The history of cooperation between the USSR and China in the field of nuclear technology

Nuclear phobia Washington also affect the interests of Moscow, usually supporting good relations with Tehran and Pyongyang. True, the stories have been the case when the indulgence of Moscow's ambitions potential holder of a "nuclear stick" brought migraine and our country.

45 years ago, from 31 July to 3 August 1958 took place hidden visit to Beijing by Nikita Khrushchev and the Soviet Defense Minister Rodion Malinovsky. China — the country-"rogue" reference 50s — assertively ask the "big brother" to share the technology of nuclear weapons and nuclear submarines.

But first the 60's internal tensions between China and the Soviet Union grew into open confrontation. A decade later, in 1969, Chinese soldiers were killed Russian border guards on the peninsula of Sino-Soviet. The newspaper "News Time" publishes a study of a noble Russian Sinologist about how China is headed for self-realization the dream of a nuclear bomb. The material used have never been posted data from the Russian archives.

Mao Zedong believed that the Chinese army has to be an atomic bomb. "In today's world we can not do without this thing, if we wish, that we do not hurt" — read it. Helmsman believed that the West "with contempt" towards China, as he had "no bomb, but only hand grenades."

"The atomic bomb is not so spooky"

In the spring of 1949, six months before the official founding of the PRC, the Chinese Communist administration sent to Europe for a role in the peace conference physicist Qian Santsyanya. His goal was to acquire the necessary materials and equipment for the Institute of Modern Physics, which was carried out by the French scientist Frederic Joliot-Curie.

In October 1951, Irene Joliot-Curie (wife of Frederick) presented Chinese radiochemists Chzhensunu Jan 10 grams of radium salts, which owns the ability of radioactive emissions to "support the Chinese people in the nuclear research activities." Frederic Joliot-Curie asked Yang to convey Chzhensuna Mao Zedong that China "has to have its own atomic bomb, it is not so spooky." Mao himself back in August 1946, stated that "the atomic bomb — this is a cardboard tiger which South American obscurantists intimidate people. Seemingly it sounds terrible, but in fact are not afraid."

First, in 1950 the Academy of China appeared Institute of Modern Physics, which became the deputy director Qian Santsyan. In the spring of 1953, the Chinese Academy of Sciences delegation of 26 people went to the Soviet Union to advance knowledge in the field of nuclear technology. Getting ready to welcome guests, the president of the USSR Academy of Alexander Nesmejanov recommend Russian authorities to be prudent and to familiarize Qian Santsyanya "only with some academic work without a general nature in the course of the introduction of the smallest problems that make the theme of the First Brain Control", who oversaw Russian nuclear development issues.

The first time, Mao Zedong turned to Moscow to assist in the development of nuclear weapons at the time of Khrushchev's stay in China in October 1954. Khrushchev did not give any promises and advised Mao to abandon nuclear power projects is because China has no need for this industrial base and money. But in the years 1955-1958 the parties still have signed agreements for the development of China's nuclear industry.

The Agreement of 20 January 1955 providing for the joint geological research in Xinjiang and the development of uranium mines. In exchange, the PRC government has undertaken to supply the excess uranium in the Soviet Union. Chinese, Russian and East European geologists began to study deposits of rare and non-ferrous metals in Xinjiang, the quest for uranium deposits in all areas of China. It turned out that China is well supplied nuclear raw materials. 1st place on the supplies of its own north-west, in the area where the town Chuguchak since 1957, began working set of uranium mines.

Signed April 7, 1956 the Soviet-Chinese agreement on assistance in the construction of civilian and military facilities provided for the construction of the railroad from the latest Aktogai to Lanzhou, making it possible to deliver the equipment to the first nuclear weapons test center at Lop Nor.

Quirky Mao and Khrushchev flexible

On a promising 12-year plan for development of science in the years 1956-1967 worked best brains in China. Its creation was also involved 640 scientists from the USSR. In the middle of the main areas were listed peaceful implementation of nuclear energy, the study of jet technology, the creation of semiconductor technology, the development of the computer, as a "special prepyadstviya defense like that." To implement these plans, excellent Chinese government meant "to ask the Soviet Union and the People's Democracies have in these matters comprehensive and expedited assistance." By the time the Soviet Union, China has pledged to build about 100 defense plants.

In the middle of priority requests to the Russian government has been asked to assist to develop nuclear and defense industry. First, in 1956 the CPC Central Committee met to major projects in the sphere of military rocket and nuclear research. According to available documents, Khrushchev in 1954-1957 years, only agreed to cooperate in the field of peaceful nuclear energy. Mao Zedong, it was not much.

Recalls the head of China's nuclear project marshal Not Rongzhen, after the events of 1956 in Poland and Hungary, Khrushchev "became more accommodating in providing technical assistance to China difficult." In September 1957, the Chinese delegation went to Moscow for talks. Khrushchev, who had just won a battle in the inner top of the Molotov and his supporters, it is wished that Mao Zedong personally took part in the meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties in 1957 in Moscow, indirectly supported by Khrushchev. Mao cleverly used the situation, saying that he would come to Moscow only after the signing of the Military Technical Agreement, including the transfer of Chinese materials and layouts for the production of nuclear weapons and their means of delivery.

October 15, 1957 an agreement was signed. As reported by Chinese historian Niu Jun, the Soviet Union agreed to provide training layout, also drawings and documentation of the atomic bomb, but refused to provide input on the construction of nuclear submarines. In the first half of 1958, China began arriving Russian spices, which were responsible for the transmission model of the atomic bomb and the respective production technologies. According to Chinese sources, Moscow has also provided as examples of two short-range missiles such as the act of "land-to-earth."

By mid-1958, Chinese engineers have prepared a room that was to be simulated the mechanism of action of the atomic bomb. But Russian experts put off a couple of times because of the low level of testing security.

Russian control does not oscillate about the decision to implement Mao's nuclear bomb. Academician Abram Ioffe recalled: "On top followed instruction to provide China with the most advanced projects are implemented only in the Soviet Union. Physicists and engineers, who should do the puzzle, understanding the political situation better bosses, tried to pass a little old projects. Zadikyan However, the adviser of the USSR atomic affairs at the Chinese government, caught a them on this, and told the top. Finally passed the most advanced technology, and soon there was a rupture of relations with China. "

The apogee of the nuclear cooperation between Beijing and Moscow began in June 1958, when the Research Instit
ute of Atomic Energy, Academy of Sciences of China entered the system built with the active assistance of the USSR, the first experimental nuclear reactor at the heavy water. Speaking at the festive meeting dedicated to this event, Vice-premier of the marshal not Rongzhen said: "We warn the U.S. imperialists, that they opamyatovalis, because in today's era of nuclear weapon is not their monopoly." It was also completed construction of a pilot cyclotron. "These two settings — the result of the majestic and the invaluable assistance that the Russian Alliance helped our country in its scientific and technological development in the field of nuclear energy. Completion setting means China's entry into the era of nuclear energy," — wrote in the summer of 1958 in Beijing, the weekly "Friendship" .

Diplomatic talks on maritime affairs

In 1958, the Chinese government has again turned to the Soviet Union for assistance in the development of modern naval fleet of equipped submarines. Russian salting Pavel Yudin in Beijing at a meeting with Mao Zedong July 1 said that the issue was discussed in Moscow, but the construction of a modern submarine fleet — is new and expensive, even for the USSR. Yudin said that Moscow considers probable and rational to build a modern navy combined efforts of the USSR and the PRC. Salting pointed out that "the Chinese sea of their own location, are important, creating favorable conditions for acts such fleet in the Pacific," and suggested that a meeting on the subject with the role of Premier Zhou Enlai and Defense Minister Peng Dehuai.

Mao responded with some interest. He wanted to know whether this fleet owned jointly by the USSR and China, and who would control it. Yudin declined to discuss the details and repeated the invitation to Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai to come to Moscow to discuss the issue.

The next day the Russian Ambassador was invited to an interview with Mao Zedong. In bolshennom pavilion indoor swimming pool in the party and the government residence Zhongnanhai gathered all that were present at that time in the capital, members of the Chinese Politburo. Mao wanted to show Yudin that expresses the outlook of the whole party tops.

Helmsman began with complaints that have not been sleeping because of yesterday's conversation, then launched into a discussion of what the Soviet Union — a powerful country, and China — rather weak, it does not have nuclear weapons and nuclear submarines. Forward Mao Zedong ran in coming, saying that China will not agree to the establishment on its territory of Russian military bases in peacetime, "We can only accept the fact, that you assist us in the construction of the fleet, the owners of which we will be." The proposal for the secondment to Moscow Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai was rejected.

In response Yudin expressed a wish to engage in a conversation because of issues of importance were stipulated by Mao Zedong and Khrushchev in person. Mao agreed, but made an important slip of the tongue: if the question of Soviet aid in the construction of the Chinese Navy's hard to decide, then it can be removed or postponed. And in this case, a personal meeting 2-favorites of conduct generally not worth it.

An unexpected meeting in Beijing

The content of this conversation, worried Khrushchev. After a day or two Yudin said the Chinese management that Khrushchev to come to China fails. But just a week later, July 31, 1958, Khrushchev came to a closed military airport near Beijing. Disk imaging in the press about it was not. The talks were the favorites in the narrow part. According to witnesses, some interviews took place near the pool and the sides sat down in his shorts. The subject was military issues.

When Khrushchev spoke about the particular responsibilities 2-majestic powers of the USSR and the USA in the nuclear era, Mao Zedong made an appearance that is aware of the full measure of the threat, and there he saw that because China "very fundamentally to have around the nuclear weapon, but we do it no. " Khrushchev replied that China's atomic bomb and not needed, because the Soviet Union is ready to defend neighbor "as yourself." Helmsman mind: "Thanks, but China — majestic and sovereign country, and we ourselves need to possess nuclear means to protect themselves in the event of war. If you're not inclined to share with us this tool, help the creation of technology to China's nuclear bomb." Khrushchev tried to dissuade interlocutor explained that the atomic bomb — is expensive. Mao said this: "Well, right, and his forces with a South American" cardboard tiger. "

Khrushchev gave to understand that a condition for China's access to new nuclear technology could be only his consent to the degree of control by the USSR. Russian administration began to realize the need for concerted action by the international community in the fight for nuclear disarmament. In conversations Khrushchev and Mao were evident lack of understanding and mutual resentment, heralding a twenty quarrel between Moscow and Beijing.

Even before Khrushchev's visit to China Defense Minister Rodion Malinovsky, April 18, 1958 addressed to its own staff, Marshal Peng Dehuai with a letter which suggested that together accomplish the construction of the long-wave radio station and the radio transmission center, capable of communication with the Russian Navy in the Pacific. USSR took the 70% of the costs. The proposal did not like the high management of the PRC, which is intended to build such facilities without the help of others. During the aforementioned conversation with Ambassador Yudin Mao stated that China, with the assistance of Moscow could build their monitoring station and provide the results of observations of the USSR.

"Russian nationalism" on the Chinese coast

Follow a subject of conversation Khrushchev and Mao Zedong in summer 1958 was the creation of a joint group of nuclear-powered submarines (NPS).

According to Chinese data, Mao Zedong declared Russian favorite, that China has decided not to build its own nuclear submarines and therefore withdraws request for help in their development. "But that does not mean that we are all their coastline pass for you. Do not confuse what we are doing together with the fact that you are doing for yourself and doing it yourself. We always wanted to have his fleet," — added the arrogant pilot .

"In time of war — continued Mao Zedong — the setting is changed, you will be able to use all of our sea ports, military bases. But there will manage the operations of us., In turn, our military will be able to act on your location, including your port and base in Vladivostok. Our fleet less than you should and will be subject to your control. we can sign an agreement on cooperation in the war in advance, without waiting for the start of hostilities. Such agreement shall contain a provision to the effect that our armed forces can act on your area. Even and we will not agree to this, it is necessary to fix the situation, it is consistent with the principle of equality. in peacetime, but in this agreement is not necessary. In peacetime, you just have to help us to create military bases and build armed forces. "

Finally, Mao Zedong teased interlocutor, Khrushchev said: "Listen to my words not very nice. You can even say that I am a nationalist, which came second Tito. If you say so, I can say that your Russian nationalism has spread to Chinese coast. "

According to Russian sources, the meeting with Khrushchev and Mao Zedong said Russian proposal for a joint naval construction. He tried to dispel suspicions of Mao that Moscow reaches the creation of the fleet under the command of Russian.

But Khrushchev as previously insisted on basing of Russian submarines in China. "Our fleet is currently out into the Pacific Ocean, and our
main base is located in Vladivostok. Can we agree, that our submarines could be based at you, refuel, relax and stuff?" — He asked. Mao refused, without hiding discontent. Then Khrushchev proposed exchange: "If necessary, we will give to you in the Murmansk region, where you can have your subs." Yes, and it's Mao Zedong disagreed, pointing out that in the past in China for many years, "were sitting Britons and other foreigners." In general, the proposed Khrushchev Chinese naval base was for many thousands of miles from the area of "relevant interest" Middle Kingdom. And these days are from China as before there own submarines capable of half the world go around and get to the port on the Barents Sea.

No pants, but with a bomb

By the summer of 1959 it became clear that Moscow does not give China the complete technology of producing nuclear bombs. Zhou Enlai said: "We do get down to business and started from scratch, in the eight years it will do." But the successful promotion of Chinese missile and nuclear programs from stalled due to "a huge leap" and his political campaigns.

Review of China 1292 Russian professionals in 1960 caused confusion in Beijing. Dates of creation bombs receded. In July 1961 at a meeting of members of the military industry has inflamed the debate: is it worth to continue to develop the atomic bomb and rocket launchers in the criteria of the difficult economic situation?

Mao Zedong was absent at the meeting, but claimed again to discuss what course should go to China. The second meeting of China acquired short-range missile offense and has mastered the creation of military equipment, including tests for the atomic bomb. Was made a conclusion that China is capable of without the help of others to make and nuclear weapon. The country's leaders have agreed. The Minister of Foreign Affairs Chen Yi said: "Even if we are left without his pants, but still achieve world-class weapons."

Along the way, Beijing tried to get hold of military secrets in Moscow. Starting with the 11th session of the Sino-Soviet Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation in September 1961, China announced that its main contents should become a special topic related to the defense industry, rocketry and gallakticheskim flights. These requests have come from Beijing in 1962 and 1963. Russian party could not agree with it, but a lot of requests from China's latest achievements in science and technology are met.

In August 1962, not Rongzhen reported Chinese management that a nuclear bomb will be to test no later than 1965. According to Chinese sources, on the creation of nuclear-missile weapons to work more than nine factories and research organizations. In July 1963, Zhou Enlai stressed that China needs not only to produce nuclear test, but to decide questions of production media stern guns. Later, he explained that the main focus of research should be a missile warheads and bombs — a subsidiary.

January 23, 1963 the newspaper "Yomiuri Shimbun," said Chinese friends a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party has informed the Land of the Rising Sun Khakamada about the future of the atomic bomb test. October 16, 1964 at 13 pm Beijing Time in China was detonated first atomic device. After Zhou Enlai, Mao Zedong said the successful test, the majestic pilot claimed carefully check whether there was indeed atomic explosion. He immediately told that a fiery ball has turned into a mushroom cluster. In the 22 hours of the official announcement of the explosion gave the Chinese radio. The work was completed ahead of schedule: 8-10 years instead of the proposed Chinese atomic bomb did in 5.

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