The architecture of the Aztecs

At night, February 21, 1978 in the heart of Mexico City, at the corner of Guatemala and Argentina, the workers of the city electricity excavated. Breaking through the thick concrete floor and penetrated into the ground by two meters, they suddenly came upon a layer of stone. Clean the surface of the stone from adhering clay, workers found it relief and decided to postpone work until the morning.

For identification of the finds on the phone summoned a group of archaeologists from the National Institute of Anthropology and History. February 23 it was found that the find is part of a monolith with a profile image of a human face and head ornaments.

Until February 27, under the direction of archaeologist 'work continued to remove the finds, has had a huge stone disc diameter of 3.25 m on the surface of the scientists saw engraved naked and dismembered female figure without a head. According to historians, it was the goddess of the moon Koyolshauki, sister of the Aztec war god Huitzilopochtli and the sun, killed and quartered according to legend, his brother on the hill Kontepek.

So unexpected finding initiated a major excavation of the Great Temple of the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan …

The Aztecs settled on the small islands of the lake about 1325 First they came under the power of the ruler Aykapopalko from which could be free only in 1425

Subsequently warlike Aztecs conquered vast lands throughout Mesoamerica. Their capital Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs built up with beautiful stone houses, palaces and temples. The islands are connected to each other and the mainland by a causeway. City crossing large and small canals. It was a real "Indian Venice" — well-planned city on stilts. In the central part there is a wide area with a 46-meter pyramid — the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan in honor of the god Huitzilopochtli, and many smaller buildings — chapels, temples and residences of the priests of the whole army.

Scale construction, maintenance priestly class, the army and the supreme ruler of the house required huge funds. Not surprisingly, the Aztecs fought endless wars with neighboring tribes, robbed them, and what was the most outrageous, and destroyed all the prisoners

The cruelty of the Aztecs to the loser knew no bounds. On the altar of the Great Temple committed thousands of human sacrifices. Someone priests ritual knives cut palpitating heart, someone shot with bows tied to the ritual posts, some slow roasted on the fire, and then, a half-dead, pulled out of the heart.

One day, in revenge for the atrocities, the men of the tribe ueshotdin-ki secretly infiltrated the city and burned the temple to the goddess Tonattsin. The Aztecs said another military campaign. With the arrival of the Spaniards nearly all the tribes formed the coalition, supported by the Cortes, and in 1521, the Aztecs were finally defeated, the White conquerors destroyed Tenochtitlan, and along with it, and the Great Temple.

In a sign of the final conquest of the Aztecs in their place of pyramids and temples, plazas and altars were erected Spanish, or rather, the colonial city of Mexico City — the capital of modern Mexico. The remains of Tenochtitlan remained under the foundations of Catholic cathedrals, the palaces of the nobility, of public buildings of the Viceroyalty of Mexico. Great Temple excavations continued until late 1982, the team worked with archaeologists restorers, biologists, chemists, geologists and other specialists in ancient history. After almost five years of uninterrupted work managed to bring the first results. As it turned out, the main facade of the temple facing to the west. He stood on a wide platform, rests on the podium with two staircases that led to the war god Huitzilopochtli sanctuary on the south side of the temple and of the rain god Tlaloc and fertility — from the north. Before entering the sanctuary Huitzilopochtli is the sacrificial stone, and before the shrine of Tlaloc Chakmoola painted figure, the divine messenger, a collector of sacrifice. Foundation of the temple on four sides decorated censer and snakehead. Among other decorations — the stone frogs, jaguars and large seashells.

During the five years of excavations found only about seven thousand items of about 100 places of sacrifice. Themselves archeologists say that the location of objects in the place of sacrifice is not accidental, it corresponds more unsolved symbolism. In other words, these objects and their placement, the exact orientation of the compass, have their own language. For example, two sacrifices, one found in the middle of the south, the other — the north, contained the same set of objects: the bottom arranged in a north-south basin, above them — crocodiles, snake head on top, at the base of the Great Temple — figurines sitting deity is believed , the god of fire Shiutekutli guarding the center of the universe. To the right of these figures — sea coral, and the left — an earthen vessel depicting Tlaloc.

Among the discoveries made in the great temple, many different masks and figurines, alabaster head of a deer sitting idols and figurines, shells, fish bones, fish head-saws, corals, crocodiles and jaguars. Findings relating to the cult of the war god Huitzilopochtli, are incense burners with relief in the form of skulls and ritual knives tekiatl decorated with eyes and teeth made of sea shells. Monumental stone relief of the goddess Koyolypauki lying as it turned out, at the foot of the sanctuary of the god of war, and a number have found a small altar with two stone frogs on the sides.

One can only imagine how savagely brutal was the religion of the Aztecs, even if their goddess was quartered his brother.

Many modern Mexican astrologers believe that the "liberation" Koyolshauki carries with it negative consequences for the prosperity of the country, and trying to find ways of dealing with its energy field …

Great Temple of Tenochtitlan, now standing on the bottom of a huge pit dug around it, first stood in the middle of a large fenced area, where there were other churches, chambers of soldiers, priestly school and a stadium for the ritual ball game. Elaborate religious rituals included festivals, fasts, chanting, dancing, incense spices and rubber, as well as the dramatic action with human sacrifices. Last form an important part of Aztec religious ceremonies and practiced is believed to provide the energy and the gods delay the inevitable ruin of the human race. Sacrifice, the Aztecs believed, needed to sustain the life cycle. Human blood fueled sun and the rain provided the earthly existence of the people.

Some forms of bloodletting sacrifice limited by plant thorns Magway, but most priests murdered victim rasparyvaya her chest with a knife and pulling the heart. Under certain rites sacrificed to elect, who had the honor to embody a deity, with others to kill a lot of the captives.

According to Aztec mythology, the universe was divided into thirteen heavens and nine hells worlds. The created world has gone through four periods of development, each of which ended with the death of the human race: the first — from jaguars, the second — from hurricanes, three. — World of Fire, the fourth — the flood. The modern era of the Fifth Sun, on presentation of the Aztecs, must complete a terrible earthquake.

Author Nicholas Nepomnyashchii

Category: Mystery stories

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