During the second world war came cardinal increase the thickness of armor tanks, and accordingly increased the caliber and weight of the anti-tank guns. When the war first used anti-tank guns (PTP) 20-45 mm caliber, at the end of the war was the caliber of PTP within 85-128 mm. In 1943-1944,. Russian experts at studied 726 cases lined with our medium and languid German tanks and self-propelled anti-TB drugs caliber 75 and 88 mm. The study showed that at a distance of 1400 meters above the 75-mm anti-TB drugs were destroyed 4.4% of tanks, and from 88-mm anti-TB drugs — 3.2% tanks. In the German guidelines for opening fire a good distance for a 75-mm cannon was 800-900 m, 88-mm guns — 1500 m Maintain fire with huge distances there were inappropriate. So, the best of the 88's German (and in the views of some professionals and the best in the world) PTP actual distance limit was only 1,500 meters But TAP end of the war were very heavy, expensive and difficult to manufacture.
As well fight with tanks at ranges exceeding 2.3 kilometers? For the first time, this problem was solved in 1944 in Germany, which was created first in the world of anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) X-7 «Rotkappchen» («Little Red Riding Hood"). In the design of the X-7 was taken as a base controlled shell X-4 class "air-to-air." The main designer of rockets was Dr. Max Kramer. Management of X-7 was made by wire. A pair of wires tied round with an operator manually Bridging the projectile to the target. System Management is very close to the "Dusseldorf" Kh-4. Changing the direction of the projectile was performed using spoilers — vibrating plates that interrupt the flow of air.
The Kh-7 engine was a two-stage powder WASAG.? First step was accelerating, within 3 seconds, she developed a craving to 69 kg. A second step — march. Within 8 seconds of the flight she maintained constant thrust of 5 kg. The shell was made of aerodynamic configuration "tailless." Stabilization occurred with the wing stabilizer. To compensate for the non-uniform (with respect to the axis of the rocket) traction motor X-7 spinning in the air with a little speed. To facilitate the tracking of the missile operator, established by her two pyrotechnic tracer. To use the X-7 in the infantry version was developed launcher (PU), worn in the knapsack. In addition, the aircraft was designed PU plane FW-190.
During the tests in 1944 and early 1945 was made more than 100 experienced launches X-7. In connection with the termination of the war business to combat the introduction did not happen.
So Makarov, the Germans made the first traditional first generation ATGM. Generation ATGM differ in guidance systems. The first generation laid the manual guidance system, the objective and eyepiece of the panorama pointing in a straight line — the band of sight. This guidance system has some significant shortcomings. Thus, the dead zone (unaffected place) for the first generation ATGM is 300 to 700 meters in the first generation of rockets placed very high demands to the operator ATGM — the smallest inconsistency, and missile control was lost.
ATGM was the first post-war Swiss "Cobra-1", made in 1947-1948. Participated in the development of complex German spices. Itself, the West German establishment ATGM was allowed only in 1959, the first ATGM that went into the creation of the FRG, was the "Cobra 810" — modification of the Swiss family "Cobras".
But in the Western military literature pioneered the development of ATGM consider French company "Nord-Aviación." This is due to the fact that the French ATGM very rapidly spread almost all over the world. The fact that France led a prudent policy in the export of weapons. The gun was sold virtually everyone who could afford to pay. With all of this private French companies and state-owned enterprises have not looked at nor Washington nor Moscow.
First French ATGM SS-10 (factory title «Nord-5203") was developed in 1948 based on German documents. Formally, the SS-10 was adopted by the armament French army in 1957, but during "Operation Musketeer" in 1956 SS-10 which was used by French troops against Egyptian tanks. Sand Plain Near East were impeccable testing ground for ATGM.? Thus, in the course of the war in 1973 to 70% of tanks of Egypt, Syria and Israel had been destroyed ATGM.
ATGM SS-10 run with single portable launchers, as with cars, trucks, armored personnel carriers and light tank AMX-13. The company "Nord" from 1956 to 1963 produced 30 thousand missiles SS-10. Interestingly, only 39% of ATGM went into action with the French army, while others were placed in the 10's nations, including the United States, Israel, Germany, Sweden and Norway. Price 1st projectile was 970 bucks.
Improved version of the SS-11 had a huge range and best armor. Accordingly, the increased weight and price (one shell — 1500 dollars). ATGM SS-11 did not have a portable launchers and mounted on vehicles, armored personnel carriers, light tanks, helicopters and airplanes.
The most grievous French ATGM SS-12 was the only first-generation ATGM (not counting the Anglo-Australian "Malkara"), which had two versions of control — over the wire and radio control. Options missiles SS-12 had a cumulative and high-explosive warhead and could be applied not only on the tanks, and on unarmored ground targets, also on the ships.
Interestingly, the South American defense industry has suffered a complete disaster in developing its own ATGM. From 1953 to 1956, the United States developed ATGM SSM-A-23 "Darth". It was created several options shell including an annular stabilizer. But in 1957, has been adopted projectile with a wing cross stabilizer. But its creation was limited to a small series. The projectile was very weary (up to 140 kg), the guidance was very difficult.
In the end, the U.S. abandoned the "Darth" and in 1959 started the bulk purchase of French ATGM SS-10 and SS-11. Nearly all of these Americans ATGM mounted on the movable installation — auto, medium tanks and helicopters M48 A2. On the basis of tracked M113 armored personnel carrier was created by installing an anti-T-149 machine gun with 10 SS-11.
Exclusively in 1961-1962. Americans bought about 16 thousand ATGM SS-11, 500 of which have been adapted for use with helicopters.
In 1961, the U.S. Army adopted a new set of French "Entak."
Create ATGM and their operational use have not gone unnoticed in Moscow. In 1956 there was a decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on "development work to create guided anti-tank weapons."
It should be noted that after the war in the Soviet Union were tested German ATGM "Red Riding Hood". In addition, in the Russian Research Institute came very quickly working documentation for "Cobra», SS-10 and SS-11, and "live" these products.
In 1956-1957,. the OKB-2, is part of the HS-642 Institute, under the direction of A.? D.? Nadiradze was created several prototypes guided anti-tank missiles (STS-1-7).
Of these may b
e removed UPS-5 with the radio control in visual observation. The firing range was 5 km, armor penetration at 60 ° — 350 mm. Fascinating and long-range ATGM STS-7, radio controlled, but equipped with a television monitor head. He could shoot at a distance of 7 km and penetrate armor under the same angle, but has a width of 450 mm.
More heavy (70-kilogram) radio-controlled bomb in mid-flight speed of 270 m / s had a range of 30 km. (!) Projectile length was 3 m, and the caliber — 220 mm.
Rockets UPS victims' chelomeizatsii the whole country ", held NA? C.? Khrushchev.
We estimate the cunning passages "chelomeizatsii." "Order Minaviaproma from November 6, 1957 GS SRI-642 and DB-52 were combined and converted to SRI-642 running Chelomeya. OKB-52 was its subsidiary. Then, in accordance with the decree of the USSR Council of Ministers № 293-140 on March 8, 1958 SRI-642 was eliminated by becoming an affiliate of OKB-52 on the development of control systems of cruise missiles (in 1957-1965. Called "plant number 642 — a branch of OKB- 52 "in the conduct of the Municipal Committee for Aviation Technology (GKAT))."
In the NII-1 in the department number 10 in 1956 developed an experienced model ATGM "Cobra". The missile homing light beam, and the shots were fired from a tank. The light beam is stabilized through the tank sight. With the lifting charge "Cobra" flew out of smooth 160-mm tank gun. Most firing range was 3 km. Seasoned launches projectiles "Cobra" held at Sofrinsky range.
But in 1959, received an order to transfer all of the OKB-16 Minaviaproma (chief designer Alexander? I.? Nudelman), and in January 1960, the department number 10 NII-1 was disbanded.
8 May 1957 was made a truly historic decision of the USSR Council of Ministers № 505-263, under which began designing an entire galaxy ATGM.
Thus, in the SKB-101 in Kolomna (chief designer Boris? I.? Shavyrin) started designing ATGM "Bumblebee" and "Scorpion". First ATGM is not much different from the French SS-10. In this case, the developer of "Bumblebee" by S.? P.? Invincible has recently admitted that the Kolomna were taken SS-10 "to study."
"Scorpion" had a unique ring stabilizer. For a variety of circumstances over the "Scorpion" were terminated, and the complex "Bumblebee" with a projectile 3 M6 was adopted and put into mass creation.
The complex "Bumblebee" was mounted on GAZ-69 and BRDM.? Range is 1.5 km and the armor at an angle of 60 ° — 150 mm. In the production of "Bumblebee" was prior to 1966. He became the first large Russian ATGM. As a result, a number of historians have declared that the "Bumblebee" was the first Russian ATGM and to SKB-101 ATGM have no one did.
Meanwhile, according to the decision of the Council of Ministers of 8 May 1957 began the development of many more ATGM. However, only complex, taken into service, and issued a series of small, became Tank ATGM 2 K4 "Dragon". The lead developer of the complex has been assigned the KB-1 of the Municipal Committee of Electronics Engineers (SERC). Projectile engaged KB-1 and CDB-14 chassis — the plant number 183 (UralVagonZavod), and sighting devices — CDB-393 (CCB CMH).
The complex has an automatic guidance system with command transmission by radio beam. "Dragon" was designed for a special tank of IT-1 "to 150" (IT — tank destroyer), which was developed by Uralvagonzavod in 1958 under the control of L.? N.? Kartseva. Tank did not have a gun and was armed with only PU "Dragon". Ammunition of 15 M7 3 missiles was placed under the armor of the tank. 12 missiles were placed in the automatic installation, and the moving of the projectile launcher to.
The complex "Dragon" was adopted and produced in small batches from 1968 to 1970, for example, in 1970 Izhevsk factory made rockets 3 2000 M7 and UralVagonZavod — 20 cars IT 1.
During the test operation, and complex showed the highest reliability, but its design flaws (huge dimensions, weight control equipment in the tank was 520 kg, outdated element base, a large dead zone, etc.? etc.) and the lack of guns on the tank served as a prerequisite for removing the IT-1 production.
It is interesting that in the above decision the Council of Ministers № 703-261 stated: "Work out in 1968 the need for translation of missile weapons," Dragon "to the base of the T-64A, while improving the features of weapons." But the "study" showed that the work can be done not earlier than in 1972, when he was no longer able to compete with promising Tours.
Not very many people understand that ATGM engaged CRI-58, led by Vasily Gavrilovich Grabin. For example, on number 14 in 1958 developed three options ATGM: A C-127, C-128 and A-129 from A. In the development of the projectile "Dolphin" and participated son V.? G.? Grabina Vasily. Firing range ATGM "Dolphin" was 3 km. He had to break through the 500-mm armor at an angle of 30 ° to the normal. Cruising speed of the "Dolphin" — 100-120 m / s, 180 mm diameter casing. Shooting must be done with launcher tank.
According to the decree of the USSR Council of Ministers on May 8, 1957, an experimental model tank destroyer with a set of "Dolphin" to be delivered to the IV quarter of 1959 Chassis for complex served as a tank "to 431", designed in Kharkiv under the direction of A.? A.? Morozov. Machine weight of about 25 tons, armament: 160 mm launcher and 15-20 ATGM "Dolphin".
Interestingly, the NII-58 except for the scenario with a wired control system offers the option of a thermal seeker. In December 1958, the landfill began Gorokhovetsky first launches of "Dolphin".
"Dolphin" as the family of UPS, was the victim of undercover intrigue. Dmitry Ustinov and Sergey Queens just "eaten" Hrabinska NII-58.
But the July 3, 1959 Order of the Municipal Committee for Defence Technology (GKOT) CRI-58 was included in the king's OKB-1 and one hundred percent changed the subject. Davneshny enemy Grabina Ustinov Institute invited Khrushchev to remove, so that on its territory of the Queens could begin creating solid fuel intercontinental ballistic missiles. I note that neither he Sergei Pavlovich nor his successors have not been able to bring to adopting a single solid-fuel intercontinental ballistic missile.
Now move on to the anti-tank missiles, "Lotus", the development of which was started in the CDB-14 (CPP) in the 1959 shell "Lotus" had an automatic guidance system and transfer commands from the infrared beam. The control system was developed CDB CMH. The developers felt that the guidance system "Lotus" will be more noise immunity than the system with the radio. Launcher "Lotus" was a guiding beam type.
ATGM "Lotus" is to put on the new languid tank Designed at the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ). By order of the USSR Council of Ministers № 141-58 of February 17, 1961 Development of this languid tank was discontinued. It was only a languid layou
t of the tank, which in 1962 passed factory tests missiles "Lotus". In the spring of 1964 at the Gorokhovetsky training ground for the complex "Lotus", mounted on a BTR-60 PA? Launch rockets carried both motionless and moving in the infrared beam. In addition, the project was developed set "Lotus" on tank T-64 (to 432). Yet the complex was not adopted. Total costs relating to $ 17.5 million (teh!) rubles.
In 1961 began the development of Thurso "Typhoon" (factory index P 301). Leading developer of "Typhoon" was OKB-16. Management system in the "Typhoon" hand-made, the transfer of commands executed by radio beam. The missile was equipped with 9 M15 shaped-charge fragmentation warhead. In this case, 9 M15 fragmentation effect was equivalent to that of a 100-mm grenades from the gun D-10, which were armed with tanks T-54 and T-55. Beam-type launcher.
KB Kirov plant running J.? Ya? Kotin was created rollicking rocket tank "to 287", which had a double booking.
Armament consisted of a launcher Tours "Typhoon", 2-73-mm guns, 2 A25 "Lightning" and 2-twin machine guns with guns.
Instead of the tower on the roof of the body has been set spinning platform in the center of which was a sliding panel for a launcher. PU stabilized in the vertical plane, allowing the firing of rockets "Typhoon" on the move at the speed of 20-30 km / h
Left and right of the hatch to the platform were welded two bronekolpaka, each of which were placed the 73-mm cannon and machine gun. In the guns 'Lightning' used ammunition from the gun 2 A28 "Thunder" is installed on the BIS-1.
Gun "Lightning" as loading mechanism had two drum turret type on 8 shots each. Management of all weapons carried by remote control.
Two tanks "to 287" in April 1964, came to the factory tests Gorokhovetsky ground. Of the 45 control up 16 hits in a marked target, 18 failures, 8 and 3 misses off-record run. Each tank was more than 700 km. By the end of 1964 tests were halted to address the identified shortcomings (unreliability of missile control systems, inadequate action shooting guns 2 A25 and so on? Etc.). Later work on the "Typhoon" and completely finished.
Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers on 30 March 1963, work began on the creation of the tank "to 775" and 2-missile systems — "Astra" and "Ruby." At the preliminary design stage would be elected the best of them.
Rockets both complexes were required to have supersonic flight speeds, twice the superior speed "baby", "Dragon", "Lotus", etc. These are the first Tursi is shot from a tank gun (launcher).
Leading developer of "Astra" was OKB-16, and the radio equipment control systems designed the OKB-668. The solution section of NTS GKOT from March 1, 1964 from 2-complexes elected "Ruby" and work on "Aster" finished. By that time, "aster" spent 601 thousand rubles.
The lead developer of the complex "Ruby" was appointed CSC (then KMB) in the town of Kolomna.
"Ruby" was the automatic guidance system with command transmission by radio beam. The complex was designed by a special rocket tank "to 775".
In the years 1962-1964. in SKB-75 (Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant) under the control of PA? P.? Isakov was made rocket tank "to 775". In OKB-9 for him created rifled barreled (32 rifling) launcher D-126 125 mm caliber, shoot Thurso and unmanageable active-reactive high-explosive shells "Bor". Most firing range "Boers" — 9 km. The launcher was autoloader and remotely control the commander-operator. D-126 was stabilized in the 2-planes stabilizer 2 E16.
Diesel Power installation and a box of "object 775" were taken from the T-64. But the most experienced tank ("object 775 T) had gas turbine unit with 2 engines GTD-350.
Hydropneumatic suspension allowed to make a step change in clearance cars.
Both crew members were located in an isolated cabin inside the tower. The driver was located to the right of the launcher on a movable seat. He was watching his own vision devices through a rotating turret, which was held in place by rotating the turret special mechanisms. With all of this a driver and his observation unit were constantly directed along the longitudinal axis of the body, which ensures continuous monitoring of the road.
Tank "to 775" has not been adopted for because the crew bad beheld the battlefield, the difficulty of the device and the low reliability of the guidance system Tours.
On the basis of the "object 775" was developed tank "to 780" also with the placement of a crew of 3 people in the tower. In this case, a driver housed in a cabin along the axis of rotation of the tower. When you rotate the turret it rotates around this cabin. 125-mm rifled unit could shoot as Thurso and artillery shells of ordinary type.
It is seen that the foreigners in the years 1950-1970 almost takes a special Thurso to arm tanks. Only in 1958, the South American designers were tempted to make the idea of a universal tank gun capable of firing projectiles ordinary, ATGM, as missiles with a nuclear warhead. ATGM, he's a nuclear bomb "near" the fight for armored units, was named "Shilleyla» («Shillelagh») and the index of MGM-51.
Lead developer of the projectile was the company «Philco Aeronutronic». The rocket was supposed to run from a smooth-bore tank gun caliber 6-inch (152.4 mm). The initial weight of the rocket was 41 kg, but in serial swatches was reduced to 27 kg. Initially the missile was to be governed by radio channels, but later was used for automatic control of the infrared beam.
And in 1962 began mass creation of medium tanks M60 A2 with 152-mm gun for shooting "Shilleyloy"
In the 1950-1960's of the USSR seriously lagged behind the United States in the development of light armored nuclear weapons. Because Russian response to the "Shilleylu" followed until 1968, when the design of the tank weapons systems, "Taran". The complex consisted of one gun (launcher) of the caliber of 300 mm and two rockets "Ram" and "Ram-1." Rocket "Tara" was supposed to fire spetsboepripasov capacity of 0.1-0.3 kt at a distance of 1.2 to 8 km. Rocket "Taran-1" was intended for self-defense and was a tank guided missile system with a range of 10 km and 300 mm armor penetration.
The support of "Tara" was initially to be a tank "to 287", and then — upgraded T-64 tanks were A. Ammunition 2-3 rockets "Ram" and 10-12 missiles "Taran-1." Complex "Taran" was to become the carrier of tactical nuclear weapons Tank Regiment.
But that's somewhere in the region of 1970-1971 years., Apparently as a result of a secret agreement with the USSR, the U.S. press disappear any mention of the use of "Shilleyly" as a carrier of nuclear weapons, and it is becoming commonplace ATGM. By the way, then it was the only ATGM, a member of the ammunition of American tanks. And at the end of 1972 to finish work on the complex "Ram".