan Camorra organization. By the way, team spirit pervades and student community of one of the oldest and most prestigious public universities in the country of the rising sun — Hokkaido University in Sapporo, which confirms my hypothesis about the relationship of the phenomenon of global corporate HR policy and socialization in modern capitalist societies.
In my view, the fraternities and secret societies are an interesting example of mixed cells of the corporate model of a society. For example, on the one hand, students' Sigma Alpha Epsilon "involves elements of a business cell, where there is no democracy in the traditional sense — there reigns business dictatorship" big brothers ", develop their managerial skills useful in future careers. (AA Zinoviev even concludes that democracy, human rights, civil liberties, and other attributes of a free society need the same West as external compensation for their lack of business life).
On the other hand, called "forge elite personnel" has the features of a typical communal cells, for its members to become part of the political elite, are interested in maintaining the hegemony of the ruling group and its political regime. Hence it is clear that any change in the structure of the mixed — in our case, corporate — the cells should lead to an adjustment in the educational policy of the state. Conversely, any turn in the corporate strategy of the political elite will create new "rules of the game" in «skinship» fraternity.
No accident that most researchers (K. and R. Bodley Establ, SG Kara-Murza, etc.) write about the institute of "dual corridor" in the education system in the capitalist countries presupposes the separation of students into elite and non-elite. In the elite French school, for example, provides a fundamental holistic education, nurtured strong, self-respecting person, welded corporate spirit, which is not usual in the French school. The basic mechanism of social division — the age limit.
Interestingly, 63% of children of workers and 73% of children of agricultural workers (compared to 23% of children from bourgeois families) for a year or more behind the right age to go to middle school. This is compounded by the fact that one-third of the children of workers at the time to "excellent" and "good", compared to 62% in children of French bourgeois. Effect — the division of children between upper secondary schools and vocational, which does not provide secondary education. This division is strikingly symmetrical: French workers in children the ratio of those who fall into the first and second "corridor" is 1:4,1, and among children bourgeois — 3,9:1. Children are so-called "middle class" are distributed between the two "corridors" totally equal 1:1. There is no "third network." What is called a technical school, in fact, divided into the same two parts belonging to the middle or full or part-time vocational school.
How deep is the difference between the two types of schools, it is clear from a comparison of the texts of the same author, written in the same one and the same subject, but for different contingents of students. So, are noteworthy excerpts from the history of France Lavisse of the reign of Louis XIV, in two ways. One option — inclusive and dialectical description, making you ponder the future members of the French elite. Another — a primitive stamp with cheap morality, many statements contradicting the first option.
Soviet education, as he had not been criticized in this respect was not discriminatory because preclude a system of "two corridors" — a huge mass of people passed through the night schools and workers' faculties. As rightly pointed SG Kara-Murza, even in the initial Soviet school teachers and the best students have made great efforts to help the "lagging", especially oversized, catch up with the class. Teachers and the school system has resisted the temptation to "weed out" them. And many of them by the end of primary school is quite integrated into the class and pass the cycle, including higher education. However, the sharp rejection of the new Russian elite in the 1990s. from the former Soviet model of socialization of personality meant adopting new rules with which socialist society if met, then only indirectly.
At the beginning of XXI century. position in the informal student society of America has not changed much, but noted trend of the phenomenon of bullying among students. In most states, there are strict laws against bullying, every university has its own rules prohibiting the practice, take annual conference of national fraternities, where they discussed how to stop bullying. But the corporate business "elder brothers" thriving — now not only in the "Greek" societies, but also in clubs, sports teams, and even religious circles. «Skinship» is becoming more common, not oppressed by the government. This means that the current American elite is interested to keep your talent pool in the form in which it exists.
In 2008, a large-scale study on the issue. It was attended by 11,5 thousand students from 53 universities. That's what it showed. 55% of students who enter into any clubs, teams and societies pass through the systematic humiliation of the "big brothers." In this case, 25% of the management of these clubs know about the situation, and about a quarter of these incidents happening right in front of the amazed public.
Almost every time one of the members of what is happening — "big brother" — hangs photos freshmen defamed online. And while almost never newcomers unreported to the campus administration, following the custom of "omerta." Why? It turned out a great many of the "younger brothers" believe that ritual abuse secret societies brought them positive. One-third of the tests of the last reported incident rallied their group. A quarter said they experienced a sense of great accomplishment. 18% are confident that through the tests have become stronger in spirit — a few months of torment, but then the whole life you — part of the elite.
Corporate trials for future members of the political elite are becoming every year more and more severe. So, October 23, 2008 the District Court of Texas ruled that the parents of the deceased freshman University of Texas was paid $ 16.2 million. These costs are divided between the national and the local branch of the fraternity, "Sigma Alpha Epsilon", which, in the opinion of the court, shall be directly responsible for the death of Tyler Cross of Marietta. Cross fell from the fifth floor balcony dormitory in November 2006
None of the students who were present that night at the ceremony of initiation into the fraternity, not even called "fast", following the "omerta". The investigation revealed that the students and other newcomers join the Brotherhood, were given a two-liter bottle of liquor and forced to drink to the dregs. Cross was not a fan of alcohol — at school he was one of the best students, the captain of the football team and lacrosse team. As a result, the two "big brothers" spent 4 days in jail and two years probation, a former president of the local branch of the "Sigma Alpha Epsilon" and another student for concealment and omission were year of probation.
Such deaths — dozens every year. For example, October 3, 2008 at the University of Central Florida's "big brother" of "Alpha Phi Alpha" smash hit rookie, who promptly died. But striving to get into the American political and business elite can not avoid corporate filters informal fraternities, and therefore undergo a period of testing — so-called "hell week", which is actually lasts a few weeks. During this time, newcomers have to prove their loyalty to the ideals of brotherhood — unconditionally fulfill all that they will be ordered to "big brothers" or "big sisters."
The most common corporate trials in American student societies and clubs of interest:
Prohibition of communication with certain people
Singing or reciting poetry in public places
Shouts and insults at the beginner from the "big brothers" and "sisters"
Rude awakening in the night, organized by members of the fraternity
The ban on night sleep
Participation in the tests "who drink more»
Consuming large amounts of alcohol to the point, while the beginner will not be bad
Consumption of large quantities of soft drinks
Being outside in inclement weather without clothing
Attendance of the event, where the other members are humiliated fraternity
Tattoo or body piercing, body parts, selected "older sisters"
Wearing clothes caller
The most popular corporate testing among young people is — a ban on contact with certain people involved in the trial of "who drink more", singing or reciting poetry in public.
Try to classify the test so-called "hell week."
In my opinion, a ban on contact with certain people, raising among the "newcomers" sense of corporate — «skinship» and trains to vow of omerta. This prohibition, along with visits to events where humiliations are other members of the brotherhood, can be attributed to the type of tests, involving "the conservation of the cultural core" student societies. At the same time converts acquainted with the rules of conduct in a corporate box, get used to the established hierarchy, they have a sense of solidarity, of belonging to a particular ritual. These jobs at the initial stage exclude the penetration into the midst of unreliable members.
There are also another type of testing — "training psychological stability" or "holding attack" raising a future member of the elite endurance. This type of testing may include a ban on night sleep, cries and insults from the novice "big brothers" and "sisters," the caller wearing clothes, etc. Such tests are very similar to a typical member of the public punishment of the guilty are not sufficiently reliable to be initiated into the mysteries.
In conclusion, the American student organizations do not lose their popularity. For example, only one company "Phi Gamma Delta Fiji" founded in 1848 in Jefferson College, now has more than 130 local offices in the universities of USA and Canada. Headquarters "Fiji" is located in Lexington (Kentucky). Brotherhood is more than 125 thousand people. Of this society came many influential politicians and businessmen, war heroes, Nobel Prize winners, famous artists and athletes. Among the famous "Phi Gamma Delta Fiji" — Astronaut Eugene Kernap and star football Douglas Dawson, founder of the empire "Nike" Philip Knight and actor Dermot Mulroney.
Modern American political elite remains «skinship» its cultural core is not in Russia with nepotism in personnel, with attention to the right is the politicization of her personality-Nepos and close to her companion, and thanks to the support of student enterprise cells. At the same time develop a system of so-called "double corridor" in education, which is building a real social barrier between the elite and non-elite categories of youth.
Category: Mystery stories