In the recent past is comparable, just over 100 years ago, the military odezhka was still catchy and colorful. The uniforms of all colors, shiny buttons, pyshnovatye aiguillettes, colored sling, glittering epaulettes, red and white trousers, the highest quiver with longish colored plumes, glowing in the sun copper breastplates and helmets topped with falcons. Fighter could be seen from far away, and mix it with a civilian man, and even more so with an inanimate object was unreal. This had two purposes: on the one hand, to intimidate their opponent stern look, and on the other — to enable the commander to build their forces from afar, and distinguish between a shelf. More severe forces vpribavok distinguished by any great detail prominent clothes. For example, in the Russian Army XVIII century gunners wore red uniforms, and grenadiers — the highest caps with gleaming brass nalobnik. None of what kind of disguise here was out of the question.
The history of camouflage uniforms like starting from the beginning of the 20th century.
Until the last century as a method of visual camouflage camouflage uniforms in the armies was not used except in cases of covert action in an ambush detachments. So, for example, 19 April 1775 at the Battle of Lexington, two thousand British force was defeated division, which consisted of several hundred colonists. Greenish raccoon hunting jackets and hats Westman them perfectly camouflaged in the middle of the forest thicket. It is a fight clearly showed the advantages of the strategy of camouflage before the Prussian linear constructions and pernicious catchy, perceptible armor.
It is not necessary to try to become completely invisible to the enemy. It's very hard, and often quite unrealistic. But that's to be facing an opponent totally not who you are in fact, and so confuse him — much easier.
A brilliant example of this camouflage was shown during the famous Battle of Poltava 27 June 1709. The night before the battle, Peter I ordered the regiment Novogorodskomu exchange uniforms with not so long ago formed Ladoga. First had blue uniforms, and the second — grayish. As expected, Peter, Swedes hit on the shelf, dressed in a grayish uniforms, hoping to just crush the Russian recruits. But in their way were veterans of Novgorod, which had significant combat experience (about 8 years). The Swedes were deceived by the color of the uniforms. The attack was repulsed.
But it was not the first experience of Peter's camouflage. Even during the second siege of Narva, in the summer of 1704 he changed into his uniform of two Swedish dragoons and two regiments of infantry, and with the help of their simulated attack from the rear to the Russian troops besieging the fortress. The commandant of the fortress fell for the ruse and made a sortie, I almost ended in the fall of Narva.
Realizing that this color helps life, the British began to repaint it all that defied the colors. Uniforms and pants, hats, shoes, blankets and handkerchiefs, staff furniture and tents, belts and underwear — all took on the color of tobacco leaves. More zealous in trying to repaint Drab … even cavalry horses, mules and code no dogs.
Since 1880 uniforms similar color began to appear in the British units in India. In the classic form of the tropical British Army prevailed snow-white color, and received the title of brand-new form of "hacks", which in Hindi means "dusty, dirty" (a Hindi word got from another language — Farsi — where it meant 'dirt' in the sense of land or soil). Now that word is actually in all languages of the world.
Living in the country of the rising sun, these diligent students who are always rapidly surpass their own teachers, simultaneously made tribute to conclusions. Right behind by the British, they dressed his army into a form that match the color tone of the countryside. The landscape of South-East Asia has a different color palette, if African. Living in the country of the rising sun picked a more appropriate tone, somewhere between olive and yellow. Two years later, in the uniform of khaki Japanese fighters met in the fields of Manchuria from Russian shelves. Russian Defense Ministry has not made any conclusions rovnenky account of the Anglo-Boer War. In general, other countries, too. Even in England, after a long and fierce debate found a compromise solution — the British Army uniforms remains constant, but the fighting on special theaters are allowed to wear a uniform color Drab.
In general, in the Russian-Japanese war the Russian army entered the Soldiers of white tunics and almost dark pants. The officers sported a dazzling snow-white tunics with glittering gold and silver epaulets, officer's belt and shoulder strap trimmed with gold and silver braid, colored caps with white covers. Well-aimed fire of the Japanese infantry, to which was added a consuming more while small machine guns, quickly stole our infantry desire to go on the attack because it was done in the XIX century. Living in the country of the rising sun shot themselves while remaining invisible. Had Russian soldiers and officers of a protective coloring already during fights.
Between 1905 and 1914 the military of different countries have studied the dependence of the visibility of a soldier on the battlefield of the color of his uniform. It turned out that the most conspicuous color — white, bright yellow, black, blue, reddish, green, bright green, brown and blue, and the less conspicuous — yellow-brown, gray, blue-gray, olive-green, yellow-green-gray and gray-blue.
Many countries have made of Russian-Japanese war right conclusion. But the introduction of khaki was given a military accustomed to the flashy colored uniforms, is not easy. In Russia, the khaki uniform was introduced everywhere only in 1907, in Sweden — in 1906, in Austria-Hungary — in 1909, in Germany and Italy — in 1910. The French were the most limited. First experiments with protective uniforms they began only in 1912, so that by the beginning of the First World War, brand new marching order lay only in warehouses. In their first attack the French infantry went in red pants, bright blue uniforms with large reddish-colored epaulettes and cap. Hard to believe, but the fact remains — the French army wore protective equipment only by the summer of 1915.
By the end of the First World Russian army wore a faded gray-yellow-green color, the British — Drab, Germans — feldgrau (greenish-gray), the French — gray-blue. But when the understanding of the experience of war, spices came to a particular conclusion — khaki camouflage for reliable enough. Color odezhki more suited to one area, unmasked soldier to another, well, quite a large one-color spot (figure of a soldier in riot gear) still stands out from the area, which is very rarely has a uniform color. For example, khaki, a good masking color summer on a background of grass burned, plowed land shells, looked faded spot on the background of lush greenery catchy vernal fields, or even more so — against the backdrop of snow in the winter.
Zeal to make suitable for all terrain clothing led to the realization that it is not obliged to have a uniform coloring. First spotted camouflage idea was that clothes should be in several colors at once. Thus was born the great all popular camouflage pattern.
In the 20s of the Russian Federation in the Russian command of the Red Army rapidly made the right conclusions — was formed Graduate School of military camouflage. Already in
1927 there were three types of camouflage clothes. In the Municipal Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR began basic research foundations camouflage troops and equipment with the assistance of eminent scientists SM Vavilov, V. Sharonov, etc. To give an example of comparing the level — the first sketch of camouflage that was used by the U.S. Army, was developed N.Gillespi gardener.
first 30s in the USSR were designed costumes with a uniform pattern of huge amoeboid deforming spots, which, coupled with the very baggy suit, perfectly "broken" human silhouette. In such "camouflage overalls" Reddish Army and entered into a sublime Russian war.
The coloring and the shape of the masking a suit "broke" silhouette of a man, and did not try to merge it with the surrounding terrain. Color camouflage pattern was matched to the varying terrain and time of year, such as black spots on the tidal grass-green background for the summer, or a dirty brown-yellow background with dark brown "amoeba" to illumine.
Masking robes and costumes worn over clothing and equipment, which is accessed through a special slot. Large hood tensioned concrete on a metal helmet or cap and conceals the shape of the shoulders and head.
In addition to costumes were designed rugs that mimic marijuana, masks for heavy machine guns, a unique camouflage fringe-belt with woven into her bast — she wrapped with the head and shoulders.
Potential adversaries were sitting not too warehouses hands — in Germany in 1931, was designed by a sketch of camouflage Spliter («splinter" — it.) Fabric with this pattern during the war carried cape, blouse, covers for iron helmets.
His research in this area conducted, and the Office Himmler — during the war, the SS used to 7 kinds of figures in a variety of coloring. In today bundesverovskom "camo" pattern clearly visible impact of the standard 1944 "pea."
Naturally, our army is inferior to the German on the mass introduction of camouflaged uniform items — we are standing on the supply of reconnaissance, engineering, assault and sniper units, but the revision and improvement of means of disguise, with the front-line experience, conducted constantly.
In 1944, studies were conducted trophy means of disguise. On the basis of lessons learned at the end of the war, a new three-color sketch, resembling cross stitch (Americans had previously only guessed after 50 years). Such a sketch creates the optical illusion of a blur and did not lure attention.
Additionally fabric rolled "amoeba" light caramel. This is due to the fact that melkopyatnisty sketch fine masking at close range, the vast distances is connected to a solid stain. And then begin to "work" the huge spots — actually perfect camouflage.
After the war, the institute carried out the synthesis and study of the experience of combat operations. Instead of masking a suit in 1950 on the supply was adopted camouflage overalls. In 1957, it was upgraded. The design of the suit were introduced loops for attaching vegetation — totally unnecessary element.
Coverall hitherto used in almost all the intelligence unit — out of old ammunition. For infantry units deforming sketch was deposited on a special large plain weave fabric. GLC suit made of this fabric, it was supposed to wear on top of ordinary clothing or UGC (very sensible move, given that the deforming, contrast sketch, working perfectly in the undergrowth, is not suitable for open space in front of where you need that-nibudt dirty-yellow or gray-green).
Suit was used extensively in Afghanistan and dosih is popular in the North Caucasus — a thirty-degree heat can only exist in c / b grid. The truth is in the 70s, it became clear that all of these standards are outdated. By the way, it is curious that the Russian bicolor camouflage in the West call "computer» (computer madding).
Sketch resembles oak leaves and is made in several colors. Gray on a dark green background (overall and was turned to night, the least contrasting side), and yellow spots on grass-green background. Sketch works fine in the undergrowth, coupled with the shadows of the vegetation, but very deforming sketch repeated and contrasting gray spots at close range lure attention.
First, the 80s, the institute, under the themes of "Winter crops" and "Leuzea" began research on a new specimen of distorting colors and selection of corresponding tissues. In 1984 he was accepted by the decision to supply the newest field form clothes.
Camouflage fabric for a new outfit performed on a specimen developed by the Institute in the course of OCD (experimental development) "Bhutan". Need to see that the Russian image of camouflage, unlike the western, have titles and differ on the article.
The available literature and everyday life and product names are slang, which is why "DUBKOV", "leaf fall", "birch", "amoeba" is often referred to as quite different picture. Camouflage, developed in the course of OCD "Bhutan" is actually completely breaks the silhouette of a man on a background of vegetation — perfect prototype with 5 steps, and with 100 meters in both summer and winter, subject to the original koloristki (Here is a discrepancy).
At the end of the 80 Navy and Marines dressed in new camouflaged field uniforms. Unfortunately, at the moment with the fabric pattern used only in the manufacture of suits for pilots of the Air Force.
In 1994, a goal sketch was replaced by another, more versatile, and developed at the institute. A sketch from a distance resembles the leaves of young birch trees and well masks on meadow and steppe backgrounds, but have out-of-date design and unpresentable appearance.
In the late 90s Willows MO based on it has put into the creation of a new sketch of "Flora". It apparently traced the impact of "tiger" picture from the Vietnam War — the only truly successful, and obmyslennogo camouflage in the U.S. Army. Notwithstanding own rather "ugly" appearance, "flora" very good masks in the middle lane of, rather different "woodland", "didzhitalov", "camo" and so n
This is due to held in the institute a good selection of colors green and coffee colors, and horizontal rassredotachivaniem shadows in the underbrush. Because of the respective bands, the troops camouflage quickly dubbed the "watermelon".
Defense experts at CWU simply "put" an enlarged and rounded outline of the preceding one side, with the existing colors. Camouflage works fine up to fifty meters, and then Washed 100.
In 2008, a new type of camouflage — digital. On it is clear slightly, the practical implementation of the troops there, and the only real role of camouflage in public or events Forces — Red Square parade on May 9, 2008.
Achieve a suitable set of colors that at least some of them are similar to the background terrain, is virtually impossible. You have to enjoy only the general coincidence: on the ground with the dominance of green color — different colors greenish, on the sandy desert — a gray-yellow and gray-brown tones.
There is another question — what should be the color saturation masking odezhki? And how many colors are required to have camouflage? Much — it turns out that one or two matching colors obviously not enough to
mask. Not a lot — hard to expect that the terrain will be specifically those tones.
By trial and error spetsy finally realized — man recognizes excellent and stand out items, interior and exterior contours of which he is familiar. Often the eye rather at least in part to recognize the object, and the brain dorisovyvaet in the minds of all others. On the contrary — quite often show the subject from the perspective under which the people had never beheld, and perfectly familiar object can not be found.
In general, it is a difficult task — to make so that the enemy saw, but did not recognize what needs to be nestled away. And not recognize the subject, it is impossible to understand — whether it is dangerous. This is just what is the basic principle of camouflage — to be invisible, being visible.