"Oruzheynostroitelnye" technology stolen and copied nelitsenzinno relatively recent, but very good. Here is a more expressive and mentoring stories from the field.
Who stole from us: China, Bulgaria, Israel, North Korea. South Africa, Egypt, and many who do.
Yes, yes! "Our all" — the most reliable in the world of AK was repeatedly and brazenly stolen half of the planet and replicated in millions of copies, but neither country nor the famous designer did not get a penny. Many zabugornye "trunks" and named differently, and look on the outside a little differently, but looking for them just to behold — it's the same neotkazny "Kalash". How much concrete was produced in the world unique "Kalashnikovs", his clones and analogues, is not exactly clear (some researchers assume that more than 50 million!) Is also not clear how this number of licensed copies of, and how many "counterfeit".
One of the first technology to create a "Kalashnikov" has received China. Soon after the release of the AK-47 appeared the Chinese machines "Type-56" and "Type-56-1." From the Russian standard they differed little more barrel and triangular bayonet, is also very low quality steel. By the way, very soon, the Chinese used their "types" against the Russian border guards during a border conflict in 1969. Noteworthy that during the first battle for the peninsula and the Sino-Soviet fighters Puzyrev Kanygin after they have run out of ammunition, used captured Chinese ammunition, because the caliber is the same — 7.62 mm — as well as the form factor. In the eighties, the Chinese have made machine "Type-86 S», having a base of the same "Kalashnikov", but performed on a "Bullpup". They pererablotali AKM under the South American 5.56mm cartridge.
In the countries of the Warsaw contract made AK also received "independence" of the name and the differences from the original.
Hungary has produced three options. AKM-63 differed iron tip with a front handle and the butt of a unique form. AMD-65 had a short barrel and a two-chamber muzzle brake. AMP was equipped with a nozzle for firing grenades at the receiver, an optical sight and a 10-round magazine.
GDR produced machines with indices K, KM, KS, KMS KMS-72 and AK-74, which differed from the ordinary AK — and each other — and the extraordinary butts tsevyami.
Poland manufactured the PMC-60, PMC-PMKM and DHN-60 with a nozzle for finned rifle grenades and kalimatornym sight.
Romania made modifications AKM, one of which was fore-end with a handle, and the other — grenade launcher (40 mm caliber). Somewhat later, the Romanians did AKM with a telescopic sight and the butt of a rifle SVD.
Yugoslavia became famous for a whole family of automatic machines, the leading origin of the AK-47. First it was the M-64, M-64A and M-64 V (with a folding stock). Then came the M-70 (with perforated muzzle brake and the gun for firing rifle grenades — "Tromblon"), M-77 and B-1 sniper rifle "Zastava-76" (the same AA, but with a barrel length of 550 mm and optical sight).
North Korea makes a copy of the AK-47 (model-clone has received the title of "Type-58") and AKM ("Type-68").
Distinguished India — it produces license AKM. They differ from the Russian implementation of other switch fire mode, elongated muzzle brakes and sights set on the top of the receiver box.
In the U.S., "Interarmz" released for civilian (!) Market carbine S-61, which also has a suspiciously familiar shape.
More complicated story has evolved with Kalashnikovs after the license to create bought Finland. The Finns have changed the shape of the forearm, butt and muzzle brake, also moved the iron sights on the receiver cover. They got the title of the machine M-62 "Valmet". In the 80's to the Finns approached Israel with a request to re-sell the technology for making "Valmet" and machining equipment. After the deal was done, the Israelis, in turn, processed "Valmet".
Israeli machine received the title of "Galil." Later, the family of 'Galileo' there were various options (for example, automatic focusing, bipod), and even sniper rifles.
And in the middle 80's — by the Israelis — made by representatives of South Africa. They also asked them to implement the technology of production of 'Galileo'. The development has been sold, and the South Africans began to make their machines. More vserasprostranennymi steel R-4. On this basis, a set of models, the most unique of them was automatic "Vector", made on a "bulpap", which from the outside looked like a tool of the mind-blowing movie, but inside it is still a "Kalashnikov".
Produced AKM — under license and without — in Egypt, Pakistan, and even some countries.
Need to see that almost all copies of the Russian machines are inferior to the original, first because of the poor properties of the steel. For example, Chinese "types" kept less than 7000 shots, then they can throw. But, despite this, the AK adopted in 55 countries around the world, and even in Mozambique has become part of the municipal coat of arms.
Who borrowed WE: United States
On the South American superweapon Stalin knew for a long time before he personally told this to President Truman. Russian intelligence couple of years in a row practically scoured States far and wide in search of a place and people related to the "big bomb."
Among those who came to the attention of Russian secret services, was inconspicuous nuclear physicist Klaus Fuchs. In 1941, he worked at the Birmingham Institute, who helped develop the atomic bomb. Fuchs went out to Russian intelligence, because he was a communist.
Since 1943, Fuchs worked in "Manhattan Project" — that was called the Center to develop nuclear weapons, established in Los Alamos. Fuchs was responsible for the gas diffusion plant. In January 1945, the scientist gave Russian spies fundamentally important information about the nuclear bomb. On February 11 was accepted by the Soviet Union on the development of ICT Russian atomic bomb.
Since information Fuchs was the start of that team of physicists running Academician Kurchatov conducted under the watchful curated by Lawrence Beria. During the Potsdam Conference, Truman, "by the way" said Stalin about the presence of "weapons of unusual power", the possession of which allows you to make a unipolar world (South American analysts have implied that Russian bomb does not appear in 10 years, and even after 15). But "Big Joe" only a wry smile.
In August 1945, the South American B-29 bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It only spurred Beria, who threw the bomb at the additional forces in the form of 200,000 prisoners, whose work has been applied to the creation of the atomic sites in the country councils. In November 1947, the Minister of Overseas Affairs Molotov stated that the U.S. atomic secrets anymore. A 29 August 1949 at the Semipalatinsk test site was successfully Exploded first Russian atomic device, putting an end to the creation of yet another attempt unipolar world.
Who stole from us: China
In March 1969, in the Far East there was a conflict between the Soviet Union and China because of the small peninsula Damanskii placed on the Ussuri River. March 2 and 15 for this small piece of land sparked serious fights. Chinese manpower, supported by artillery, opposed by several groups of guards Iman squad, armed with only a small gun and armored personnel carriers. Although Russian banks were part of the Far Eastern Military Area, a long time they did not engage in: after all, as long as the border guards beating action can be regarded as an "incident", but when the clashes involving the army forces — this is a full-scale war.
Risk of total capture of the island the Chinese appeared on March 15. Then the chief Iman squad Democrat Leonov claimed to him by a few tanks. Just outside his headquarters platoon was new at the time of the T-62, which quickly re-subordinate: withdrew from the Russian army and handed over to the Border Troops of the KGB.
Having tanks, Democrat Leonov bravely led them into battle. Unfortunately, the Chinese were ready for a similar turn of events: on the banks of the Ussuri they deployed and camouflaged anti-tank battery. A little tanks were in the affected area, as lead car was hit, with all this, the Democrats Leonov died. Other tanks are reversed. After which the Russian command decided to no longer procrastinate and not looking at the lack of orders from Moscow, supported the border all the power of the existing tools. Damanskii was repulsed, and the survivors fled to the Chinese own saved.
But here's the destroyed tank and remained in the neutral zone, held on river channels. It was chock-full of new sensitive equipment, including night vision goggles and gun stabilizer. The tank, in spite of the danger of fire, tried to pull the other tank on the Soviet side, but failed: the cables were torn, and the casualty lusted not budge. It was then decided to drown her: on-sparing were moved mnogokalibernye mortars, mines issued which broke the ice, then went to the bottom of the tank.
The Chinese have a few months later, they were sent to the sunken tank divers who picked up the car with ropes and slowly take it out of the water. Over the next year, the tank was thoroughly investigated properly. Only after a military vehicle left the secrets of her sent to the Museum of People's Liberation Army of China. And a year later adopted the Chinese army entered a new tank WZ-122 as two peas similar to the Russian T-62. Chinese tank was involved in the Vietnam War and in the dispersal of demonstrations in the square Tyananmyn.
Who borrowed WE: United States
In 1952, the Korean peninsula plainclothes war raged in full, in which apart from Koreans active — though not always formal — perceived role of citizens of the USSR, the USA, China and some other countries. Participating countries were thrown into battle the latest equipment, experienced in combat new techniques and tactics.
More active confrontation broke out in the Korean sky. Americans tried vybombit North Korea to the primitive state, trying not to throw out there or the 1st of a building. In response to the Russian side has sent the long-suffering peninsula new MIG-15 from the 64th Air Corps. The peninsula has increased debris "flying fortresses", "Mustang" and "Shuttingstarov." South American pilots were afraid to fly on the job, rightly calling area acts Russian pilots "MIG Alley".
"Antidote" to the MIGs at some time become a new South American fighter F-86 "Sabre", which in a matter of months, won a series of victories over the MiG-15. A prerequisite of success were not so many outstanding aerobatic properties of the "American" as a new onboard radar, which in the Russian machines were not. Russian experts at a clear understanding of what it is, because of "Sabre" began a real hunt. But the task was not normal: it was necessary not only to bring down the plane, but to do so, that he was on the ground in relation to the whole, but also in the band of friendly troops. One of the wrecked "Sabres" sat down in the sea off the coast. Pilot evacuated the helicopter, but the machine itself did not kill Americans, thinking that she had drowned and because the enemy does not get to it. But the depth in the fall was small and at low tide plane out of the water.
Of water for several days plane got Korean soldiers with Russian comrades. Had to operate at night, so as not to attract the attention of the enemy, who could fairly quickly "to remedy the situation." When the F-86 was on the shore, Russian experts at first dismantled it all radar equipment and immediately sent it to the suburbs, where the military experts at the American radar characteristics researchers. After some time on the Russian aircraft that fought in Korea, there was a device, to inform them about the exposure of the enemy radar, which dramatically reduced the dignity of American fighters. And a year later, radar ("coincidentally" is very similar to the one that was on the "Sabre") appeared on the red stars fighters.
Ejection seat K-36 DM
Who stole from us: USA
The most terrible dream at least some pilot — bailouts. At the "shooting" of the human body aircraft is experiencing the most severe overload, which can lead to very sad consequences. But there is no bailout candidates — modern combat aircraft flying with such speed that manually open the canopy and leave it over the side, it is impossible in principle. First aircraft catapults were very unsafe devices: the chances of survival during ejection, the pilot was "fifty-fifty." A chance to escape unscathed actually was not: the pilots fired squibs triggered when confronted with pieces of the plane coming off the limbs, the lungs are injured away from the oncoming airflow, etc.
First chair, capable of a high probability — 97%! — To save the life of the pilot and maintain health, bore the title of K-36 and DM were created in the NGO "Star". Seats can automatically decide on the bailout, because it was closely "tied" to the electronics of aircraft, pilots could also help out even at zero speed (it was burning, for example, when a fire occurs on the runway).
Soon after the appearance of the K-36 DM was installed on new fighter — Su-27 and MiG-29. Soon after the adoption of these aircraft into service of world public had the opportunity to verify the reliability catapult system: at the turn of the 80th and 90th outright on 2-air shows — at Le Bourget and Farnborough — Russian fighter crash occurred. Pilots with all this not only remained alive, and immediately after ejection traveling without the help of others. This impressive demonstration of memory produced by the military around the world, including — and American.
Soon the "stars" of a deputation from the Pentagon, which meticulously acquainted with the miracle-chair. The K-36 DM liked it, but buy it commercially Yankees took the time and got hold of a small party "for research" … The upcoming course of events is not difficult to foresee.
Mines Dragon's Tooth and "Claymore"
Who borrowed WE: United States
Russian military closely monitored the Vietnam War. Vietnamese comrades in time Russian comrades informed about all updates that appear in "the U.S. military." Of particular interest among our generals in the late 60's brought brand new bomb BLU-43B, poetically betrothed «Dragon's Tooth» («Dragon's Tooth") and filled with an explosive watery. When triggered, "Dragon's Tooth" is revealed to man only half of the foot, but it turned out rather to incapacitate. Mina had quite a small size, because it can be dropped from planes in the sets, making inapp
licable to navigate the vast terrain.
In the USSR, carefully studied "tit" and made mine PFM-1, which is also located inside the liquid explosives. Russian model came out larger South American (which was terrible) and stronger — when triggered Russian mine pulls the whole foot unwary poor thing, and not half as overseas equivalent (relevance of increased power is in doubt). For proper body shape PFM soldiers dubbed "lionfish". "Lionfish" were part of a system of remote mining, in which they stuffed cassette CSF-1, and they have already dropped from planes or "catapult" with auto and armored vehicles. If need be, "lionfish" can use ordinary foot soldiers, for example, the scouts to cover their own waste.
South American mines were removed from service soon after the end of the Vietnam War. The age of her Russian counterpart was significantly huge: it is fully applied successfully in Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Chechnya.
At the same time, all of the Vietnam War to the present war had heard rumors about the Yankees use a new type of engineering ammunition — at least, capable of practically mow large areas of the jungle, along with everyone who was in them. Vietnamese comrades were given the task: to quickly get samples of the new tools. Soon the Soviet Union, a new South American-controlled bomb M-18A1 "Claymore". It was a convex box weighing 1.6 kg, mounted on legs, pegs. Inside the bomb was packed with an abundance of killer parts — iron balls. With the explosion of "Claymore" acted like buckshot pellets — mowed all live at a distance of 50 meters. Thus, it is fundamentally — mines and accordingly expansion of beads was directed. Mine could be operated by wire with an engineering console, but there are other options — "extensions" booby surprises, etc. Vietnamese guerrillas to learn placement of minefields, have learned to steal "Claymore" in order to use them against the Yankees. A sixteen-spy-Tin Ngo-Jiang and completely unrolled mine "face" to the enemy, and provoked the explosion.
Russian experts at appreciated the novelty and soon came her counterpart — dvuhkilogrammovy mine MON-50 (code "50" — the act of slaughter range mines, expressed in meters). MON-50 has eclipsed his own South American "ancestor" for a number of characteristics, not only in weight. Namely spread slaughter units in height was lower, which made the affected area more dense.
Who stole from the U.S.: Germany, Finland, Hungary, Vietnam
Judging by the movies, the main instrument of the German army during the second world was a submachine gun MP-40 (it is often referred to as the "Schmeisser", which is not true). These sub-machine guns were a tool in the production of complex and unreliable because German industry during the war released a little more than 1 million, and the main instrument of the German infantry to the end of the war remained Rifle "Mauser" 98K standard in 1898. Produced and other modifications of automatic weapons — MP-43 and MP-44 and FY-42 — but their "total circulation" almost passed for half a million. Shred automatic gun in the German parts accounted for only 12%. Usually, sub-machine guns were sent to the secondary side, or were given the crews of armored vehicles, paratroopers, and, of course, punitive parts.
Russian alliance has established a huge scale production of automatic weapons: one only submachine guns Shpagin (famous PCA) has produced more than 6 million pieces! Shred automatic weapons in the Red Army was 34%.
German soldiers at the front with PCA relished the trophy, but particularly to the liking of them hit the other sub-machine gun — PPS-43. The gun designer Alexis Sudaev was almost neotkaznym: PPS-43 is not overheated and suffered all gryazyuka, just get-going, had a clear fight, and was light and small-sized. For the German industry was very principled that PPP could make a cheap steel on ordinary machines. In 1944 the Germans in their own factories began to produce a clear copy of the Russian submachine gun, which was designated as the implementation of the German MP-709. The same example was followed by the then their allies — the Finns, who, however, did not make an exact copy, and pererablotali PPS 43 at 9-mm cartridge "pistol" and dubbed the result of the M-44.
Abduction of PPP not helped the Germans and Finns from defeat, but this adventure with a submachine gun did not end with the end of the second world war. In the Federal Republic of Germany, copies Submachine Gun continued to be made after the war. In 1953, under the symbol of his DUX-53 adopted the gendarmerie and border troops. Do not lag behind countries of the socialist camp. Hungarians in the same 1953 on the basis of PPP made submachine gun 53M. Vietnamese in 1950, began to make their PPSy branded K-50. And the Chinese (where the same without the Chinese?) In the years 1953-56 produced "Type-43", which represented all of the same faculty, but worse in quality.
DYNAMIC tank armor
Who borrowed WE: Israel
The most terrible enemy at least some of the tank — a grenade launcher. In case of contact forms the grenade explosion targeted the plasma jet that could burn through the armor of a width of up to half a meter! Putting thicker armor? The tank will be so heavy, and as a result, clumsy, that actually reincarnated as a target. Drop everything "as is"? Unreal. Why the need for a tank at the cost of millions of dollars, if it can kill a grenade at the cost of 100 bucks!
But by the early 80's "antidote" to the cumulative jet was found. Americans suddenly found a solution: steel tanks to give light weight their M-48A3 "Patton" and the M-60 containers with plastic explosives. After contact with the container exploding grenades and "blurring" the cumulative jet. Double explosion — grenades and container — left on the armor of the tank only small funnel-dents, tank crews affectionately nicknamed "witches hickey." An innovation dubbed the "ERA".
Soon the development of dynamic protection passed to the British, who were mounted containers with explosives on their "Centurions." Then the part of those "Centurion" was in Israel. In June 1982, the Israelis began in Lebanon, "Operation Peace in Galilee" aimed against the Palestine Liberation Organization, which at the time vigorously supported the USSR. Obviously, Russian friends asked their own Arab wards an eye on what's new at least in the field of armaments. Soon the Russian military advisers were informed that the PLO fighters were able to immobilize the Israeli "Centurion", topped unusual boxes. Under heavy fire "Centurion" was removed from the battlefield and flown to neighboring Syria, and from there — straight in Kubinka, where the research center of the Ministry of Defence. Already in 1983, Russian tanks T-72 and T-64 adorned with the same boxes of explosives, acts on the principle no different from the Israeli, American or British.
MORTAR Etalon 1938 (125 mm)
Who stole from us: Germany
In this series of simple but effective way of armament second world was a Russian heavy mortar standard in 1938. From the perspective of the Germans, he was just an enlarged copy of the famous fine 82-mm mortar, vserasprostranennogo both German and Russian armies. The Germans considered the first &qu
ot;stodvadtsatimillimetrovy" as a result of a stupid Russian thrust to megalomania. Still — healthy mortar had significant advantages in range before the lighter standards, and to move it from place to place, or required a calculation of 6, or a light car.
But in the process of fighting it turned out that the more powerful mortar Russian was one of the most effective artillery systems. By the power of it was comparable to the divisional howitzers and cannons, its mine was able to damage the bunker, kill even medium tank, which could not mine caliber 82 mm.
Development of the production of mortar — it would seem that complicated: the pipe on a tripod! — Just seems normal. In fact, everything is much more difficult, and so the Germans could not make a huge issue of its own caliber mortars, while in 1942 the Wehrmacht was not captured mortar plant in Donetsk. German engineers got not only all the documentation, and the fleet of machines. Soon the Wehrmacht appeared almost clear copy of our mortar. German engineers have brought only a small configuration in the base plate and the guidance system. The rest of the Russian and German standards were so identical that could fire ammunition each other!
"Superfortress" B-29 / "TU-4"
Who borrowed WE: United States
The atomic bomb itself does not fly, it needs a delivery system that can deliver it to the target. In the late 40's such means could be just the plane. But the bomb was already "on the way", and aircraft to deliver it in the USSR was not. The most advanced at that time Russian bombers were weary pyatimotorny Pe-8. For its time it was an awesome machine (rather mention that in 1941, the Pe-8 delivered from Moscow to London Minister of Foreign Affairs Molotov and German products, no defense could not get it). But by the end of the war Pe-8 is out of date, and of them was built a little more than seventy pieces, of which almost half was lost during the second world war.
Stalin personally oversaw the development of Russian aviation, understood clearly that the Russian aircraft makers — both worked at large, and hidden in the "sharashka" — would be unable to make a modern heavy bomber that is comparable to the new South American B-29, which successfully bombed Germany and Japan ordinary bombs, also dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs. Then the "father of nations" ordered "borrow" the right aircraft at the Yankees.
CONTRIBUTE case: in 1945 in the Far East at forcing landing immediately boarded two American languid "bomber", with specific relevant models — the B-29 "Superfortress". These aircraft bombed Japan and were damaged because of which landed in the Soviet Union. Since the Russian Alliance at the moment with Japan did not conduct a war, Russian side interned crews and aircraft that was completely correct from the standpoint of diplomacy.
"Superfortress" were quickly transferred to Moscow, where Russian experts at dismantled them "on the cogs." Stalin ordered Beria, the curator of the nuclear project, find a professional aircraft for the creation of the Russian "Superfortress". In one camp KB was sitting exactly such people — Andrei Tupolev, who got the job and his comrades performed accurately and on time. By the ability to have recreated all the materials of which was made mighty "American" — even the colors of the fuselage were reproduced with tribute diligence. In the sky rocketed handsome "Tu-4" — this was called the Russian "Superfortress".
Americans have a lot of puzzled to learn that in the Soviet Union on combat duty have taken up a copy of the B-29. But by the time they have already been built even more advanced bomber — "Peacemaker".
For the Russian aviation industry, "Tu-4" was the very principle: to find in the course of its construction … precisely, "adaptation" technological solutions were used for the creation and production of a variety of aircraft, including strategic bombers, "Tu-85" and "Tu-16", but it was many years later. And with the end of the 40 "red fortress" in almost a decade have been the main carriers of Russian nuclear weapons. And later, their creation Russian side handed over to China, which is also very needed an atomic weapon, in other words, the bomb and the means of delivery.