The historical question: do we need a fleet?

Since the time when Peter Lofty issued a decree on the construction of the fleet, it sounds the same question: Why we need it and need it at all? At some times of interrogative voice almost a hundred percent subsided, and others received the latest power. In the last 20 years, since the collapse of the Union of Russian, "choir" uncertain headed for perhaps larger in the history of the Russian Navy. As most here do not ask the question: why should we Navy?

First is about the history of the issue. The first uncertain were the same bearded and uneducated nobles. Because of the novelty of the revolutionary reforms of Peter the stateliness, they just do not have time to change your view of the world appropriately. Vpribavok to this ruler Peter mercilessly tormented some long-standing principles, incompatible with modernity. Accustomed to the established order of nobles and other dignitaries barely flowed into the latest policy and, as a consequence, aggressively took different innovations. One of these victims was the difficulty of perception fleet. Need to pay tribute to Peter I and his companions — together they assured the highest circles of the country's need to build a navy, commercial and military.

EE Lancer. Peter Fleet stateliness

Subsequent historical character, which is the brakes in the study of our past issues — Count Alexander Romanovich Vorontsov. Soon after the murder of Paul I and the reign of Alexander I, Vorontsov was appointed head of the Education Committee of the fleet. This decision of the ruler Alexander is unlikely to be called right, and here's why. Count Romantsov, as well as his brother Semyon was particular adversary massive naval fleet. The private formal speeches, he did not once mention the uselessness of this kind of forces:

For many reasons, individuals and local, Russia can not be among the primatial maritime powers, but is neither necessary nor useful not expected

In the reform process under the authority of the Committee for a couple of years military fleet has been reduced, and all his tactical tasks have reduced the protection of waters of the Dark Sea and Baltic Sea. Despite the gradual increase in funding, the Navy finished commit distant campaigns.

As the circumstances of such configurations in the life of the fleet is often referred to not only the position of A. Vorontsov, and some facts from the biography of his brother. Semyon Vorontsov was Anglomania, which affected his judgment, including in relation to the defense of their country. From time to time occur outlook, saying that the British through SA Vorontsov influenced his brother. As evidence of this is reverence that the British showed Semyon Aleksandrovich during his embassy, the reluctance of England to have a strong opponent of the seas.

It should be recognized that the newcomer policy for the fleet, which was conducted by Alexander I and his bureaucrats still not put an end to the offshore portion of the Russian armed forces. Yes, distant campaigns have ended, but the Mariners had to war and comparable small distance from the home shores. An example of this can result in the Dardanelles and Athos battle in 1807, when the Russian squadron under the command of Vice Admiral DN Senyavina with a difference this month twice defeated the Turkish. The scale and the political consequences of these fights can be compared with the Mediterranean campaign FF Ushakov at the end of the previous century. In addition, not very far Senyavina campaign forced the Ottoman Empire to sign the truce and to rebuild their own navy — after a 2-fights its fighting capacity fell significantly.

Athos fight June 19, 1807. 1853 Alexey Bogolyubov

The last big spike "activity" on the need of the fleet is already in our time. After the collapse of the USSR questions about usefulness of the fleet, as well as military aircraft, missile forces and strategic focus of the other genera of our armed forces, went up particularly often. Rhetoric was almost always the same. In 1-x, it was argued (and sometimes stated so far) that Cool war completed and we no longer need not conflict with someone and prepare for war. Another reason of concern was unfortunate balance guns and butter — cut military spending was applied only way of salvation of the economy. As it later turned out, country remained without guns, without oil. Still, the hot heads who criticized the fleet did not stop to improve their skills and to promote discussion obviously antiflotskie proposal.

As you know, the best and most important confirmation of something — an experience confirms it. That our navy can say "in your defense?" Substantiate the importance and necessity of Russian fleet began in 1714, when he was defeated in the Battle of Cape Gangut. With this victory over the Swedes, Our homeland gained access to the Baltic Sea. In the coming war in the North Russian fleet won a few more wins. With our victory in the last major naval battle of the Great Northern War — when Grengam — linked one of the parts of the marine forms. Specifically Grengam symbolizes victory at one of the bars on the collar of seafarers.

At the end of the Great Northern War began with measured relatively few decades, during which Russian Navy continued to build and develop. In refreshed as he took part in all the Russian-Turkish wars, marching for supremacy in the Black Sea. Soon after our homeland established on its shores, was founded by the Black Sea Fleet. Specifically, the Black Sea sailors under the command of FF Ushakov at the end of XVIII century, won a series of victories in the Ionian Sea and the Mediterranean.

The nineteenth century can not be called fully successful for the Russian Navy. The same is true for the beginning of the twentieth century. The victory in the Battle of Sinop and the heroic defense of Sevastopol, as it turns out, just pushed the sad end of the Crimean War, and the heroism of the sailors of the Pacific and Baltic fleets did not help win the Russian-Japanese war. 1st Global war was a little more successful — Russian sailors with varying success conducting operations to destroy enemy ships and cargo violations. At the same time, the power of the German Navy did not allow Russian mariners to exercise extraordinary activity in the Baltic. The smallness of the more successfully waged war Black fleet, which in the first few months of the war were able to establish control over the entire sea, where his base. Ultimately, languid financial and social situation in the country eased all armed forces and led to the October Revolution, then our country has emerged from the First World War.

By the beginning of the war majestically Russian Russian Alliance was able not only to regain the power of the navy, and much of its increment. Widely known for the exploits of Russian sailors in the Russian majestically. As for the effectiveness of their combat operation, it can be estimated by the numerical results of operations and attacks. The Black Sea, the Baltic and Northern fleets of the USSR during the war killed over five hundred fighting ships of the enemy, over 1,200 vehicles and auxiliary vessels, as the order of 2000-2500 enemy aircraft. In addition, the Northe
rn Fleet has provided the wiring 76 convoys with military cargo mission, which took part in almost fifteen hundred transport ships and more than thousands of escorts. Were large and loss. In all this we must not forget that without the role of the Navy ground forces would be in a more languid position, having the ability to receive goods by sea, as from allies and from Siberia and the Far East.

In recent decades, the Navy and the Russian Union of the Russian Federation did not take part in large-scale military conflict. But the peaceful life is not complete without the related incidents. Thus, in recent years, far more frequent trips Russian ships. Almost every such campaign is accompanied by specific reaction of foreign countries. Their officials are trying to stay in bounds of decency, but some citizens zabugornye sometimes go into hysterics. Interestingly, in the past, when all the Russian ships and submarines have always been at the berths, zabugornye "partners" are not nervous and even in some measure rejoiced.

What can read this reaction foreign masters? First, that on a global scale navy has experienced a number of indigenous configurations structure and equipment of armies, but still remained one of the main attack and defense forces. Moreover, a number of military conflicts near future started with the fact that in the area of future hostilities came shock troops of the fleet. On the basis of this thesis, it can be completely logical and vitality conclusion regarding specific prerequisites zabugornoy reaction to hiking Russian ships. The gradual strengthening of our fleet operates on the nerves just some States that do not want to create a strong opponent.

What to do in such a case, the Russian Federation? The answer is clear: to continue the embodiment of existing programs. So big country certainly need a powerful and modern fleet and the whole history of the Russian Navy is direct proof. What's all the same to zabugornoy reaction, it is not something to which you should pay attention and take into account when drawing up and implementing their own plans. Fiery speeches of officials and ordinary people zabugornyh they say only about their attitude to Russian intentions, but less. Even more important is the creation of accurate and specific development programs from the Navy. To do this, you need to analyze the existing state of affairs in the world and some of its regions, to the approximate form of the world in the not to distant future and positioning itself to create, view a promising Navy. For example, for operations in coastal and maritime borders of the particular protection needs or missile / artillery boats, patrol boats or small displacement. For Action bolshennom distance from the base, in turn, required the ships of other classes. Geographical features of the Russian countryside and the intention to renew its presence in a number of remote areas transparently hinted at the fact that the Russian fleet to be vessels of all types, from light boats to languid missile cruisers with nuclear power plant.

By the end of 2012 Russian Navy will receive over 10 new warships. About the same time is active in various stages of construction. Of course, control of the country there is a single world view on "whether we need a navy?". And the world is led to a number of other issues of a more specific character, relating to the required number of new ships, their types, ancillary equipment, etc. With this view, agree and most of the public. But why, if any more combat experience and a wide range of naval victories need to this time anyone is in doubt?

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