The history of certain inventions

I do not think in the 1st question I get such a plan: why the whole world believes the inventor of radio Guglielmo Marconi or Nikola Tesla, and we Alexander Popov?

Or why the inventor of the incandescent lamp by Thomas Edison said, not Lodygina Alexander, who patented filament lamp with a refractory metal?

But if a Lodygina Popov and the world will remember that some of the people whose contribution to military affairs, no doubt, was outstanding, hardly remember. About such people and inventions, and I wanted to tell.

Dynamite.

Nobel family has lived in St. Petersburg over 20 years, then spent his childhood and youth of the Nobel brothers: Robert (1829-1896), Ludwig (1831-1888) and Alfred (1833-1896), were born here and have formed their scientific and business interests. Strictly speaking, our homeland has become a second home for Robert and Ludvig, which is associated with the activities of the development of many sectors of Russian industry. What's all the same for the youngest of the Nobel brothers, Emil (1843-1864), then he really was born in the capital of Russia.

Nobel family home in St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg embankment, 24. 40s of the XIX century

The very fate brought the Nobel family, and namely Alfred, with the founder of Organic Chemistry, Russian Nikolay Nikolaevich Zinin.

Zinin became a teacher of the Nobel brothers, because in Russia while the children of foreigners are not allowed to be taught in conjunction with the Russian, and the only way left to hire a home teacher.

And with the teacher on the uniqueness of the Nobel brothers lucky, because Zinin specifically designed the most advanced method for the synthesis of glycerol nitroglycerin with the introduction of concentrated nitric acid, low temperature, etc.

He, along with a young engineer-gunner VF Petrushevski solved the problem of the use of strongest explosive nitroglycerin for military purposes, it is very topical at the moment difficulties. Exploring different nitro, Zinin, along with VF Petrushevski began work on the creation of explosive composition based on nitroglycerin, non-hazardous for transport. Finally found a good option — nitroglycerin impregnation of magnesium carbonate.

Connected to this work and Alfred Nobel, and not surprisingly, you can be sure it has been agreed with the teacher and father, who sent him on probation to the Italian Ascanio Sobrero, the discoverer of nitroglycerine.

And in 1859, the Nobel-father went bankrupt and his wife and youngest offspring in search of the latest Emil life returned to Stockholm, three older son remained in St. Petersburg.

And Alfred winter of 1859/60 conducts various experiments with nitroglycerin. He learned how to get it in the applicable test quantities. He combined nitroglycerin with black powder, as did Zinin, along with the engineer Petrushevski in 1854 (actually they had created one of the first methods Passification nitroglycerin), and set fire to the mixture. Experiments on ice frozen Neva proved successful and happy fruits of Alfred went to Stockholm.

In 1862, in Helenborge near Stockholm Nobels started handicraft prepare nitroglycerine, that ended Sept. 3, 1864 explosion Straseni force, in which eight people were killed, among them Alfred's younger brother Emil. Two weeks later, Emmanuel had a stroke, and until his death in 1872, he was confined to bed. The case is now headed by Alfred.

In 1863, he invented the injector-mixing nitric acid and glycerin (which by the way is his greatest invention), which decided the problem of. You could start commercial production and the creation of a network of factories in different countries.

As a result, searching for comfort in the consistencies based on nitroglycerin Alfred unthreatening patented combination of nitroglycerin with diatomaceous earth (flabby siliceous sedimentary rock from the shells of diatoms aquatic plants), calling it a dynamite.

Patent Nobel

He Dynamite

Of course, in this case, should immediately issue and the legal side of the case. Back in 1863 A. Nobel patented introduction of nitroglycerin in the technique that was not ethical (remember Zinin!). In May 1867 he patented dynamite (or non-hazardous explosive powder Nobel) in the UK, and then in Sweden, Russia, Germany and other countries.

In Russia in 1866 on a nitroglycerin factory in Peterhof is an explosion, and the subsequent work of nitroglycerin placed under the ban.
So, Sobrero outlined nitroglycerin in 1847 Zinin suggested using it for technical purposes in 1853 by engineer Petrushevsky first started making it in huge quantities in 1862 (produced more than 3 tons), and under his direction, the first time used in the nitroglycerin development of gold placer deposits in Eastern Siberia in 1867 These are the facts. Among them is the invention and dynamite Alfred Nobel in 1867 It is appropriate to quote the words of such an authority as Mendeleev: nitroglycerin "for the explosive used was the case the first time the famous chemist NN Zinin during the Crimean War, and then VF Petrushevski in the 60s — before the invention and widespread adoption of Nobel's dynamite nitroglycerin and other drugs. "

And now, not many people remember about Zinin, when states about the invention of dynamite. So the question arises whether grown in Russia, Alfred Nobel so much a Swede?

In August 1893, Alfred Nobel, as stated in the High behest, "interest in the physiology and desiring to promote research in the field of science (animal alkaloid exposure urine for a certain disease, and transfusion of blood from one animal to another th) donated the Imperial Institute of Experimental Medicine, 10 thousand rub. "not putting any criterion for the consumption of the gift brought by them." funds were "on the general needs of the institution," — added to the existing building extension, which houses the physiological laboratory of Pavlov. In 1904, Pavlov was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physiology .

Alfred Nobel

Mortar

June 17, 1904 3rd Japanese army came near to the Russian fortress of Port Arthur. The assault began on August 6 and lasted a week. After suffering the loss of languid, defected to the enemy defense. Preparing another attack, the residents of the country of the rising sun were saturated engineering. Defenders of the fortress also strengthen their position.

There is a mine wavetraps "Yenisei" is a junior miner midshipman Sergei Vlasov said. With a company of marines came to Fort Vlasiev number 2. Here are some Russian and Japanese shared the trenches distance of 30 paces. These criteria require close combat weapon, because ordinary guns were powerless. The distance to the enemy was not enough so that there was a risk when firing and hitting their troops. O
nly occasionally did manage fortress artillery shelling enemy flanking position.

Then Navy lieutenant NL Podgurskiy offered to shoot at the besiegers from torpedo tubes, set in the trenches with a certain angle to the horizon, throwing them out with compressed air pyroxylin bombs. Almost immediately midshipman SN Vlasiev recommended to use the same 47-mm naval gun carriage supplied by field "trehdyuymovki" in order to give a huge trunk of the angles of elevation, and charging it through the barrel of homemade Shestova mines. Managing the land defense of Port Arthur, Major General RI Kondratenko approved the idea and commissioned the creation of "mine-mortar" to the chief of artillery workshops Captain Leonid Gobyato.

Assessing projects Vlassieva girl and Podgursky, Gobyato offered a number of fundamental improvements.

By making "mine-mortar" — so dubbed his invention Collaborators — started during the July fighting. "Mine mortar" was created on the basis of the munition, called "bomb throwing" and was in service with a number of battleships and cruisers Port Arthur squadron.

Throwing a mine consists of a cylindrical shell with a tail. It had a caliber of 225 mm length of 2.35 m and weight 75 kg (including 31 kg of explosive). This mine fires off from the tubular system with the help of a powder charge and hit a target at a distance up to 200 meters.

The progress in the naval battle (at first, the improvement of the torpedo gun) made throwing mine to the beginning of the XX century anachronism. But Port Arthur experimenters is a valuable tool stumbled on the idea. After all, they had their own disposal smooth-thrower, who fires a feathered projectile holding false path and great destructive force. In addition, it was easy and, as it should, allowed spirited transportation to the place of use. For its transformation into a (so-called experimenters his creation) required device sensing the energy of recoil when fired, and pointing and aiming devices. Making them was likely to artillery workshops Port Arthur.

A limited number of vehicles on the squadron of mine and ammunition, and a small range of fire contributed to it (just on the land front of the fortress was established 6 mine mortars, according to other sources — 7).

You need the brakes and still another version of "Port Arthur mortar", precisely speaking, on the new form of ammunition for a false fire — "over-caliber feathered mine shtochnogo type" proposed Vlasyevo.

The essence of its design and method of use can be found, followed by: a cone-shaped bottom part of the warhead was connected with a rod equipped with a stabilizer. This rod was inserted into the barrel 47 mm naval gun (muzzle), and breech gun was charged fitted with a sleeve (without shell). Mina weighing 11.5 kg catapulting the distance from 50 to 400 meters.

As we see, Russian intercessors Port Arthur was created two types of guns, shooting feathered missiles hanging on the line of motion. Then they found use as mortars and mortars.

The results of their implementation were on the face. Of every 4 min issued three fell into the trenches. Flying high up, mine was reversed and fell almost vertically at the target, disrupting and destroying the enemy's trenches. The explosions were so strong that the enemy fighters in a panic to leave their places in the trenches.

By the way, defenders of the fortress used another new weapon — sea anchor mines in the ground implementation. They were placed 100 kg of pyroxylin, 25kg shrapnel bullets detonating cord is inserted length calculated for combustion within a few seconds. Used them in the main from a location on the hills. Mines are dragged up the specially built 20-meter deck with boards, set fire to the cord and pushed to the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun. That's just for rovnenky area is a means of defeating the infantry would not do.

General Nogi, assessed the situation, decided to end the attacks on the wider (Eastern) front and concentrate all forces to capture the highest mountains, which, as it became clear, view the entire Port Arthur harbor. After fierce fighting, which lasted 10 days November 22, 1904. The highest was taken. In the hands of the Japanese came and creation Vlassieva girl with Gabyato, this device it soon became the property of the British press. Unfortunately, the Russian generals creativity defenders of Port Arthur was rated as a "toy gun", but it would be in Germany and the UK.

Flamethrower

Creator backpack flame device is Lieutenant General Seeger-Korn (1893). In 1898, the original inventor of the proposed new instrument Minister of War. The flamethrower was made on the same principles on which the act and modern flamethrowers.

Sieger flamethrower-Korn

The unit was very difficult and scary to use and to arms was not adopted under the pretext of "unreality", although the inventor and showed his creation in action. A clear description of its construction has been preserved. Still counting the creation of the "flamethrower" You can start with 1893

Three years later, the German inventor Richard Fidler made flamethrower similar design.

Flamethrowers Fiedler

Fidler appealed to Russia with a request for a test of its development, one has been held at the site in Ust-Izhora.

Ust-Izhorskaya test flame throwers (1909)

It was shown three types of flame-throwers: small (1 fighter carried on the back), medium (worn 4 fighters), heavy (mobile).

After the 1909 tests. Russian Defense Ministry was not producing the purchase of new instruments. Namely, a small flame thrower was considered dangerous for their own, and medium and heavy reliance inapplicable due to the large mass and the need to have a lot of stores of combustibles. Charging and installation were considered to be quite lengthy, with a risk for combat teams and actually flamethrowers.

After 18 months Fiedler again appealed to Russia, now with an improved instrument, but again did not have of success. In other European countries he has traveled to the Russian Federation, the invention also did not take on board. In general, the actions of 1915., When the Germans used a flamethrower against the Entente powers, led by the government of Germany's enemies First World thinking.

First, in 1915 in Russia began design work on the creation of flamethrowers. In September of the same year for troop tests came backpack flamethrowers, developed by Dr. Gorbov. But flamethrower out very massive and heavy, that did not fit into the category of wearable guns. This flamethrower was rejected.

In 1916, the Military Commission of the Ministry of the Ru
ssian Federation was represented backpack flamethrower designed designer Tovarnitskim. After a successful test flamethrower Tovarnitskogo was adopted in 1916, and the first 1917 infantry regiments of the Russian army had flame-throwing team.

Flamethrower Tovarnitskogo

Structurally backpack flamethrower Tovarnitskogo consisted of 3 main parts: a cylinder with flame mixture, compressed air cylinder and hose with an igniter. The principle acts flamethrower Tovarnitskogo was subsequently: compressed air from a special balloon hit the balloon with flame mixture through a special gearbox. Under the influence of air pressure in the hose is pushed out ognesmes where and ignited. The simplicity of design is permitted to mid-1917 to produce about 10 thousand backpack flamethrowers Tovarnitskogo.

Knapsack parachute

September 8, 1910 at the Commandant Field in St. Petersburg were the first Russian airline competition pilots. Prazdnichek already ended when the captain Matsievich airplane at an altitude of 400 m has suddenly started to break down. The pilot fell out of the car and the stone fell to the ground. This terrible event so shocked GE Nyquist, who was present during all of this, he decided, that whatever was to come up with an apparatus that would have rescued the life of the pilots in similar situations.

Until Nyquist pilots were rescued by longish stacked "umbrella", attached to the airplane. The design was very unreliable, moreover, it greatly increases the weight of the aircraft. Because it is very rarely used.

At home, in the theater, on the streets Kotelnikov thought about air parachute. He concluded that during the flight the parachute must be in Aviators, run smoothly, be a conventional in design, small and light, it is best to do a canopy of silk.

The inventor decided to make a parachute on a "jack-in the box." Made a model in the form of dolls with a tin helmet cylindrical shape, which is locked with a latch lid. Inside the helmet by a compressed spring lying canopy and lines. As soon pull the cord connected to the latch cover to swing and the spring pushed the dome out. "We lived in the country in Strelna — remember about the first test model parachute inventor son Anatoly Glebovich (in 1910 he was 11 years old). — There was a very cool October day. My father went to the roof of luxurious two-storey house and threw out a doll. The parachute worked perfectly. The father escaped gratifying just one word: "Behold!" He found what he found! "

The model was, of course, a toy. When the calculation was made of real parachute, it turned out that the amount of silk in the helmet does not fit. Then it was decided to put the parachute backpack. The model was tested in Nizhny Novgorod, a doll thrown from a kite. Upon his return to St. Petersburg, Kotelnikov wrote a memorandum Minister of War, General V.A.Suhomlinovu: "Your Excellency! Very long and bitter list of famous victims of aviation came across my invention is very normal useful device to prevent the death of pilots in cases of tragedy with airplanes in the air. "

Boilermakers asked the Minister of subsidies for the production and testing of the parachute. His letter he took it to the War Department. The minister was absent, and the Nyquist took the Assistant Minister Gen. A.A.Polivanov. He read the note, looked around the model. The inventor tossed to the ceiling doll, and she fell to the floor smoothly. The demonstration made a decisive effect on the Polivanova. On the memo appeared resolution: "The main engineering management. Please accept and listen. "

The meeting, which was considered a parachute Kotelnikov remembered for a lifetime. Chaired by Chief Officers aeronautic school Maj. Gen. AMKovanko (a graduate of the Academy of the General Staff!). Gleb correctly and clearly reported to the nature of the case.

— All this is fine, but here's the thing … What will happen to your aviator, when the parachute opens? — Asked Kovanko.
— What do you mean? — Did not realize the issue Kotelnikov.
— And the fact that he has no need to be saved, because the impact of the disclosure of the parachute had come off his feet!

Against such "iron" argument brave gentshabista in Nyquist were objections, but a scientific commission incurred, "the Rapporteur encouraging, but the invention is rejected by the apparent ignorance of the author."
Boilermakers recalled: "I was like dishwater tub poured. Hands went down … ".

The second attempt to register his invention Kotelnikov already made in France, received March 20, 1912 for a patent number 438612.
And in the evening June 6, 1912 from the camp aeronautic park in the village Salyuzi at Gatchina up kite. Go to board his basket was attached to a mannequin in full flight form. Sounded the command "Stop the winch!".

Altitude 2000 m Threefold signal horn. Mannequin flew down. After a few seconds of him opened white dome. The success of the tests was obvious. But the military is not in a hurry. Was conducted several tests. The famous pilot Mike Efimov threw a mannequin with their own "Farman" — all came out. At Gatchina airfield tests conducted lieutenant Gorshkov. He threw the dummy off the plane "Bleriot" at an altitude of about 100 meters. The parachute worked brilliantly.

But the Chief Engineer's Office of the Russian army did not take it in because of concerns the creation of the chief Russian Air Force, the majestic Duke Alexander Mikhailovich, that the smallest faults pilots will leave the airplane.

Thus was coined by a fundamentally new parachute Type RC-1. Nyquist was a small-size parachute.

Its dome was made of silk, slings were divided into 2 groups and were attached to the shoulder girth mounted system. Canopy and lines fit into the wood, and later Dural backpack. On the days of the portfolio under the dome housed springs that flow into the dome miscarried after bouncing pulled out the pull ring. Then the hard backpack was replaced Myagenko, and his days are there in a cell for placing their lines. This design rescue parachute is used to this day. What Kotelnikov think will be forever grateful to all the "nebonyry", the pilots and the rest of the flyers.

In general, then ka-unfriendly treated bureaucrats of all stripes with the inventors, and access to them was "abroad". Anyone out there who has managed to patent their ideas, and to remember. About the other they say, "Well, yes, of course … Our homeland homeland of elephants." Paradoxically, but, for example, at all unusual, ambition, challenges and tremendous king-size tank Lebedenco got their own chance at life, so how intrigued Nicholas II.

http://vivovoco.rsl.ru/VV/JOURNAL/VRAN/01_12/NOBEL.HTM
http://warfiles.ru/show-14090-pervyy-v-mire-minomet.html
http://www.100velikih.ru/view1196.html
http://vadimvswar.narod.ru/ALL_OUT/TiVOut0204/Flamm/Flamm035.htm
http://crypto.hut2.ru/ognemet2.php
http://www.topguns.ru/ognemety-2ww/?n=8
http://zateevo.ru/?section=page&action=edit&alias=kotelnikov_ge
http://militera.lib.ru/science/strokov_aa/ill.html

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