April 19 alarm was raised by a unit of the defense — anti-aircraft missile regiment of the military unit 62872. In carrying out the order to relocate, the regiment left their positions near the town of Barnaul and is located in the echelons. April 21 are in service with equipment and personnel arrived at the station located near Semipalatinsk Chagan. Tabletop control housed in a military town pilots, and the divisions went to the steppe, where stationed on the prepared ground.
Anti-aircraft missiles were put on alert, covering such makarom airy place near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and Chaganskoy base strategic bombers. During the preparation of equipment for combat officers and soldiers spent the night in the cabins of the missile guidance stations and vehicles, and later was a tent camp.
May 1, 1960 the regiment raised the alarm. It happened at 5:30 am, after a reconnaissance radars and targeting was found floating at high altitude intruder. It was the South American U-2. Francis Powers flew the plane (specifically his in 1962 in Berlin was changed to Russian spy Rudolf Abel). Aircraft proparhal west of Semipalatinsk test site at a distance of about 300 km. Penetrated far inland areas of the USSR, he was shot down near Sverdlovsk. After that, the Americans finished the subsequent flight of their own intelligence, and missile troops continued their military duty in new positions. In the many years they were guarding the air space near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and Chaganskim airfield.
Places of deployment of missile systems were chosen with a view to ensuring reliable protection of the object, which they were guarding. But if the connections around the defense was ordinary steppe, the leaders of the landfill saw it as a field for testing nuclear weapons. Each department has done its puzzle, but no one thought it necessary to warn people about the threat to their lives and health.
In the autumn of military builders in the locations of divisions were built barracks and homes. Officers are allowed to carry their families here, and later earned nuclear ground. Soon the rocket men understood what it meant to them.
Kursakova memoirs of Alexander, son of the 1st of the officers who served in the fifth anti-aircraft division, and occupied the post of first officer pointing, and then battery commander and deputy commander of the battalion, that the location for him was the Thirtieth area Semipalatinsk test site. It was located at 30 km southwest of Kurchatov and just 18 kilometers from the site Sh Immediately after ground was known experimental field in which, at the time of the explosions were carried out air and ground nuclear weapons. Specifically area W was the coming of Human Fri military division, but the men were taken out before the explosion, leaving only the observers deployed in special shelters.
On the thirtieth floor before the arrival of the military no one lived there was only dosimetric equipment exploration. Specifically rocket family were there first peaceful population. At the moment of the facts is unrealistic to recall without a shudder: a civilized country has decided to settle its own people in the field of nuclear testing?
At the time management of the country pretended that it is completely normal. A further general renounced his own role in these terrible events.
The personnel of the anti-missile battalion — 60 fighter, about 10 officers. They should also add the civilian inhabitants, ladies and kids, living in the countryside. Also, there is the missile guidance station, the starting position with launchers, missiles storage, garage storage boxes for cars, four officers' residential house, with four apartments each, several utility rooms. The area is fenced Stitching wire, behind which the steppe to the horizon. Missilemen own place called dislocation "point."
In the years 1961-1962, even before the ban on nuclear explosions in the atmosphere, on the ground of Semipalatinsk test site was carried out in the world's most powerful series, the action has been brought in 72 thermonuclear bombs. From time to time in the day was conducted by several explosions.
Accompanied by a 2-fighters to intercept position was part of the plane carrying a nuclear weapon. Rocketeers this time was controlled, the indicator on the remote guidance demonstrating how a target (aircraft with nuclear warheads) shared that signaled the dumping of bombs. After that all equipment is switched off, because it could damage the electrical impulse in the blast. W around the site housed a wide arc Ground Zero. Kursakov recalls that the coming to them explosions were carried out at 18 kilometers distant — 40-50. This means fixed impartial monitoring, placed in the anti-aircraft missile systems.
Families of officers received prescriptions for time nuclear explosions. So, they had to throw open the windows and doors and retreat to the non-dangerous distance from the buildings. Kursakov recalls that the sky above the ground W almost flared during the explosion. Bright, blinding light arose over the steppe, then it quickly clouded cloud with clouds of fire. Later came the blast, which beat out windows in homes and nearly knocks down. After the kids to their mothers, who observed that, dokatyvajutsja thunder, according Kursakova "landslide which rolls."
The fungus, according to Alexander, was not very long, the leg to go limp, congestion evenly float away and dissolved by a huge number of "peaceful" clouds. He also said that near the walls of houses after the explosion constantly lay heaps of broken glass. They are collected and thrown away, but after a day or a month everything will happen again. Those were the days when the explosions went one by one.
He also spoke about the fact that the "point" level of radiation was as high, but being in the military staff badges did not record, and the military did not know about the existence of radiation. Panic at the dose of radiation that can be measured in mikrorentgenah appeared in our time. A dosimeter that used Russian military, x-rays showed only. For thousands of them, or even 10's of thousands of micro-roentgen were insignificant amount.
But the presence of radiation was felt by all. Kursakov remember that no matter what, even the smallest scratch a number of days allocated lymph. There were frequent cases of loss of consciousness in the middle of a fighter. Bleeding from the nose has become very common. The best part of living at the time on "points" of the people forever undermined his health. Until now, many a
re wondering what the military presence can still explain why but there sent kids and ladies?
That's when, according to Kursakova, he had the sense of threat, which is impossible to escape from. No picture can not convey the feeling of horror that appeared in the form of a blast live. Even at the present time on the shores of lakes, which appeared after the explosions ring dosimeters, and all around there are pieces of molten rock.
But so far rocket men who served in the Irtysh steppe, do not apply to units of special risk. Do not recognize them and affected by nuclear tests. The authorities did everything possible to hide from the public the existence of "points." As the Alexander Kursakov, bureaucrats, whom they are trying to tell the responsibility to the citizens of the country that left his health in landfills, or do not want to hear about it, or start laughing: "This just could not be!".